History log of /linux-master/tools/lib/bpf/bpf_helpers.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 18410251 06-Jul-2022 James Hilliard <james.hilliard1@gmail.com>

libbpf: Disable SEC pragma macro on GCC

It seems the gcc preprocessor breaks with pragmas when surrounding

Disable these pragmas on GCC due to upstream bugs see:

Fixes errors like:
error: expected identifier or '(' before '#pragma'
106 | SEC("cgroup/bind6")
| ^~~

error: expected '=', ',', ';', 'asm' or '__attribute__' before '#pragma'
114 | char _license[] SEC("license") = "GPL";
| ^~~

Signed-off-by: James Hilliard <james.hilliard1@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220706111839.1247911-1-james.hilliard1@gmail.com

# f760d053 08-May-2022 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

libbpf: Provide barrier() and barrier_var() in bpf_helpers.h

Add barrier() and barrier_var() macros into bpf_helpers.h to be used by
end users. While a bit advanced and specialized instruments, they are
sometimes indispensable. Instead of requiring each user to figure out
exact asm volatile incantations for themselves, provide them from

Also remove conflicting definitions from selftests. Some tests rely on
barrier_var() definition being nothing, those will still work as libbpf
does the #ifndef/#endif guarding for barrier() and barrier_var(),
allowing users to redefine them, if necessary.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220509004148.1801791-8-andrii@kernel.org

# 8e2f618e 08-May-2022 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

libbpf: Make __kptr and __kptr_ref unconditionally use btf_type_tag() attr

It will be annoying and surprising for users of __kptr and __kptr_ref if
libbpf silently ignores them just because Clang used for compilation
didn't support btf_type_tag(). It's much better to get clear compiler
error than debug BPF verifier failures later on.

Fixes: ef89654f2bc7 ("libbpf: Add kptr type tag macros to bpf_helpers.h")
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220509004148.1801791-3-andrii@kernel.org

# ef89654f 24-Apr-2022 Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>

libbpf: Add kptr type tag macros to bpf_helpers.h

Include convenience definitions:
__kptr: Unreferenced kptr
__kptr_ref: Referenced kptr

Users can use them to tag the pointer type meant to be used with the new
support directly in the map value definition.

Signed-off-by: Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220424214901.2743946-11-memxor@gmail.com

# 93b8952d 19-Jan-2022 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

libbpf: deprecate legacy BPF map definitions

Enact deprecation of legacy BPF map definition in SEC("maps") ([0]). For
the definitions themselves introduce LIBBPF_STRICT_MAP_DEFINITIONS flag
for libbpf strict mode. If it is set, error out on any struct
bpf_map_def-based map definition. If not set, libbpf will print out
a warning for each legacy BPF map to raise awareness that it goes away.

For any use of BPF_ANNOTATE_KV_PAIR() macro providing a legacy way to
associate BTF key/value type information with legacy BPF map definition,
warn through libbpf's pr_warn() error message (but don't fail BPF object

BPF-side struct bpf_map_def is marked as deprecated. User-space struct
bpf_map_def has to be used internally in libbpf, so it is left
untouched. It should be enough for bpf_map__def() to be marked
deprecated to raise awareness that it goes away.

bpftool is an interesting case that utilizes libbpf to open BPF ELF
object to generate skeleton. As such, even though bpftool itself uses
full on strict libbpf mode (LIBBPF_STRICT_ALL), it has to relax it a bit
for BPF map definition handling to minimize unnecessary disruptions. So
opt-out of LIBBPF_STRICT_MAP_DEFINITIONS for bpftool. User's code that
will later use generated skeleton will make its own decision whether to

There are few tests in selftests/bpf that are consciously using legacy
BPF map definitions to test libbpf functionality. For those, temporary
opt out of LIBBPF_STRICT_MAP_DEFINITIONS mode for the duration of those

[0] Closes: https://github.com/libbpf/libbpf/issues/272

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220120060529.1890907-4-andrii@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

# 6c66b0e7 17-Sep-2021 Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>

libbpf: Use static const fmt string in __bpf_printk

The __bpf_printk convenience macro was using a 'char' fmt string holder
as it predates support for globals in libbpf. Move to more efficient
'static const char', but provide a fallback to the old way via
BPF_NO_GLOBAL_DATA so users on old kernels can still use the macro.

Signed-off-by: Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210917182911.2426606-6-davemarchevsky@fb.com

# c2758baa 17-Sep-2021 Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>

libbpf: Modify bpf_printk to choose helper based on arg count

Instead of being a thin wrapper which calls into bpf_trace_printk,
libbpf's bpf_printk convenience macro now chooses between
bpf_trace_printk and bpf_trace_vprintk. If the arg count (excluding
format string) is >3, use bpf_trace_vprintk, otherwise use the older

The motivation behind this added complexity - instead of migrating
entirely to bpf_trace_vprintk - is to maintain good developer experience
for users compiling against new libbpf but running on older kernels.
Users who are passing <=3 args to bpf_printk will see no change in their

__bpf_vprintk functions similarly to BPF_SEQ_PRINTF and BPF_SNPRINTF
macros elsewhere in the file - it allows use of bpf_trace_vprintk
without manual conversion of varargs to u64 array. Previous
implementation of bpf_printk macro is moved to __bpf_printk for use by
the new implementation.

This does change behavior of bpf_printk calls with >3 args in the "new
libbpf, old kernels" scenario. Before this patch, attempting to use 4
args to bpf_printk results in a compile-time error. After this patch,
using bpf_printk with 4 args results in a trace_vprintk helper call
being emitted and a load-time failure on older kernels.

Signed-off-by: Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210917182911.2426606-5-davemarchevsky@fb.com

# d6a6a555 26-May-2021 Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>

libbpf: Move BPF_SEQ_PRINTF and BPF_SNPRINTF to bpf_helpers.h

These macros are convenient wrappers around the bpf_seq_printf and
bpf_snprintf helpers. They are currently provided by bpf_tracing.h which
targets low level tracing primitives. bpf_helpers.h is a better fit.

The __bpf_narg and __bpf_apply are needed in both files and provided
twice. __bpf_empty isn't used anywhere and is removed from bpf_tracing.h

Reported-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210526164643.2881368-1-revest@chromium.org

# aea28a60 23-Apr-2021 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

libbpf: Mark BPF subprogs with hidden visibility as static for BPF verifier

Define __hidden helper macro in bpf_helpers.h, which is a short-hand for
__attribute__((visibility("hidden"))). Add libbpf support to mark BPF
subprograms marked with __hidden as static in BTF information to enforce BPF
verifier's static function validation algorithm, which takes more information
(caller's context) into account during a subprogram validation.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210423181348.1801389-5-andrii@kernel.org

# 0fec7a3c 23-Apr-2021 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

libbpf: Suppress compiler warning when using SEC() macro with externs

When used on externs SEC() macro will trigger compilation warning about
inapplicable `__attribute__((used))`. That's expected for extern declarations,
so suppress it with the corresponding _Pragma.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210423181348.1801389-4-andrii@kernel.org

# 1e1032b0 04-Apr-2021 Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>

libbpf: Fix KERNEL_VERSION macro

Add missing ')' for KERNEL_VERSION macro.

Signed-off-by: Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210405040119.802188-1-hengqi.chen@gmail.com

# 9ae2c26e 17-Mar-2021 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

libbpf: provide NULL and KERNEL_VERSION macros in bpf_helpers.h

Given that vmlinux.h is not compatible with headers like stddef.h, NULL poses
an annoying problem: it is defined as #define, so is not captured in BTF, so
is not emitted into vmlinux.h. This leads to users either sticking to explicit
0, or defining their own NULL (as progs/skb_pkt_end.c does).

But it's easy for bpf_helpers.h to provide (conditionally) NULL definition.
Similarly, KERNEL_VERSION is another commonly missed macro that came up
multiple times. So this patch adds both of them, along with offsetof(), that
also is typically defined in stddef.h, just like NULL.

This might cause compilation warning for existing BPF applications defining
their own NULL and/or KERNEL_VERSION already:

progs/skb_pkt_end.c:7:9: warning: 'NULL' macro redefined [-Wmacro-redefined]
#define NULL 0
/tmp/linux/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/tools/include/vmlinux.h:4:9: note: previous definition is here
#define NULL ((void *)0)

It is trivial to fix, though, so long-term benefits outweight temporary

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210317200510.1354627-2-andrii@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

# 0205e9de 14-Mar-2021 Pedro Tammela <pctammela@gmail.com>

libbpf: Avoid inline hint definition from 'linux/stddef.h'

Linux headers might pull 'linux/stddef.h' which defines
'__always_inline' as the following:

#ifndef __always_inline
#define __always_inline inline

This becomes an issue if the program picks up the 'linux/stddef.h'
definition as the macro now just hints inline to clang.

This change now enforces the proper definition for BPF programs
regardless of the include order.

Signed-off-by: Pedro Tammela <pctammela@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210314173839.457768-1-pctammela@gmail.com

# ce5a518e 13-Jan-2021 Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>

bpf, libbpf: Avoid unused function warning on bpf_tail_call_static

Add inline to __always_inline making it match the linux/compiler.h.
Adding this avoids an unused function warning on bpf_tail_call_static
when compining with -Wall.

Signed-off-by: Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210113223609.3358812-1-irogers@google.com

# 3652c9a1 21-Oct-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf, libbpf: Guard bpf inline asm from bpf_tail_call_static

Yaniv reported a compilation error after pulling latest libbpf:

../libbpf/src/root/usr/include/bpf/bpf_helpers.h:99:10: error:
unknown register name 'r0' in asm
: "r0", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5");

The issue got triggered given Yaniv was compiling tracing programs with native
target (e.g. x86) instead of BPF target, hence no BTF generated vmlinux.h nor
CO-RE used, and later llc with -march=bpf was invoked to compile from LLVM IR
to BPF object file. Given that clang was expecting x86 inline asm and not BPF
one the error complained that these regs don't exist on the former.

Guard bpf_tail_call_static() with defined(__bpf__) where BPF inline asm is valid
to use. BPF tracing programs on more modern kernels use BPF target anyway and
thus the bpf_tail_call_static() function will be available for them. BPF inline
asm is supported since clang 7 (clang <= 6 otherwise throws same above error),
and __bpf_unreachable() since clang 8, therefore include the latter condition
in order to prevent compilation errors for older clang versions. Given even an
old Ubuntu 18.04 LTS has official LLVM packages all the way up to llvm-10, I did
not bother to special case the __bpf_unreachable() inside bpf_tail_call_static()

Also, undo the sockex3_kern's use of bpf_tail_call_static() sample given they
still have the old hacky way to even compile networking progs with native instead
of BPF target so bpf_tail_call_static() won't be defined there anymore.

Fixes: 0e9f6841f664 ("bpf, libbpf: Add bpf_tail_call_static helper for bpf programs")
Reported-by: Yaniv Agman <yanivagman@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Tested-by: Yaniv Agman <yanivagman@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CAMy7=ZUk08w5Gc2Z-EKi4JFtuUCaZYmE4yzhJjrExXpYKR4L8w@mail.gmail.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201021203257.26223-1-daniel@iogearbox.net

# 0e9f6841 30-Sep-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf, libbpf: Add bpf_tail_call_static helper for bpf programs

Port of tail_call_static() helper function from Cilium's BPF code base [0]
to libbpf, so others can easily consume it as well. We've been using this
in production code for some time now. The main idea is that we guarantee
that the kernel's BPF infrastructure and JIT (here: x86_64) can patch the
JITed BPF insns with direct jumps instead of having to fall back to using
expensive retpolines. By using inline asm, we guarantee that the compiler
won't merge the call from different paths with potentially different
content of r2/r3.

We're also using Cilium's __throw_build_bug() macro (here as: __bpf_unreachable())
in different places as a neat trick to trigger compilation errors when
compiler does not remove code at compilation time. This works for the BPF
back end as it does not implement the __builtin_trap().

[0] https://github.com/cilium/cilium/commit/f5537c26020d5297b70936c6b7d03a1e412a1035

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/1656a082e077552eb46642d513b4a6bde9a7dd01.1601477936.git.daniel@iogearbox.net

# 819c23af 20-Aug-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Add __noinline macro to bpf_helpers.h

__noinline is pretty frequently used, especially with BPF subprograms, so add
them along the __always_inline, for user convenience and completeness.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820231250.1293069-4-andriin@fb.com

# 63fe3fd3 10-Aug-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

libbpf: Do not use __builtin_offsetof for offsetof

Commit 5fbc220862fc ("tools/libpf: Add offsetof/container_of macro
in bpf_helpers.h") added a macro offsetof() to get the offset of a
structure member:

#define offsetof(TYPE, MEMBER) ((size_t)&((TYPE *)0)->MEMBER)

In certain use cases, size_t type may not be available so
Commit da7a35062bcc ("libbpf bpf_helpers: Use __builtin_offsetof
for offsetof") changed to use __builtin_offsetof which removed
the dependency on type size_t, which I suggested.

But using __builtin_offsetof will prevent CO-RE relocation
generation in case that, e.g., TYPE is annotated with "preserve_access_info"
where a relocation is desirable in case the member offset is changed
in a different kernel version. So this patch reverted back to
the original macro but using "unsigned long" instead of "site_t".

Fixes: da7a35062bcc ("libbpf bpf_helpers: Use __builtin_offsetof for offsetof")
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200811030852.3396929-1-yhs@fb.com

# da7a3506 20-Jul-2020 Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>

libbpf bpf_helpers: Use __builtin_offsetof for offsetof

The non-builtin route for offsetof has a dependency on size_t from
stdlib.h/stdint.h that is undeclared and may break targets.
The offsetof macro in bpf_helpers may disable the same macro in other
headers that have a #ifdef offsetof guard. Rather than add additional
dependencies improve the offsetof macro declared here to use the
builtin that is available since llvm 3.7 (the first with a BPF backend).

Signed-off-by: Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200720061741.1514673-1-irogers@google.com

# 1c0c7074 19-Jun-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Add support for extracting kernel symbol addresses

Add support for another (in addition to existing Kconfig) special kind of
externs in BPF code, kernel symbol externs. Such externs allow BPF code to
"know" kernel symbol address and either use it for comparisons with kernel
data structures (e.g., struct file's f_op pointer, to distinguish different
kinds of file), or, with the help of bpf_probe_user_kernel(), to follow
pointers and read data from global variables. Kernel symbol addresses are
found through /proc/kallsyms, which should be present in the system.

Currently, such kernel symbol variables are typeless: they have to be defined
as `extern const void <symbol>` and the only operation you can do (in C code)
with them is to take its address. Such extern should reside in a special
section '.ksyms'. bpf_helpers.h header provides __ksym macro for this. Strong
vs weak semantics stays the same as with Kconfig externs. If symbol is not
found in /proc/kallsyms, this will be a failure for strong (non-weak) extern,
but will be defaulted to 0 for weak externs.

If the same symbol is defined multiple times in /proc/kallsyms, then it will
be error if any of the associated addresses differs. In that case, address is
ambiguous, so libbpf falls on the side of caution, rather than confusing user
with randomly chosen address.

In the future, once kernel is extended with variables BTF information, such
ksym externs will be supported in a typed version, which will allow BPF
program to read variable's contents directly, similarly to how it's done for
fentry/fexit input arguments.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200619231703.738941-3-andriin@fb.com

# 5fbc2208 09-May-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

tools/libpf: Add offsetof/container_of macro in bpf_helpers.h

These two helpers will be used later in bpf_iter bpf program
bpf_iter_netlink.c. Put them in bpf_helpers.h since they could
be useful in other cases.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200509175919.2477104-1-yhs@fb.com

# 646f02ff 28-Apr-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Add BTF-defined map-in-map support

As discussed at LPC 2019 ([0]), this patch brings (a quite belated) support
for declarative BTF-defined map-in-map support in libbpf. It allows to define
ARRAY_OF_MAPS and HASH_OF_MAPS BPF maps without any user-space initialization
code involved.

Additionally, it allows to initialize outer map's slots with references to
respective inner maps at load time, also completely declaratively.

Despite a weak type system of C, the way BTF-defined map-in-map definition
works, it's actually quite hard to accidentally initialize outer map with
incompatible inner maps. This being C, of course, it's still possible, but
even that would be caught at load time and error returned with helpful debug
log pointing exactly to the slot that failed to be initialized.

As an example, here's a rather advanced HASH_OF_MAPS declaration and
initialization example, filling slots #0 and #4 with two inner maps:

#include <bpf/bpf_helpers.h>

struct inner_map {
__uint(type, BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY);
__uint(max_entries, 1);
__type(key, int);
__type(value, int);
} inner_map1 SEC(".maps"),
inner_map2 SEC(".maps");

struct outer_hash {
__uint(type, BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH_OF_MAPS);
__uint(max_entries, 5);
__uint(key_size, sizeof(int));
__array(values, struct inner_map);
} outer_hash SEC(".maps") = {
.values = {
[0] = &inner_map2,
[4] = &inner_map1,

Here's the relevant part of libbpf debug log showing pretty clearly of what's
going on with map-in-map initialization:

libbpf: .maps relo #0: for 6 value 0 rel.r_offset 96 name 260 ('inner_map1')
libbpf: .maps relo #0: map 'outer_arr' slot [0] points to map 'inner_map1'
libbpf: .maps relo #1: for 7 value 32 rel.r_offset 112 name 249 ('inner_map2')
libbpf: .maps relo #1: map 'outer_arr' slot [2] points to map 'inner_map2'
libbpf: .maps relo #2: for 7 value 32 rel.r_offset 144 name 249 ('inner_map2')
libbpf: .maps relo #2: map 'outer_hash' slot [0] points to map 'inner_map2'
libbpf: .maps relo #3: for 6 value 0 rel.r_offset 176 name 260 ('inner_map1')
libbpf: .maps relo #3: map 'outer_hash' slot [4] points to map 'inner_map1'
libbpf: map 'inner_map1': created successfully, fd=4
libbpf: map 'inner_map2': created successfully, fd=5
libbpf: map 'outer_hash': created successfully, fd=7
libbpf: map 'outer_hash': slot [0] set to map 'inner_map2' fd=5
libbpf: map 'outer_hash': slot [4] set to map 'inner_map1' fd=4

Notice from the log above that fd=6 (not logged explicitly) is used for inner
"prototype" map, necessary for creation of outer map. It is destroyed
immediately after outer map is created.

See also included selftest with some extra comments explaining extra details
of usage. Additionally, similar initialization syntax and libbpf functionality
can be used to do initialization of BPF_PROG_ARRAY with references to BPF
sub-programs. This can be done in follow up patches, if there will be a demand
for this.

[0] https://linuxplumbersconf.org/event/4/contributions/448/

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200429002739.48006-4-andriin@fb.com

# ae460c02 20-Apr-2020 Yoshiki Komachi <komachi.yoshiki@gmail.com>

bpf_helpers.h: Add note for building with vmlinux.h or linux/types.h

The following error was shown when a bpf program was compiled without
vmlinux.h auto-generated from BTF:

# clang -I./linux/tools/lib/ -I/lib/modules/$(uname -r)/build/include/ \
-O2 -Wall -target bpf -emit-llvm -c bpf_prog.c -o bpf_prog.bc
In file included from linux/tools/lib/bpf/bpf_helpers.h:5:
linux/tools/lib/bpf/bpf_helper_defs.h:56:82: error: unknown type name '__u64'

It seems that bpf programs are intended for being built together with
the vmlinux.h (which will have all the __u64 and other typedefs). But
users may mistakenly think "include <linux/types.h>" is missing
because the vmlinux.h is not common for non-bpf developers. IMO, an
explicit comment therefore should be added to bpf_helpers.h as this
patch shows.

Signed-off-by: Yoshiki Komachi <komachi.yoshiki@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/1587427527-29399-1-git-send-email-komachi.yoshiki@gmail.com

# 20f21d98 16-Jan-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Revert bpf_helper_defs.h inclusion regression

Revert bpf_helpers.h's change to include auto-generated bpf_helper_defs.h
through <> instead of "", which causes it to be searched in include path. This
can break existing applications that don't have their include path pointing
directly to where libbpf installs its headers.

There is ongoing work to make all (not just bpf_helper_defs.h) includes more
consistent across libbpf and its consumers, but this unbreaks user code as is
right now without any regressions. Selftests still behave sub-optimally
(taking bpf_helper_defs.h from libbpf's source directory, if it's present
there), which will be fixed in subsequent patches.

Fixes: 6910d7d3867a ("selftests/bpf: Ensure bpf_helper_defs.h are taken from selftests dir")
Reported-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200117004103.148068-1-andriin@fb.com

# 6910d7d3 09-Jan-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

selftests/bpf: Ensure bpf_helper_defs.h are taken from selftests dir

Reorder includes search path to ensure $(OUTPUT) and $(CURDIR) go before
libbpf's directory. Also fix bpf_helpers.h to include bpf_helper_defs.h in
such a way as to leverage includes search path. This allows selftests to not
use libbpf's local and potentially stale bpf_helper_defs.h. It's important
because selftests/bpf's Makefile only re-generates bpf_helper_defs.h in
seltests' output directory, not the one in libbpf's directory.

Also force regeneration of bpf_helper_defs.h when libbpf.a is updated to
reduce staleness.

Fixes: fa633a0f8919 ("libbpf: Fix build on read-only filesystems")
Reported-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200110051716.1591485-3-andriin@fb.com

# 81bfdd08 18-Dec-2019 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Put Kconfig externs into .kconfig section

Move Kconfig-provided externs into custom .kconfig section. Add __kconfig into
bpf_helpers.h for user convenience. Update selftests accordingly.

Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191219002837.3074619-2-andriin@fb.com

# 166750bc 13-Dec-2019 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Support libbpf-provided extern variables

Add support for extern variables, provided to BPF program by libbpf. Currently
the following extern variables are supported:
- LINUX_KERNEL_VERSION; version of a kernel in which BPF program is
executing, follows KERNEL_VERSION() macro convention, can be 4- and 8-byte
- CONFIG_xxx values; a set of values of actual kernel config. Tristate,
boolean, strings, and integer values are supported.

Set of possible values is determined by declared type of extern variable.
Supported types of variables are:
- Tristate values. Are represented as `enum libbpf_tristate`. Accepted values
are **strictly** 'y', 'n', or 'm', which are represented as TRI_YES, TRI_NO,
or TRI_MODULE, respectively.
- Boolean values. Are represented as bool (_Bool) types. Accepted values are
'y' and 'n' only, turning into true/false values, respectively.
- Single-character values. Can be used both as a substritute for
bool/tristate, or as a small-range integer:
- 'y'/'n'/'m' are represented as is, as characters 'y', 'n', or 'm';
- integers in a range [-128, 127] or [0, 255] (depending on signedness of
char in target architecture) are recognized and represented with
respective values of char type.
- Strings. String values are declared as fixed-length char arrays. String of
up to that length will be accepted and put in first N bytes of char array,
with the rest of bytes zeroed out. If config string value is longer than
space alloted, it will be truncated and warning message emitted. Char array
is always zero terminated. String literals in config have to be enclosed in
double quotes, just like C-style string literals.
- Integers. 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit integers are supported, both signed and
unsigned variants. Libbpf enforces parsed config value to be in the
supported range of corresponding integer type. Integers values in config can
- decimal integers, with optional + and - signs;
- hexadecimal integers, prefixed with 0x or 0X;
- octal integers, starting with 0.

Config file itself is searched in /boot/config-$(uname -r) location with
fallback to /proc/config.gz, unless config path is specified explicitly
through bpf_object_open_opts' kernel_config_path option. Both gzipped and
plain text formats are supported. Libbpf adds explicit dependency on zlib
because of this, but this shouldn't be a problem, given libelf already depends
on zlib.

All detected extern variables, are put into a separate .extern internal map.
It, similarly to .rodata map, is marked as read-only from BPF program side, as
well as is frozen on load. This allows BPF verifier to track extern values as
constants and perform enhanced branch prediction and dead code elimination.
This can be relied upon for doing kernel version/feature detection and using
potentially unsupported field relocations or BPF helpers in a CO-RE-based BPF
program, while still having a single version of BPF program running on old and
new kernels. Selftests are validating this explicitly for unexisting BPF

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191214014710.3449601-3-andriin@fb.com

# f9a7cf6e 23-Nov-2019 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_TRACE_x helper for the tracing tests

For BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACING, the bpf_prog's ctx is an array of u64.
This patch borrows the idea from BPF_CALL_x in filter.h to
convert a u64 to the arg type of the traced function.

The new BPF_TRACE_x has an arg to specify the return type of a bpf_prog.
It will be used in the future TCP-ops bpf_prog that may return "void".

The new macros are defined in the new header file "bpf_trace_helpers.h".
It is under selftests/bpf/ for now. It could be moved to libbpf later
after seeing more upcoming non-tracing use cases.

The tests are changed to use these new macros also. Hence,
the k[s]u8/16/32/64 are no longer needed and they are removed
from the bpf_helpers.h.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191123202504.1502696-1-kafai@fb.com

# 11d1e2ee 14-Nov-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

selftests/bpf: Add test for BPF trampoline

Add sanity test for BPF trampoline that checks kernel functions
with up to 6 arguments of different sizes.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191114185720.1641606-10-ast@kernel.org

# 57a00f41 01-Nov-2019 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

libbpf: Add auto-pinning of maps when loading BPF objects

This adds support to libbpf for setting map pinning information as part of
the BTF map declaration, to get automatic map pinning (and reuse) on load.
The pinning type currently only supports a single PIN_BY_NAME mode, where
each map will be pinned by its name in a path that can be overridden, but
defaults to /sys/fs/bpf.

Since auto-pinning only does something if any maps actually have a
'pinning' BTF attribute set, we default the new option to enabled, on the
assumption that seamless pinning is what most callers want.

When a map has a pin_path set at load time, libbpf will compare the map
pinned at that location (if any), and if the attributes match, will re-use
that map instead of creating a new one. If no existing map is found, the
newly created map will instead be pinned at the location.

Programs wanting to customise the pinning can override the pinning paths
using bpf_map__set_pin_path() before calling bpf_object__load() (including
setting it to NULL to disable pinning of a particular map).

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/157269298092.394725.3966306029218559681.stgit@toke.dk

# 7db3822a 08-Oct-2019 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>


Add few macros simplifying BCC-like multi-level probe reads, while also
emitting CO-RE relocations for each read.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191008175942.1769476-7-andriin@fb.com

# e01a75c1 08-Oct-2019 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

libbpf: Move bpf_{helpers, helper_defs, endian, tracing}.h into libbpf

Move bpf_helpers.h, bpf_tracing.h, and bpf_endian.h into libbpf. Move
bpf_helper_defs.h generation into libbpf's Makefile. Ensure all those
headers are installed along the other libbpf headers. Also, adjust
selftests and samples include path to include libbpf now.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191008175942.1769476-6-andriin@fb.com