History log of /linux-master/kernel/user.c
Revision Date Author Comments
# 1e1c1583 07-Sep-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

fs/epoll: use a per-cpu counter for user's watches count

This counter tracks the number of watches a user has, to compare against
the 'max_user_watches' limit. This causes a scalability bottleneck on
SPECjbb2015 on large systems as there is only one user. Changing to a
per-cpu counter increases throughput of the benchmark by about 30% on a
16-socket, > 1000 thread system.

[rdunlap@infradead.org: fix build errors in kernel/user.c when CONFIG_EPOLL=n]
[npiggin@gmail.com: move ifdefs into wrapper functions, slightly improve panic message]
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/1628051945.fens3r99ox.astroid@bobo.none
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: tweak user_epoll_alloc(), per Guenter]
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210804191421.GA1900577@roeck-us.net

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210802032013.2751916-1-npiggin@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Reported-by: Anton Blanchard <anton@ozlabs.org>
Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d7c9e99a 22-Apr-2021 Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>

Reimplement RLIMIT_MEMLOCK on top of ucounts

The rlimit counter is tied to uid in the user_namespace. This allows
rlimit values to be specified in userns even if they are already
globally exceeded by the user. However, the value of the previous
user_namespaces cannot be exceeded.


* Fix issue found by lkp robot.

* Fix issues found by lkp-tests project.

* Keep only ucounts for RLIMIT_MEMLOCK checks instead of struct cred.

* Fix bug in hugetlb_file_setup() detected by trinity.

Reported-by: kernel test robot <oliver.sang@intel.com>
Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/970d50c70c71bfd4496e0e8d2a0a32feebebb350.1619094428.git.legion@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# d6469690 22-Apr-2021 Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>

Reimplement RLIMIT_SIGPENDING on top of ucounts

The rlimit counter is tied to uid in the user_namespace. This allows
rlimit values to be specified in userns even if they are already
globally exceeded by the user. However, the value of the previous
user_namespaces cannot be exceeded.


* Revert most of changes to fix performance issues.

* Fix memory leak on get_ucounts failure.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/df9d7764dddd50f28616b7840de74ec0f81711a8.1619094428.git.legion@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 21d1c5e3 22-Apr-2021 Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>

Reimplement RLIMIT_NPROC on top of ucounts

The rlimit counter is tied to uid in the user_namespace. This allows
rlimit values to be specified in userns even if they are already
globally exceeded by the user. However, the value of the previous
user_namespaces cannot be exceeded.

To illustrate the impact of rlimits, let's say there is a program that
does not fork. Some service-A wants to run this program as user X in
multiple containers. Since the program never fork the service wants to

\- program (uid=1000, container1, rlimit_nproc=1)
\- program (uid=1000, container2, rlimit_nproc=1)

The service-A sets RLIMIT_NPROC=1 and runs the program in container1.
When the service-A tries to run a program with RLIMIT_NPROC=1 in
container2 it fails since user X already has one running process.

We cannot use existing inc_ucounts / dec_ucounts because they do not
allow us to exceed the maximum for the counter. Some rlimits can be
overlimited by root or if the user has the appropriate capability.


* Change inc_rlimit_ucounts() which now returns top value of ucounts.
* Drop inc_rlimit_ucounts_and_test() because the return code of
inc_rlimit_ucounts() can be checked.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/c5286a8aa16d2d698c222f7532f3d735c82bc6bc.1619094428.git.legion@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 265cbd62 03-Aug-2020 Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>

user: Use generic ns_common::count

Switch over user namespaces to use the newly introduced common lifetime

Currently every namespace type has its own lifetime counter which is stored
in the specific namespace struct. The lifetime counters are used
identically for all namespaces types. Namespaces may of course have
additional unrelated counters and these are not altered.

This introduces a common lifetime counter into struct ns_common. The
ns_common struct encompasses information that all namespaces share. That
should include the lifetime counter since its common for all of them.

It also allows us to unify the type of the counters across all namespaces.
Most of them use refcount_t but one uses atomic_t and at least one uses
kref. Especially the last one doesn't make much sense since it's just a
wrapper around refcount_t since 2016 and actually complicates cleanup
operations by having to use container_of() to cast the correct namespace
struct out of struct ns_common.

Having the lifetime counter for the namespaces in one place reduces
maintenance cost. Not just because after switching all namespaces over we
will have removed more code than we added but also because the logic is
more easily understandable and we indicate to the user that the basic
lifetime requirements for all namespaces are currently identical.

Signed-off-by: Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Acked-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/159644979754.604812.601625186726406922.stgit@localhost.localdomain
Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>

# de83dbd9 04-Jun-2020 Jason Yan <yanaijie@huawei.com>

user.c: make uidhash_table static

Fix the following sparse warning:

kernel/user.c:85:19: warning: symbol 'uidhash_table' was not declared.
Should it be static?

Reported-by: Hulk Robot <hulkci@huawei.com>
Signed-off-by: Jason Yan <yanaijie@huawei.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200413082146.22737-1-yanaijie@huawei.com
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 0f44e4d9 26-Jun-2019 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

keys: Move the user and user-session keyrings to the user_namespace

Move the user and user-session keyrings to the user_namespace struct rather
than pinning them from the user_struct struct. This prevents these
keyrings from propagating across user-namespaces boundaries with regard to
the KEY_SPEC_* flags, thereby making them more useful in a containerised

The issue is that a single user_struct may be represent UIDs in several
different namespaces.

The way the patch does this is by attaching a 'register keyring' in each
user_namespace and then sticking the user and user-session keyrings into
that. It can then be searched to retrieve them.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>

# b206f281 26-Jun-2019 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

keys: Namespace keyring names

Keyring names are held in a single global list that any process can pick
from by means of keyctl_join_session_keyring (provided the keyring grants
Search permission). This isn't very container friendly, however.

Make the following changes:

(1) Make default session, process and thread keyring names begin with a
'.' instead of '_'.

(2) Keyrings whose names begin with a '.' aren't added to the list. Such
keyrings are system specials.

(3) Replace the global list with per-user_namespace lists. A keyring adds
its name to the list for the user_namespace that it is currently in.

(4) When a user_namespace is deleted, it just removes itself from the
keyring name list.

The global keyring_name_lock is retained for accessing the name lists.
This allows (4) to work.

This can be tested by:

# keyctl newring foo @s
# unshare -U
$ keyctl show
995906392 --alswrv 65534 65534 \_ keyring: foo
$ keyctl session foo
Joined session keyring: 935622349

As can be seen, a new session keyring was created.

The capability bit KEYCTL_CAPS1_NS_KEYRING_NAME is set if the kernel is
employing this feature.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 457c8996 19-May-2019 Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

treewide: Add SPDX license identifier for missed files

Add SPDX license identifiers to all files which:

- Have no license information of any form

- Have EXPORT_.*_SYMBOL_GPL inside which was used in the
initial scan/conversion to ignore the file

These files fall under the project license, GPL v2 only. The resulting SPDX
license identifier is:


Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# 6c4e121f 14-May-2019 Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>

kernel/user.c: clean up some leftover code

The out_unlock label is misleading; no unlocking happens after it, so
just return NULL directly.

Also, nothing between the kmem_cache_zalloc() that creates new and the
two key_put() can initialize new->uid_keyring or new->session_keyring,
so those calls are no-ops.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190424200404.9114-1-linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk
Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: "Peter Zijlstra (Intel)" <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# ce0a568d 21-Aug-2018 Anna-Maria Gleixner <anna-maria@linutronix.de>

userns: use irqsave variant of refcount_dec_and_lock()

The irqsave variant of refcount_dec_and_lock handles irqsave/restore when
taking/releasing the spin lock. With this variant the call of
local_irq_save/restore is no longer required.

[bigeasy@linutronix.de: s@atomic_dec_and_lock@refcount_dec_and_lock@g]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180703200141.28415-7-bigeasy@linutronix.de
Signed-off-by: Anna-Maria Gleixner <anna-maria@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# fc371912 21-Aug-2018 Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>

userns: use refcount_t for reference counting instead atomic_t

refcount_t type and corresponding API should be used instead of atomic_t
wh en the variable is used as a reference counter. This avoids accidental
refcounter overflows that might lead to use-after-free situations.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180703200141.28415-6-bigeasy@linutronix.de
Signed-off-by: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# bef3efbe 22-Feb-2018 Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>

efivarfs: Limit the rate for non-root to read files

Each read from a file in efivarfs results in two calls to EFI
(one to get the file size, another to get the actual data).

On X86 these EFI calls result in broadcast system management
interrupts (SMI) which affect performance of the whole system.
A malicious user can loop performing reads from efivarfs bringing
the system to its knees.

Linus suggested per-user rate limit to solve this.

So we add a ratelimit structure to "user_struct" and initialize
it for the root user for no limit. When allocating user_struct for
other users we set the limit to 100 per second. This could be used
for other places that want to limit the rate of some detrimental
user action.

In efivarfs if the limit is exceeded when reading, we take an
interruptible nap for 50ms and check the rate limit again.

Signed-off-by: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
Acked-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# aa4bf44d 24-Oct-2017 Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>

userns: use union in {g,u}idmap struct

- Add a struct containing two pointer to extents and wrap both the static extent
array and the struct into a union. This is done in preparation for bumping the
{g,u}idmap limits for user namespaces.
- Add brackets around anonymous union when using designated initializers to
initialize members in order to please gcc <= 4.4.

Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 8703e8a4 08-Feb-2017 Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

sched/headers: Prepare for new header dependencies before moving code to <linux/sched/user.h>

We are going to split <linux/sched/user.h> out of <linux/sched.h>, which
will have to be picked up from other headers and a couple of .c files.

Create a trivial placeholder <linux/sched/user.h> file that just
maps to <linux/sched.h> to make this patch obviously correct and

Include the new header in the files that are going to need it.

Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 9cc46516 01-Dec-2014 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Add a knob to disable setgroups on a per user namespace basis

- Expose the knob to user space through a proc file /proc/<pid>/setgroups

A value of "deny" means the setgroups system call is disabled in the
current processes user namespace and can not be enabled in the
future in this user namespace.

A value of "allow" means the segtoups system call is enabled.

- Descendant user namespaces inherit the value of setgroups from
their parents.

- A proc file is used (instead of a sysctl) as sysctls currently do
not allow checking the permissions at open time.

- Writing to the proc file is restricted to before the gid_map
for the user namespace is set.

This ensures that disabling setgroups at a user namespace
level will never remove the ability to call setgroups
from a process that already has that ability.

A process may opt in to the setgroups disable for itself by
creating, entering and configuring a user namespace or by calling
setns on an existing user namespace with setgroups disabled.
Processes without privileges already can not call setgroups so this
is a noop. Prodcess with privilege become processes without
privilege when entering a user namespace and as with any other path
to dropping privilege they would not have the ability to call
setgroups. So this remains within the bounds of what is possible
without a knob to disable setgroups permanently in a user namespace.

Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 33c42940 01-Nov-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

copy address of proc_ns_ops into ns_common

Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# 435d5f4b 31-Oct-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

common object embedded into various struct ....ns

for now - just move corresponding ->proc_inum instances over there

Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# b300a4ea 04-Jun-2014 Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>

kernel/user.c: drop unused field 'files' from user_struct

Nobody seems uses it for a long time. Let's drop it.

Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# c96d6660 03-Apr-2014 Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>

kernel: audit/fix non-modular users of module_init in core code

Code that is obj-y (always built-in) or dependent on a bool Kconfig
(built-in or absent) can never be modular. So using module_init as an
alias for __initcall can be somewhat misleading.

Fix these up now, so that we can relocate module_init from init.h into
module.h in the future. If we don't do this, we'd have to add module.h
to obviously non-modular code, and that would be a worse thing.

The audit targets the following module_init users for change:
kernel/user.c obj-y
kernel/kexec.c bool KEXEC (one instance per arch)
kernel/profile.c bool PROFILING
kernel/hung_task.c bool DETECT_HUNG_TASK
kernel/sched/stats.c bool SCHEDSTATS
kernel/user_namespace.c bool USER_NS

Note that direct use of __initcall is discouraged, vs. one of the
priority categorized subgroups. As __initcall gets mapped onto
device_initcall, our use of subsys_initcall (which makes sense for these
files) will thus change this registration from level 6-device to level
4-subsys (i.e. slightly earlier). However no observable impact of that
difference has been observed during testing.

Also, two instances of missing ";" at EOL are fixed in kexec.

Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Eric Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 6bd364d8 13-Dec-2013 Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

KEYS: fix uninitialized persistent_keyring_register_sem

We run into this bug:
[ 2736.063245] Unable to handle kernel paging request for data at address 0x00000000
[ 2736.063293] Faulting instruction address: 0xc00000000037efb0
[ 2736.063300] Oops: Kernel access of bad area, sig: 11 [#1]
[ 2736.063303] SMP NR_CPUS=2048 NUMA pSeries
[ 2736.063310] Modules linked in: sg nfsv3 rpcsec_gss_krb5 nfsv4 dns_resolver nfs fscache nf_conntrack_netbios_ns nf_conntrack_broadcast ipt_MASQUERADE ip6table_mangle ip6table_security ip6table_raw ip6t_REJECT iptable_nat nf_nat_ipv4 iptable_mangle iptable_security iptable_raw ipt_REJECT nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 xt_conntrack ebtable_filter ebtables ip6table_filter iptable_filter ip_tables ip6table_nat nf_conntrack_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv6 nf_nat_ipv6 nf_nat nf_conntrack ip6_tables ibmveth pseries_rng nx_crypto nfsd auth_rpcgss nfs_acl lockd sunrpc binfmt_misc xfs libcrc32c dm_service_time sd_mod crc_t10dif crct10dif_common ibmvfc scsi_transport_fc scsi_tgt dm_mirror dm_region_hash dm_log dm_multipath dm_mod
[ 2736.063383] CPU: 1 PID: 7128 Comm: ssh Not tainted 3.10.0-48.el7.ppc64 #1
[ 2736.063389] task: c000000131930120 ti: c0000001319a0000 task.ti: c0000001319a0000
[ 2736.063394] NIP: c00000000037efb0 LR: c0000000006c40f8 CTR: 0000000000000000
[ 2736.063399] REGS: c0000001319a3870 TRAP: 0300 Not tainted (3.10.0-48.el7.ppc64)
[ 2736.063403] MSR: 8000000000009032 <SF,EE,ME,IR,DR,RI> CR: 28824242 XER: 20000000
[ 2736.063415] SOFTE: 0
[ 2736.063418] CFAR: c00000000000908c
[ 2736.063421] DAR: 0000000000000000, DSISR: 40000000
[ 2736.063425]
GPR00: c0000000006c40f8 c0000001319a3af0 c000000001074788 c0000001319a3bf0
GPR04: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000020 000000000000000a
GPR08: fffffffe00000002 00000000ffff0000 0000000080000001 c000000000924888
GPR12: 0000000028824248 c000000007e00400 00001fffffa0f998 0000000000000000
GPR16: 0000000000000022 00001fffffa0f998 0000010022e92470 0000000000000000
GPR20: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR24: 0000000000000000 c000000000f4a828 00003ffffe527108 0000000000000000
GPR28: c000000000f4a730 c000000000f4a828 0000000000000000 c0000001319a3bf0
[ 2736.063498] NIP [c00000000037efb0] .__list_add+0x30/0x110
[ 2736.063504] LR [c0000000006c40f8] .rwsem_down_write_failed+0x78/0x264
[ 2736.063508] PACATMSCRATCH [800000000280f032]
[ 2736.063511] Call Trace:
[ 2736.063516] [c0000001319a3af0] [c0000001319a3b80] 0xc0000001319a3b80 (unreliable)
[ 2736.063523] [c0000001319a3b80] [c0000000006c40f8] .rwsem_down_write_failed+0x78/0x264
[ 2736.063530] [c0000001319a3c50] [c0000000006c1bb0] .down_write+0x70/0x78
[ 2736.063536] [c0000001319a3cd0] [c0000000002e5ffc] .keyctl_get_persistent+0x20c/0x320
[ 2736.063542] [c0000001319a3dc0] [c0000000002e2388] .SyS_keyctl+0x238/0x260
[ 2736.063548] [c0000001319a3e30] [c000000000009e7c] syscall_exit+0x0/0x7c
[ 2736.063553] Instruction dump:
[ 2736.063556] 7c0802a6 fba1ffe8 fbc1fff0 fbe1fff8 7cbd2b78 7c9e2378 7c7f1b78 f8010010
[ 2736.063566] f821ff71 e8a50008 7fa52040 40de00c0 <e8be0000> 7fbd2840 40de0094 7fbff040
[ 2736.063579] ---[ end trace 2708241785538296 ]---

It's caused by uninitialized persistent_keyring_register_sem.

The bug was introduced by commit f36f8c75, two typos are in that commit:
krb_cache_register_sem should be persistent_keyring_register_sem.

Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

# f36f8c75 24-Sep-2013 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

KEYS: Add per-user_namespace registers for persistent per-UID kerberos caches

Add support for per-user_namespace registers of persistent per-UID kerberos
caches held within the kernel.

This allows the kerberos cache to be retained beyond the life of all a user's
processes so that the user's cron jobs can work.

The kerberos cache is envisioned as a keyring/key tree looking something like:

struct user_namespace
\___ .krb_cache keyring - The register
\___ _krb.0 keyring - Root's Kerberos cache
\___ _krb.5000 keyring - User 5000's Kerberos cache
\___ _krb.5001 keyring - User 5001's Kerberos cache
\___ tkt785 big_key - A ccache blob
\___ tkt12345 big_key - Another ccache blob

Or possibly:

struct user_namespace
\___ .krb_cache keyring - The register
\___ _krb.0 keyring - Root's Kerberos cache
\___ _krb.5000 keyring - User 5000's Kerberos cache
\___ _krb.5001 keyring - User 5001's Kerberos cache
\___ tkt785 keyring - A ccache
\___ krbtgt/REDHAT.COM@REDHAT.COM big_key
\___ http/REDHAT.COM@REDHAT.COM user
\___ krbtgt/KERNEL.ORG@KERNEL.ORG big_key
\___ http/KERNEL.ORG@KERNEL.ORG big_key

What goes into a particular Kerberos cache is entirely up to userspace. Kernel
support is limited to giving you the Kerberos cache keyring that you want.

The user asks for their Kerberos cache by:

krb_cache = keyctl_get_krbcache(uid, dest_keyring);

The uid is -1 or the user's own UID for the user's own cache or the uid of some
other user's cache (requires CAP_SETUID). This permits rpc.gssd or whatever to
mess with the cache.

The cache returned is a keyring named "_krb.<uid>" that the possessor can read,
search, clear, invalidate, unlink from and add links to. Active LSMs get a
chance to rule on whether the caller is permitted to make a link.

Each uid's cache keyring is created when it first accessed and is given a
timeout that is extended each time this function is called so that the keyring
goes away after a while. The timeout is configurable by sysctl but defaults to
three days.

Each user_namespace struct gets a lazily-created keyring that serves as the
register. The cache keyrings are added to it. This means that standard key
search and garbage collection facilities are available.

The user_namespace struct's register goes away when it does and anything left
in it is then automatically gc'd.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Simo Sorce <simo@redhat.com>
cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@ubuntu.com>
cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# e51db735 30-Mar-2013 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Better restrictions on when proc and sysfs can be mounted

Rely on the fact that another flavor of the filesystem is already
mounted and do not rely on state in the user namespace.

Verify that the mounted filesystem is not covered in any significant
way. I would love to verify that the previously mounted filesystem
has no mounts on top but there are at least the directories
/proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc and /sys/fs/cgroup/ that exist explicitly
for other filesystems to mount on top of.

Refactor the test into a function named fs_fully_visible and call that
function from the mount routines of proc and sysfs. This makes this
test local to the filesystems involved and the results current of when
the mounts take place, removing a weird threading of the user
namespace, the mount namespace and the filesystems themselves.

Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 0bb80f24 11-Apr-2013 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

proc: Split the namespace stuff out into linux/proc_ns.h

Split the proc namespace stuff out into linux/proc_ns.h.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: netdev@vger.kernel.org
cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@ubuntu.com>
cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# 87a8ebd6 24-Mar-2013 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Restrict when proc and sysfs can be mounted

Only allow unprivileged mounts of proc and sysfs if they are already
mounted when the user namespace is created.

proc and sysfs are interesting because they have content that is
per namespace, and so fresh mounts are needed when new namespaces
are created while at the same time proc and sysfs have content that
is shared between every instance.

Respect the policy of who may see the shared content of proc and sysfs
by only allowing new mounts if there was an existing mount at the time
the user namespace was created.

In practice there are only two interesting cases: proc and sysfs are
mounted at their usual places, proc and sysfs are not mounted at all
(some form of mount namespace jail).

Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# b67bfe0d 27-Feb-2013 Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>

hlist: drop the node parameter from iterators

I'm not sure why, but the hlist for each entry iterators were conceived

list_for_each_entry(pos, head, member)

The hlist ones were greedy and wanted an extra parameter:

hlist_for_each_entry(tpos, pos, head, member)

Why did they need an extra pos parameter? I'm not quite sure. Not only
they don't really need it, it also prevents the iterator from looking
exactly like the list iterator, which is unfortunate.

Besides the semantic patch, there was some manual work required:

- Fix up the actual hlist iterators in linux/list.h
- Fix up the declaration of other iterators based on the hlist ones.
- A very small amount of places were using the 'node' parameter, this
was modified to use 'obj->member' instead.
- Coccinelle didn't handle the hlist_for_each_entry_safe iterator
properly, so those had to be fixed up manually.

The semantic patch which is mostly the work of Peter Senna Tschudin is here:

iterator name hlist_for_each_entry, hlist_for_each_entry_continue, hlist_for_each_entry_from, hlist_for_each_entry_rcu, hlist_for_each_entry_rcu_bh, hlist_for_each_entry_continue_rcu_bh, for_each_busy_worker, ax25_uid_for_each, ax25_for_each, inet_bind_bucket_for_each, sctp_for_each_hentry, sk_for_each, sk_for_each_rcu, sk_for_each_from, sk_for_each_safe, sk_for_each_bound, hlist_for_each_entry_safe, hlist_for_each_entry_continue_rcu, nr_neigh_for_each, nr_neigh_for_each_safe, nr_node_for_each, nr_node_for_each_safe, for_each_gfn_indirect_valid_sp, for_each_gfn_sp, for_each_host;

type T;
expression a,c,d,e;
identifier b;
statement S;

-T b;
<+... when != b
- b,
c, d) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c, d) S
- b,
c, d) S
- b,
c) S
for_each_busy_worker(a, c,
- b,
d) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
-(a, b)
+ sk_for_each_from(a) S
- b,
c, d) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c, d, e) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c, d) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c, d) S
- for_each_gfn_sp(a, c, d, b) S
+ for_each_gfn_sp(a, c, d) S
- for_each_gfn_indirect_valid_sp(a, c, d, b) S
+ for_each_gfn_indirect_valid_sp(a, c, d) S
- b,
c) S
- b,
c, d) S
- b,
c, d) S

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: drop bogus change from net/ipv4/raw.c]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: drop bogus hunk from net/ipv6/raw.c]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: checkpatch fixes]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warnings]
[akpm@linux-foudnation.org: redo intrusive kvm changes]
Tested-by: Peter Senna Tschudin <peter.senna@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
Cc: Gleb Natapov <gleb@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# c61a2810 28-Dec-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Avoid recursion in put_user_ns

When freeing a deeply nested user namespace free_user_ns calls
put_user_ns on it's parent which may in turn call free_user_ns again.
When -fno-optimize-sibling-calls is passed to gcc one stack frame per
user namespace is left on the stack, potentially overflowing the
kernel stack. CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER forces -fno-optimize-sibling-calls
so we can't count on gcc to optimize this code.

Remove struct kref and use a plain atomic_t. Making the code more
flexible and easier to comprehend. Make the loop in free_user_ns
explict to guarantee that the stack does not overflow with

I have tested this fix with a simple program that uses unshare to
create a deeply nested user namespace structure and then calls exit.
With 1000 nesteuser namespaces before this change running my test
program causes the kernel to die a horrible death. With 10,000,000
nested user namespaces after this change my test program runs to
completion and causes no harm.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Pointed-out-by: Vasily Kulikov <segoon@openwall.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 98f842e6 15-Jun-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

proc: Usable inode numbers for the namespace file descriptors.

Assign a unique proc inode to each namespace, and use that
inode number to ensure we only allocate at most one proc
inode for every namespace in proc.

A single proc inode per namespace allows userspace to test
to see if two processes are in the same namespace.

This has been a long requested feature and only blocked because
a naive implementation would put the id in a global space and
would ultimately require having a namespace for the names of
namespaces, making migration and certain virtualization tricks

We still don't have per superblock inode numbers for proc, which
appears necessary for application unaware checkpoint/restart and
migrations (if the application is using namespace file descriptors)
but that is now allowd by the design if it becomes important.

I have preallocated the ipc and uts initial proc inode numbers so
their structures can be statically initialized.

Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# f76d207a 30-Aug-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Add kprojid_t and associated infrastructure in projid.h

Implement kprojid_t a cousin of the kuid_t and kgid_t.

The per user namespace mapping of project id values can be set with

A full compliment of helpers is provided: make_kprojid, from_kprojid,
from_kprojid_munged, kporjid_has_mapping, projid_valid, projid_eq,
projid_eq, projid_lt.

Project identifiers are part of the generic disk quota interface,
although it appears only xfs implements project identifiers currently.

The xfs code allows anyone who has permission to set the project
identifier on a file to use any project identifier so when
setting up the user namespace project identifier mappings I do
not require a capability.

Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com>
Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 4b06a81f 19-May-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Silence silly gcc warning.

On 32bit builds gcc says:
kernel/user.c:30:4: warning: this decimal constant is unsigned only in ISO C90 [enabled by default]
kernel/user.c:38:4: warning: this decimal constant is unsigned only in ISO C90 [enabled by default]

Silence gcc by changing the constant 4294967295 to 4294967295U.

Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 22d917d8 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Rework the user_namespace adding uid/gid mapping support

- Convert the old uid mapping functions into compatibility wrappers
- Add a uid/gid mapping layer from user space uid and gids to kernel
internal uids and gids that is extent based for simplicty and speed.
* Working with number space after mapping uids/gids into their kernel
internal version adds only mapping complexity over what we have today,
leaving the kernel code easy to understand and test.
- Add proc files /proc/self/uid_map /proc/self/gid_map
These files display the mapping and allow a mapping to be added
if a mapping does not exist.
- Allow entering the user namespace without a uid or gid mapping.
Since we are starting with an existing user our uids and gids
still have global mappings so are still valid and useful they just don't
have local mappings. The requirement for things to work are global uid
and gid so it is odd but perfectly fine not to have a local uid
and gid mapping.
Not requiring global uid and gid mappings greatly simplifies
the logic of setting up the uid and gid mappings by allowing
the mappings to be set after the namespace is created which makes the
slight weirdness worth it.
- Make the mappings in the initial user namespace to the global
uid/gid space explicit. Today it is an identity mapping
but in the future we may want to twist this for debugging, similar
to what we do with jiffies.
- Document the memory ordering requirements of setting the uid and
gid mappings. We only allow the mappings to be set once
and there are no pointers involved so the requirments are
trivial but a little atypical.


In this scheme for the permission checks the performance is expected to
stay the same as the actuall machine instructions should remain the same.

The worst case I could think of is ls -l on a large directory where
all of the stat results need to be translated with from kuids and
kgids to uids and gids. So I benchmarked that case on my laptop
with a dual core hyperthread Intel i5-2520M cpu with 3M of cpu cache.

My benchmark consisted of going to single user mode where nothing else
was running. On an ext4 filesystem opening 1,000,000 files and looping
through all of the files 1000 times and calling fstat on the
individuals files. This was to ensure I was benchmarking stat times
where the inodes were in the kernels cache, but the inode values were
not in the processors cache. My results:

v3.4-rc1: ~= 156ns (unmodified v3.4-rc1 with user namespace support disabled)
v3.4-rc1-userns-: ~= 155ns (v3.4-rc1 with my user namespace patches and user namespace support disabled)
v3.4-rc1-userns+: ~= 164ns (v3.4-rc1 with my user namespace patches and user namespace support enabled)

All of the configurations ran in roughly 120ns when I performed tests
that ran in the cpu cache.

So in summary the performance impact is:
1ns improvement in the worst case with user namespace support compiled out.
8ns aka 5% slowdown in the worst case with user namespace support compiled in.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 783291e6 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Simplify the user_namespace by making userns->creator a kuid.

- Transform userns->creator from a user_struct reference to a simple
kuid_t, kgid_t pair.

In cap_capable this allows the check to see if we are the creator of
a namespace to become the classic suser style euid permission check.

This allows us to remove the need for a struct cred in the mapping
functions and still be able to dispaly the user namespace creators
uid and gid as 0.

- Remove the now unnecessary delayed_work in free_user_ns.

All that is left for free_user_ns to do is to call kmem_cache_free
and put_user_ns. Those functions can be called in any context
so call them directly from free_user_ns removing the need for delayed work.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 7b44ab97 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Disassociate user_struct from the user_namespace.

Modify alloc_uid to take a kuid and make the user hash table global.
Stop holding a reference to the user namespace in struct user_struct.

This simplifies the code and makes the per user accounting not
care about which user namespace a uid happens to appear in.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# d0bd6594 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Deprecate and rename the user_namespace reference in the user_struct

With a user_ns reference in struct cred the only user of the user namespace
reference in struct user_struct is to keep the uid hash table alive.

The user_namespace reference in struct user_struct will be going away soon, and
I have removed all of the references. Rename the field from user_ns to _user_ns
so that the compiler can verify nothing follows the user struct to the user
namespace anymore.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 9984de1a 23-May-2011 Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>

kernel: Map most files to use export.h instead of module.h

The changed files were only including linux/module.h for the
EXPORT_SYMBOL infrastructure, and nothing else. Revector them
onto the isolated export header for faster compile times.

Nothing to see here but a whole lot of instances of:

-#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/export.h>

This commit is only changing the kernel dir; next targets
will probably be mm, fs, the arch dirs, etc.

Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>

# 59607db3 23-Mar-2011 Serge E. Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>

userns: add a user_namespace as creator/owner of uts_namespace

The expected course of development for user namespaces targeted
capabilities is laid out at https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UserNamespace.


- Make it safe for an unprivileged user to unshare namespaces. They
will be privileged with respect to the new namespace, but this should
only include resources which the unprivileged user already owns.

- Provide separate limits and accounting for userids in different


Currently (as of 2.6.38) you can clone with the CLONE_NEWUSER flag to
get a new user namespace if you have the CAP_SYS_ADMIN, CAP_SETUID, and
CAP_SETGID capabilities. What this gets you is a whole new set of
userids, meaning that user 500 will have a different 'struct user' in
your namespace than in other namespaces. So any accounting information
stored in struct user will be unique to your namespace.

However, throughout the kernel there are checks which

- simply check for a capability. Since root in a child namespace
has all capabilities, this means that a child namespace is not

- simply compare uid1 == uid2. Since these are the integer uids,
uid 500 in namespace 1 will be said to be equal to uid 500 in
namespace 2.

As a result, the lxc implementation at lxc.sf.net does not use user
namespaces. This is actually helpful because it leaves us free to
develop user namespaces in such a way that, for some time, user
namespaces may be unuseful.

Bugs aside, this patchset is supposed to not at all affect systems which
are not actively using user namespaces, and only restrict what tasks in
child user namespace can do. They begin to limit privilege to a user
namespace, so that root in a container cannot kill or ptrace tasks in the
parent user namespace, and can only get world access rights to files.
Since all files currently belong to the initila user namespace, that means
that child user namespaces can only get world access rights to *all*
files. While this temporarily makes user namespaces bad for system
containers, it starts to get useful for some sandboxing.

I've run the 'runltplite.sh' with and without this patchset and found no

This patch:

copy_process() handles CLONE_NEWUSER before the rest of the namespaces.
So in the case of clone(CLONE_NEWUSER|CLONE_NEWUTS) the new uts namespace
will have the new user namespace as its owner. That is what we want,
since we want root in that new userns to be able to have privilege over

Feb 15: don't set uts_ns->user_ns if we didn't create
a new uts_ns.
Feb 23: Move extern init_user_ns declaration from
init/version.c to utsname.h.

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 4ef9e11d 29-Dec-2010 Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com>

fix freeing user_struct in user cache

When racing on adding into user cache, the new allocated from mm slab
is freed without putting user namespace.

Since the user namespace is already operated by getting, putting has
to be issued.

Signed-off-by: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: stable@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 571428be 26-Oct-2010 Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com>

kernel/user.c: add lock release annotation on free_user()

free_user() releases uidhash_lock but was missing annotation. Add it.
This removes following sparse warnings:

include/linux/spinlock.h:339:9: warning: context imbalance in 'free_user' - unexpected unlock
kernel/user.c:120:6: warning: context imbalance in 'free_uid' - wrong count at exit

Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# af507ae8 09-May-2010 Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com>

sched: Remove a stale comment

This comment should have been removed together with uids_mutex
when removing user sched.

Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com>
LKML-Reference: <4BE77C6B.5010402@cn.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 32bd7eb5 23-Mar-2010 Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com>

sched: Remove remaining USER_SCHED code

This is left over from commit 7c9414385e ("sched: Remove USER_SCHED"")

Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com>
Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
LKML-Reference: <4BA9A05F.7010407@cn.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 6427462b 15-Mar-2010 Dan Carpenter <error27@gmail.com>

sched: Remove some dead code

This was left over from "7c9414385e sched: Remove USER_SCHED"

Signed-off-by: Dan Carpenter <error27@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com>
Cc: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>
LKML-Reference: <20100315082148.GD18181@bicker>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 7c941438 20-Jan-2010 Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com>

sched: Remove USER_SCHED

Remove the USER_SCHED feature. It has been scheduled to be removed in
2.6.34 as per http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=125728479022976&w=2

Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
LKML-Reference: <1263990378.24844.3.camel@localhost>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# b00bc0b2 02-Nov-2009 Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

uids: Prevent tear down race

Ingo triggered the following warning:

WARNING: at lib/debugobjects.c:255 debug_print_object+0x42/0x50()
Hardware name: System Product Name
ODEBUG: init active object type: timer_list
Modules linked in:
Pid: 2619, comm: dmesg Tainted: G W 2.6.32-rc5-tip+ #5298
Call Trace:
[<81035443>] warn_slowpath_common+0x6a/0x81
[<8120e483>] ? debug_print_object+0x42/0x50
[<81035498>] warn_slowpath_fmt+0x29/0x2c
[<8120e483>] debug_print_object+0x42/0x50
[<8120ec2a>] __debug_object_init+0x279/0x2d7
[<8120ecb3>] debug_object_init+0x13/0x18
[<810409d2>] init_timer_key+0x17/0x6f
[<81041526>] free_uid+0x50/0x6c
[<8104ed2d>] put_cred_rcu+0x61/0x72
[<81067fac>] rcu_do_batch+0x70/0x121

debugobjects warns about an enqueued timer being initialized. If
CONFIG_USER_SCHED=y the user management code uses delayed work to
remove the user from the hash table and tear down the sysfs objects.

free_uid is called from RCU and initializes/schedules delayed work if
the usage count of the user_struct is 0. The init/schedule happens
outside of the uidhash_lock protected region which allows a concurrent
caller of find_user() to reference the about to be destroyed
user_struct w/o preventing the work from being scheduled. If the next
free_uid call happens before the work timer expired then the active
timer is initialized and the work scheduled again.

The race was introduced in commit 5cb350ba (sched: group scheduling,
sysfs tunables) and made more prominent by commit 3959214f (sched:
delayed cleanup of user_struct)

Move the init/schedule_delayed_work inside of the uidhash_lock
protected region to prevent the race.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Cc: stable@kernel.org

# 3959214f 24-Mar-2009 Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>

sched: delayed cleanup of user_struct

During bootup performance tracing we see repeated occurrences of
/sys/kernel/uid/* events for the same uid, leading to a,
in this case, rather pointless userspace processing for the
same uid over and over.

This is usually caused by tools which change their uid to "nobody",
to run without privileges to read data supplied by untrusted users.

This change delays the execution of the (already existing) scheduled
work, to cleanup the uid after one second, so the allocated and announced
uid can possibly be re-used by another process.

This is the current behavior, where almost every invocation of a
binary, which changes the uid, creates two events:
$ read START < /sys/kernel/uevent_seqnum; \
for i in `seq 100`; do su --shell=/bin/true bin; done; \
read END < /sys/kernel/uevent_seqnum; \
echo $(($END - $START))

With the delayed cleanup, we get only two events, and userspace finishes
a bit faster too:
$ read START < /sys/kernel/uevent_seqnum; \
for i in `seq 100`; do su --shell=/bin/true bin; done; \
read END < /sys/kernel/uevent_seqnum; \
echo $(($END - $START))

Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

# be50b834 10-Mar-2009 Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

kernel/user.c: fix a memory leak when freeing up non-init usernamespaces users

We were returning early in the sysfs directory cleanup function if the
user belonged to a non init usernamespace. Due to this a lot of the
cleanup was not done and we were left with a leak. Fix the leak.

Reported-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Tested-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 54e99124 27-Feb-2009 Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: don't allow setuid to succeed if the user does not have rt bandwidth

Impact: fix hung task with certain (non-default) rt-limit settings

Corey Hickey reported that on using setuid to change the uid of a
rt process, the process would be unkillable and not be running.
This is because there was no rt runtime for that user group. Add
in a check to see if a user can attach an rt task to its task group.
On failure, return EINVAL, which is also returned in

Reported-by: Corey Hickey <bugfood-ml@fatooh.org>
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 1d1e9756 26-Feb-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

keys: distinguish per-uid keys in different namespaces

per-uid keys were looked by uid only. Use the user namespace
to distinguish the same uid in different namespaces.

This does not address key_permission. So a task can for instance
try to join a keyring owned by the same uid in another namespace.
That will be handled by a separate patch.

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>

# fb5ae64f 13-Feb-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

User namespaces: Only put the userns when we unhash the uid

uids in namespaces other than init don't get a sysfs entry.

For those in the init namespace, while we're waiting to remove
the sysfs entry for the uid the uid is still hashed, and
alloc_uid() may re-grab that uid without getting a new
reference to the user_ns, which we've already put in free_user
before scheduling remove_user_sysfs_dir().

Reported-and-tested-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 94d6a5f7 08-Dec-2008 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

user namespaces: document CFS behavior

Documented the currently bogus state of support for CFS user groups with
user namespaces. In particular, all users in a user namespace should be
children of the user which created the user namespace. This is yet to
be implemented.

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>

# c37bbb0f 03-Dec-2008 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

user namespaces: let user_ns be cloned with fairsched

(These two patches are in the next-unacked branch of
If they get some ACKs, then I hope to feed this into security-next.
After these two, I think we're ready to tackle userns+capabilities)

Fairsched creates a per-uid directory under /sys/kernel/uids/.
So when you clone(CLONE_NEWUSER), it tries to create
/sys/kernel/uids/0, which already exists, and you get back

This was supposed to be fixed by sysfs tagging, but that
was postponed (ok, rejected until sysfs locking is fixed).
So, just as with network namespaces, we just don't create
those directories for user namespaces other than the init.

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>

# 6c415b92 01-Dec-2008 Arun R Bharadwaj <arun@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: add uid information to sched_debug for CONFIG_USER_SCHED

Impact: extend information in /proc/sched_debug

This patch adds uid information in sched_debug for CONFIG_USER_SCHED

Signed-off-by: Arun R Bharadwaj <arun@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 6ded6ab9 24-Nov-2008 Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

User namespaces: use the current_user_ns() macro

Fix up the last current_user()->user_ns instance to use

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

# 18b6e041 15-Oct-2008 Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

User namespaces: set of cleanups (v2)

The user_ns is moved from nsproxy to user_struct, so that a struct
cred by itself is sufficient to determine access (which it otherwise
would not be). Corresponding ecryptfs fixes (by David Howells) are
here as well.

Fix refcounting. The following rules now apply:
1. The task pins the user struct.
2. The user struct pins its user namespace.
3. The user namespace pins the struct user which created it.

User namespaces are cloned during copy_creds(). Unsharing a new user_ns
is no longer possible. (We could re-add that, but it'll cause code
duplication and doesn't seem useful if PAM doesn't need to clone user

When a user namespace is created, its first user (uid 0) gets empty
keyrings and a clean group_info.

This incorporates a previous patch by David Howells. Here
is his original patch description:

>I suggest adding the attached incremental patch. It makes the following
> (1) Provides a current_user_ns() macro to wrap accesses to current's user
> namespace.
> (2) Fixes eCryptFS.
> (3) Renames create_new_userns() to create_user_ns() to be more consistent
> with the other associated functions and because the 'new' in the name is
> superfluous.
> (4) Moves the argument and permission checks made for CLONE_NEWUSER to the
> beginning of do_fork() so that they're done prior to making any attempts
> at allocation.
> (5) Calls create_user_ns() after prepare_creds(), and gives it the new creds
> to fill in rather than have it return the new root user. I don't imagine
> the new root user being used for anything other than filling in a cred
> struct.
> This also permits me to get rid of a get_uid() and a free_uid(), as the
> reference the creds were holding on the old user_struct can just be
> transferred to the new namespace's creator pointer.
> (6) Makes create_user_ns() reset the UIDs and GIDs of the creds under
> preparation rather than doing it in copy_creds().

>Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

Oct 20: integrate dhowells comments
1. leave thread_keyring alone
2. use current_user_ns() in set_user()

Signed-off-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

# d84f4f99 13-Nov-2008 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

CRED: Inaugurate COW credentials

Inaugurate copy-on-write credentials management. This uses RCU to manage the
credentials pointer in the task_struct with respect to accesses by other tasks.
A process may only modify its own credentials, and so does not need locking to
access or modify its own credentials.

A mutex (cred_replace_mutex) is added to the task_struct to control the effect
of PTRACE_ATTACHED on credential calculations, particularly with respect to

With this patch, the contents of an active credentials struct may not be
changed directly; rather a new set of credentials must be prepared, modified
and committed using something like the following sequence of events:

struct cred *new = prepare_creds();
int ret = blah(new);
if (ret < 0) {
return ret;
return commit_creds(new);

There are some exceptions to this rule: the keyrings pointed to by the active
credentials may be instantiated - keyrings violate the COW rule as managing
COW keyrings is tricky, given that it is possible for a task to directly alter
the keys in a keyring in use by another task.

To help enforce this, various pointers to sets of credentials, such as those in
the task_struct, are declared const. The purpose of this is compile-time
discouragement of altering credentials through those pointers. Once a set of
credentials has been made public through one of these pointers, it may not be
modified, except under special circumstances:

(1) Its reference count may incremented and decremented.

(2) The keyrings to which it points may be modified, but not replaced.

The only safe way to modify anything else is to create a replacement and commit
using the functions described in Documentation/credentials.txt (which will be
added by a later patch).

This patch and the preceding patches have been tested with the LTP SELinux

This patch makes several logical sets of alteration:

(1) execve().

This now prepares and commits credentials in various places in the
security code rather than altering the current creds directly.

(2) Temporary credential overrides.

do_coredump() and sys_faccessat() now prepare their own credentials and
temporarily override the ones currently on the acting thread, whilst
preventing interference from other threads by holding cred_replace_mutex
on the thread being dumped.

This will be replaced in a future patch by something that hands down the
credentials directly to the functions being called, rather than altering
the task's objective credentials.

(3) LSM interface.

A number of functions have been changed, added or removed:

(*) security_capset_check(), ->capset_check()
(*) security_capset_set(), ->capset_set()

Removed in favour of security_capset().

(*) security_capset(), ->capset()

New. This is passed a pointer to the new creds, a pointer to the old
creds and the proposed capability sets. It should fill in the new
creds or return an error. All pointers, barring the pointer to the
new creds, are now const.

(*) security_bprm_apply_creds(), ->bprm_apply_creds()

Changed; now returns a value, which will cause the process to be
killed if it's an error.

(*) security_task_alloc(), ->task_alloc_security()

Removed in favour of security_prepare_creds().

(*) security_cred_free(), ->cred_free()

New. Free security data attached to cred->security.

(*) security_prepare_creds(), ->cred_prepare()

New. Duplicate any security data attached to cred->security.

(*) security_commit_creds(), ->cred_commit()

New. Apply any security effects for the upcoming installation of new
security by commit_creds().

(*) security_task_post_setuid(), ->task_post_setuid()

Removed in favour of security_task_fix_setuid().

(*) security_task_fix_setuid(), ->task_fix_setuid()

Fix up the proposed new credentials for setuid(). This is used by
cap_set_fix_setuid() to implicitly adjust capabilities in line with
setuid() changes. Changes are made to the new credentials, rather
than the task itself as in security_task_post_setuid().

(*) security_task_reparent_to_init(), ->task_reparent_to_init()

Removed. Instead the task being reparented to init is referred
directly to init's credentials.

NOTE! This results in the loss of some state: SELinux's osid no
longer records the sid of the thread that forked it.

(*) security_key_alloc(), ->key_alloc()
(*) security_key_permission(), ->key_permission()

Changed. These now take cred pointers rather than task pointers to
refer to the security context.

(4) sys_capset().

This has been simplified and uses less locking. The LSM functions it
calls have been merged.

(5) reparent_to_kthreadd().

This gives the current thread the same credentials as init by simply using
commit_thread() to point that way.

(6) __sigqueue_alloc() and switch_uid()

__sigqueue_alloc() can't stop the target task from changing its creds
beneath it, so this function gets a reference to the currently applicable
user_struct which it then passes into the sigqueue struct it returns if

switch_uid() is now called from commit_creds(), and possibly should be
folded into that. commit_creds() should take care of protecting

(7) [sg]et[ug]id() and co and [sg]et_current_groups.

The set functions now all use prepare_creds(), commit_creds() and
abort_creds() to build and check a new set of credentials before applying

security_task_set[ug]id() is called inside the prepared section. This
guarantees that nothing else will affect the creds until we've finished.

The calling of set_dumpable() has been moved into commit_creds().

Much of the functionality of set_user() has been moved into

The get functions all simply access the data directly.

(8) security_task_prctl() and cap_task_prctl().

security_task_prctl() has been modified to return -ENOSYS if it doesn't
want to handle a function, or otherwise return the return value directly
rather than through an argument.

Additionally, cap_task_prctl() now prepares a new set of credentials, even
if it doesn't end up using it.

(9) Keyrings.

A number of changes have been made to the keyrings code:

(a) switch_uid_keyring(), copy_keys(), exit_keys() and suid_keys() have
all been dropped and built in to the credentials functions directly.
They may want separating out again later.

(b) key_alloc() and search_process_keyrings() now take a cred pointer
rather than a task pointer to specify the security context.

(c) copy_creds() gives a new thread within the same thread group a new
thread keyring if its parent had one, otherwise it discards the thread

(d) The authorisation key now points directly to the credentials to extend
the search into rather pointing to the task that carries them.

(e) Installing thread, process or session keyrings causes a new set of
credentials to be created, even though it's not strictly necessary for
process or session keyrings (they're shared).

(10) Usermode helper.

The usermode helper code now carries a cred struct pointer in its
subprocess_info struct instead of a new session keyring pointer. This set
of credentials is derived from init_cred and installed on the new process
after it has been cloned.

call_usermodehelper_setup() allocates the new credentials and
call_usermodehelper_freeinfo() discards them if they haven't been used. A
special cred function (prepare_usermodeinfo_creds()) is provided
specifically for call_usermodehelper_setup() to call.

call_usermodehelper_setkeys() adjusts the credentials to sport the
supplied keyring as the new session keyring.

(11) SELinux.

SELinux has a number of changes, in addition to those to support the LSM
interface changes mentioned above:

(a) selinux_setprocattr() no longer does its check for whether the
current ptracer can access processes with the new SID inside the lock
that covers getting the ptracer's SID. Whilst this lock ensures that
the check is done with the ptracer pinned, the result is only valid
until the lock is released, so there's no point doing it inside the

(12) is_single_threaded().

This function has been extracted from selinux_setprocattr() and put into
a file of its own in the lib/ directory as join_session_keyring() now
wants to use it too.

The code in SELinux just checked to see whether a task shared mm_structs
with other tasks (CLONE_VM), but that isn't good enough. We really want
to know if they're part of the same thread group (CLONE_THREAD).

(13) nfsd.

The NFS server daemon now has to use the COW credentials to set the
credentials it is going to use. It really needs to pass the credentials
down to the functions it calls, but it can't do that until other patches
in this series have been applied.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>

# b6dff3ec 13-Nov-2008 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

CRED: Separate task security context from task_struct

Separate the task security context from task_struct. At this point, the
security data is temporarily embedded in the task_struct with two pointers
pointing to it.

Note that the Alpha arch is altered as it refers to (E)UID and (E)GID in
entry.S via asm-offsets.

With comment fixes Signed-off-by: Marc Dionne <marc.c.dionne@gmail.com>

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>

# af4491e5 18-Aug-2008 Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>

sched: rt-bandwidth for user grouping interface

rt_runtime is a signed value

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 354a1f4d 30-Apr-2008 Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>

alloc_uid: cleanup

Use kmem_cache_zalloc(), remove large amounts of initialisation code and

Note: this assumes that memset(*atomic_t, 0) correctly initialises the
atomic_t. This is true for all present archtiectures and if it becomes false
for a future architecture then we'll need to make large changes all over the
place anyway.

Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 69664cf1 29-Apr-2008 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

keys: don't generate user and user session keyrings unless they're accessed

Don't generate the per-UID user and user session keyrings unless they're
explicitly accessed. This solves a problem during a login process whereby
set*uid() is called before the SELinux PAM module, resulting in the per-UID
keyrings having the wrong security labels.

This also cures the problem of multiple per-UID keyrings sometimes appearing
due to PAM modules (including pam_keyinit) setuiding and causing user_structs
to come into and go out of existence whilst the session keyring pins the user
keyring. This is achieved by first searching for extant per-UID keyrings
before inventing new ones.

The serial bound argument is also dropped from find_keyring_by_name() as it's
not currently made use of (setting it to 0 disables the feature).

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: <kwc@citi.umich.edu>
Cc: <arunsr@cse.iitk.ac.in>
Cc: <dwalsh@redhat.com>
Cc: Stephen Smalley <sds@tycho.nsa.gov>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@sous-sol.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# eff766a6 19-Apr-2008 Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>

sched: fix the task_group hierarchy for UID grouping

UID grouping doesn't actually have a task_group representing the root of
the task_group tree. Add one.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# ec7dc8ac 19-Apr-2008 Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: allow the group scheduler to have multiple levels

This patch makes the group scheduler multi hierarchy aware.

[a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl: rt-parts and assorted fixes]
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# d0b27fa7 19-Apr-2008 Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>

sched: rt-group: synchonised bandwidth period

Various SMP balancing algorithms require that the bandwidth period
run in sync.

Possible improvements are moving the rt_bandwidth thing into root_domain
and keeping a span per rt_bandwidth which marks throttled cpus.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 052f1dc7 13-Feb-2008 Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>

sched: rt-group: make rt groups scheduling configurable

Make the rt group scheduler compile time configurable.
Keep it experimental for now.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 9f0c1e56 13-Feb-2008 Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>

sched: rt-group: interface

Change the rt_ratio interface to rt_runtime_us, to match rt_period_us.
This avoids picking a granularity for the ratio.

Extend the /sys/kernel/uids/<uid>/ interface to allow setting
the group's rt_runtime.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# aee16ce7 08-Feb-2008 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

namespaces: cleanup the code managed with the USER_NS option

Make the user_namespace.o compilation depend on this option and move the
init_user_ns into user.c file to make the kernel compile and work without the
namespaces support. This make the user namespace code be organized similar to
other namespaces'.

Also mask the USER_NS option as "depend on NAMESPACES".

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at>
Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru>
Cc: Sukadev Bhattiprolu <sukadev@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 8eb703e4 25-Jan-2008 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

uids: merge multiple error paths in alloc_uid() into one

There are already 4 error paths in alloc_uid() that do incremental rollbacks.
I think it's time to merge them. This costs us 8 lines of code :)

Maybe it would be better to merge this patch with the previous one, but I
remember that some time ago I sent a similar patch (fixing the error path and
cleaning it), but I was told to make two patches in such cases.

Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# cf15126b 17-Dec-2007 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

Kobject: convert kernel/user.c to use kobject_init/add_ng()

This converts the code to use the new kobject functions, cleaning up the
logic in doing so.

Cc: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

# 0ff21e46 06-Nov-2007 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

kobject: convert kernel_kset to be a kobject

kernel_kset does not need to be a kset, but a much simpler kobject now
that we have kobj_attributes.

We also rename kernel_kset to kernel_kobj to catch all users of this
symbol with a build error instead of an easy-to-ignore build warning.

Cc: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

# eb41d946 02-Nov-2007 Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>

fix struct user_info export's sysfs interaction

Clean up the use of ksets and kobjects. Kobjects are instances of
objects (like struct user_info), ksets are collections of objects of a
similar type (like the uids directory containing the user_info directories).
So, use kobjects for the user_info directories, and a kset for the "uids"

On object cleanup, the final kobject_put() was missing.

Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

# bd35b93d 29-Oct-2007 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

kset: convert kernel_subsys to use kset_create

Dynamically create the kset instead of declaring it statically. We also
rename kernel_subsys to kernel_kset to catch all users of this symbol
with a build error instead of an easy-to-ignore build warning.

Cc: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>

# 5e8869bb 26-Nov-2007 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

sched: don't forget to unlock uids_mutex on error paths

The commit

commit 5cb350baf580017da38199625b7365b1763d7180
Author: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Date: Mon Oct 15 17:00:14 2007 +0200

sched: group scheduling, sysfs tunables

introduced the uids_mutex and the helpers to lock/unlock it.
Unfortunately, the error paths of alloc_uid() were not patched
to unlock it.

Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Acked-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# a0f846aa 24-Oct-2007 Adrian Bunk <bunk@kernel.org>

sched: make cpu_shares_{show,store}() static

cpu_shares_{show,store}() can become static.

Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <bunk@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 970a8645 17-Oct-2007 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@sw.ru>

user.c: #ifdef ->mq_bytes

For those who deselect POSIX message queues.

Reduces SLAB size of user_struct from 64 to 32 bytes here, SLUB size -- from
40 bytes to 32 bytes.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build]
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@sw.ru>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 40aeb400 17-Oct-2007 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@sw.ru>

user.c: deinline

Save some space because uid_hash_find() has 3 callsites.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@sw.ru>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b1a8c172 17-Oct-2007 Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: fix !SYSFS build breakage

When CONFIG_SYSFS is not set, CONFIG_FAIR_USER_SCHED fails to build

kernel/built-in.o: In function `uids_kobject_init':
(.init.text+0x1488): undefined reference to `kernel_subsys'
kernel/built-in.o: In function `uids_kobject_init':
(.init.text+0x1490): undefined reference to `kernel_subsys'
kernel/built-in.o: In function `uids_kobject_init':
(.init.text+0x1480): undefined reference to `kernel_subsys'
kernel/built-in.o: In function `uids_kobject_init':
(.init.text+0x1494): undefined reference to `kernel_subsys'

This patch fixes this build error.

Signed-off-by: Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# fb7dde37 15-Oct-2007 Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: generate uevents for user creation/destruction

Generate uevents when a user is being created/destroyed. These events
can be used to configure cpu share of a new user.

Signed-off-by: Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 5cb350ba 15-Oct-2007 Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: group scheduling, sysfs tunables

Add tunables in sysfs to modify a user's cpu share.

A directory is created in sysfs for each new user in the system.


Reading this file returns the cpu shares granted for the user.
Writing into this file modifies the cpu share for the user. Only an
administrator is allowed to modify a user's cpu share.

# cd /sys/kernel/uids/
# cat 512/cpu_share
# echo 2048 > 512/cpu_share
# cat 512/cpu_share

Signed-off-by: Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 4cf86d77 15-Oct-2007 Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

sched: cleanup: rename task_grp to task_group

cleanup: rename task_grp to task_group. No need to save two characters
and 'grp' is annoying to read.

Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 24e377a8 15-Oct-2007 Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

sched: add fair-user scheduler

Enable user-id based fair group scheduling. This is useful for anyone
who wants to test the group scheduler w/o having to enable

A separate scheduling group (i.e struct task_grp) is automatically created for
every new user added to the system. Upon uid change for a task, it is made to
move to the corresponding scheduling group.

A /proc tunable (/proc/root_user_share) is also provided to tune root
user's quota of cpu bandwidth.

Signed-off-by: Srivatsa Vaddagiri <vatsa@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

# 28f300d2 18-Sep-2007 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

Fix user namespace exiting OOPs

It turned out, that the user namespace is released during the do_exit() in
exit_task_namespaces(), but the struct user_struct is released only during the
put_task_struct(), i.e. MUCH later.

On debug kernels with poisoned slabs this will cause the oops in
uid_hash_remove() because the head of the chain, which resides inside the
struct user_namespace, will be already freed and poisoned.

Since the uid hash itself is required only when someone can search it, i.e.
when the namespace is alive, we can safely unhash all the user_struct-s from
it during the namespace exiting. The subsequent free_uid() will complete the
user_struct destruction.

For example simple program

#include <sched.h>

char stack[2 * 1024 * 1024];

int f(void *foo)
return 0;

int main(void)
clone(f, stack + 1 * 1024 * 1024, 0x10000000, 0);
return 0;

run on kernel with CONFIG_USER_NS turned on will oops the
kernel immediately.

This was spotted during OpenVZ kernel testing.

Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@openvz.org>
Acked-by: "Serge E. Hallyn" <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 735de223 18-Sep-2007 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

Convert uid hash to hlist

Surprisingly, but (spotted by Alexey Dobriyan) the uid hash still uses
list_heads, thus occupying twice as much place as it could. Convert it to

Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@openvz.org>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d8a4821d 18-Sep-2007 Matthias Kaehlcke <matthias.kaehlcke@gmail.com>

kernel/user.c: Use list_for_each_entry instead of list_for_each

kernel/user.c: Convert list_for_each to list_for_each_entry in

Signed-off-by: Matthias Kaehlcke <matthias.kaehlcke@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 20c2df83 19-Jul-2007 Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org>

mm: Remove slab destructors from kmem_cache_create().

Slab destructors were no longer supported after Christoph's
c59def9f222d44bb7e2f0a559f2906191a0862d7 change. They've been
BUGs for both slab and slub, and slob never supported them

This rips out support for the dtor pointer from kmem_cache_create()
completely and fixes up every single callsite in the kernel (there were
about 224, not including the slab allocator definitions themselves,
or the documentation references).

Signed-off-by: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org>

# acce292c 16-Jul-2007 Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>

user namespace: add the framework

Basically, it will allow a process to unshare its user_struct table,
resetting at the same time its own user_struct and all the associated

A new root user (uid == 0) is added to the user namespace upon creation.
Such root users have full privileges and it seems that theses privileges
should be controlled through some means (process capabilities ?)

The unshare is not included in this patch.

Changes since [try #4]:
- Updated get_user_ns and put_user_ns to accept NULL, and
get_user_ns to return the namespace.

Changes since [try #3]:
- moved struct user_namespace to files user_namespace.{c,h}

Changes since [try #2]:
- removed struct user_namespace* argument from find_user()

Changes since [try #1]:
- removed struct user_namespace* argument from find_user()
- added a root_user per user namespace

Signed-off-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org>
Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at>
Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru>
Cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@sous-sol.org>
Cc: Stephen Smalley <sds@tycho.nsa.gov>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Cc: Andrew Morgan <agm@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# e18b890b 06-Dec-2006 Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>

[PATCH] slab: remove kmem_cache_t

Replace all uses of kmem_cache_t with struct kmem_cache.

The patch was generated using the following script:

# Replace one string by another in all the kernel sources.

set -e

for file in `find * -name "*.c" -o -name "*.h"|xargs grep -l $1`; do
quilt add $file
sed -e "1,\$s/$1/$2/g" $file >/tmp/$$
mv /tmp/$$ $file
quilt refresh

The script was run like this

sh replace kmem_cache_t "struct kmem_cache"

Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# e94b1766 06-Dec-2006 Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>

[PATCH] slab: remove SLAB_KERNEL

SLAB_KERNEL is an alias of GFP_KERNEL.

Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 45c18b0b 04-Nov-2006 Linus Torvalds <torvalds@g5.osdl.org>

Fix unlikely (but possible) race condition on task->user access

There's a possible race condition when doing a "switch_uid()" from one
user to another, which could race with another thread doing a signal
allocation and looking at the old thread ->user pointer as it is freed.

This explains an oops reported by Lukasz Trabinski:

We fix this by delaying the (reference-counted) freeing of the user
structure until the thread signal handler lock has been released, so
that we know that the signal allocation has either seen the new value or
has properly incremented the reference count of the old one.

Race identified by Oleg Nesterov.

Cc: Lukasz Trabinski <lukasz@wsisiz.edu.pl>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@tv-sign.ru>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# d720024e 22-Jun-2006 Michael LeMay <mdlemay@epoch.ncsc.mil>

[PATCH] selinux: add hooks for key subsystem

Introduce SELinux hooks to support the access key retention subsystem
within the kernel. Incorporate new flask headers from a modified version
of the SELinux reference policy, with support for the new security class
representing retained keys. Extend the "key_alloc" security hook with a
task parameter representing the intended ownership context for the key
being allocated. Attach security information to root's default keyrings
within the SELinux initialization routine.

Has passed David's testsuite.

Signed-off-by: Michael LeMay <mdlemay@epoch.ncsc.mil>
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Acked-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@sous-sol.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 2d9048e2 01-Jun-2006 Amy Griffis <amy.griffis@hp.com>

[PATCH] inotify (1/5): split kernel API from userspace support

The following series of patches introduces a kernel API for inotify,
making it possible for kernel modules to benefit from inotify's
mechanism for watching inodes. With these patches, inotify will
maintain for each caller a list of watches (via an embedded struct
inotify_watch), where each inotify_watch is associated with a
corresponding struct inode. The caller registers an event handler and
specifies for which filesystem events their event handler should be
called per inotify_watch.

Signed-off-by: Amy Griffis <amy.griffis@hp.com>
Acked-by: Robert Love <rml@novell.com>
Acked-by: John McCutchan <john@johnmccutchan.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# 36f57413 24-Mar-2006 Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>

[PATCH] free_uid() locking improvement

Reduce lock hold times in free_uid().

Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@us.ibm.com>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 3fa97c9d 31-Jan-2006 Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>

[PATCH] "Fix uidhash_lock <-> RXU deadlock" fix

I get storms of warnings from local_bh_enable(). Better-tested patches,

Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 4021cb27 25-Jan-2006 Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

[PATCH] fix uidhash_lock <-> RCU deadlock

RCU task-struct freeing can call free_uid(), which is taking
uidhash_lock - while other users of uidhash_lock are softirq-unsafe.

The fix is to always take the uidhash_spinlock in a softirq-safe manner.

Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Acked-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 0eeca283 12-Jul-2005 Robert Love <rml@novell.com>

[PATCH] inotify

inotify is intended to correct the deficiencies of dnotify, particularly
its inability to scale and its terrible user interface:

* dnotify requires the opening of one fd per each directory
that you intend to watch. This quickly results in too many
open files and pins removable media, preventing unmount.
* dnotify is directory-based. You only learn about changes to
directories. Sure, a change to a file in a directory affects
the directory, but you are then forced to keep a cache of
stat structures.
* dnotify's interface to user-space is awful. Signals?

inotify provides a more usable, simple, powerful solution to file change

* inotify's interface is a system call that returns a fd, not SIGIO.
You get a single fd, which is select()-able.
* inotify has an event that says "the filesystem that the item
you were watching is on was unmounted."
* inotify can watch directories or files.

Inotify is currently used by Beagle (a desktop search infrastructure),
Gamin (a FAM replacement), and other projects.

See Documentation/filesystems/inotify.txt.

Signed-off-by: Robert Love <rml@novell.com>
Cc: John McCutchan <ttb@tentacle.dhs.org>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 1da177e4 16-Apr-2005 Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>


Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history,
even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git
archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about
3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early
git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good
infrastructure for it.

Let it rip!