History log of /linux-master/kernel/locking/rwsem.c
Revision Date Author Comments
# 48dfb5d2 08-Sep-2022 Gokul krishna Krishnakumar <quic_gokukris@quicinc.com>

locking/rwsem: Disable preemption while trying for rwsem lock

Make the region inside the rwsem_write_trylock non preemptible.

We observe RT task is hogging CPU when trying to acquire rwsem lock
which was acquired by a kworker task but before the rwsem owner was set.

Here is the scenario:
1. CFS task (affined to a particular CPU) takes rwsem lock.

2. CFS task gets preempted by a RT task before setting owner.

3. RT task (FIFO) is trying to acquire the lock, but spinning until
RT throttling happens for the lock as the lock was taken by CFS task.

This patch attempts to fix the above issue by disabling preemption
until owner is set for the lock. While at it also fix the issues
at the places where rwsem_{set,clear}_owner() are called.

This also adds lockdep annotation of preemption disable in
rwsem_{set,clear}_owner() on Peter Z. suggestion.

Signed-off-by: Gokul krishna Krishnakumar <quic_gokukris@quicinc.com>
Signed-off-by: Mukesh Ojha <quic_mojha@quicinc.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/1662661467-24203-1-git-send-email-quic_mojha@quicinc.com


# 6eebd5fb 22-Jun-2022 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Allow slowpath writer to ignore handoff bit if not set by first waiter

With commit d257cc8cb8d5 ("locking/rwsem: Make handoff bit handling more
consistent"), the writer that sets the handoff bit can be interrupted
out without clearing the bit if the wait queue isn't empty. This disables
reader and writer optimistic lock spinning and stealing.

Now if a non-first writer in the queue is somehow woken up or a new
waiter enters the slowpath, it can't acquire the lock. This is not the
case before commit d257cc8cb8d5 as the writer that set the handoff bit
will clear it when exiting out via the out_nolock path. This is less
efficient as the busy rwsem stays in an unlock state for a longer time.

In some cases, this new behavior may cause lockups as shown in [1] and
[2].

This patch allows a non-first writer to ignore the handoff bit if it
is not originally set or initiated by the first waiter. This patch is
shown to be effective in fixing the lockup problem reported in [1].

[1] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20220617134325.GC30825@techsingularity.net/
[2] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/3f02975c-1a9d-be20-32cf-f1d8e3dfafcc@oracle.com/

Fixes: d257cc8cb8d5 ("locking/rwsem: Make handoff bit handling more consistent")
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: John Donnelly <john.p.donnelly@oracle.com>
Tested-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220622200419.778799-1-longman@redhat.com


# ee042be1 22-Mar-2022 Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org>

locking: Apply contention tracepoints in the slow path

Adding the lock contention tracepoints in various lock function slow
paths. Note that each arch can define spinlock differently, I only
added it only to the generic qspinlock for now.

Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Tested-by: Hyeonggon Yoo <42.hyeyoo@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220322185709.141236-3-namhyung@kernel.org


# 1ee32619 22-Mar-2022 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Always try to wake waiters in out_nolock path

For writers, the out_nolock path will always attempt to wake up waiters.
This may not be really necessary if the waiter to be removed is not the
first one.

For readers, no attempt to wake up waiter is being made. However, if
the HANDOFF bit is set and the reader to be removed is the first waiter,
the waiter behind it will inherit the HANDOFF bit and for a write lock
waiter waking it up will allow it to spin on the lock to acquire it
faster. So it can be beneficial to do a wakeup in this case.

Add a new rwsem_del_wake_waiter() helper function to do that consistently
for both reader and writer out_nolock paths.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220322152059.2182333-4-longman@redhat.com


# 54c1ee4d 22-Mar-2022 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Conditionally wake waiters in reader/writer slowpaths

In an analysis of a recent vmcore, a reader-owned rwsem was found with
385 readers but no writer in the wait queue. That is kind of unusual
but it may be caused by some race conditions that we have not fully
understood yet. In such a case, all the readers in the wait queue should
join the other reader-owners and acquire the read lock.

In rwsem_down_write_slowpath(), an incoming writer will try to
wake up the front readers under such circumstance. That is not
the case for rwsem_down_read_slowpath(), add a new helper function
rwsem_cond_wake_waiter() to do wakeup and use it in both reader and
writer slowpaths to have a consistent and correct behavior.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220322152059.2182333-3-longman@redhat.com


# f9e21aa9 22-Mar-2022 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: No need to check for handoff bit if wait queue empty

Since commit d257cc8cb8d5 ("locking/rwsem: Make handoff bit handling
more consistent"), the handoff bit is always cleared if the wait queue
becomes empty. There is no need to check for RWSEM_FLAG_HANDOFF when
the wait list is known to be empty.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220322152059.2182333-2-longman@redhat.com


# c441e934 15-Jan-2022 Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>

locking: Add missing __sched attributes

This patch adds __sched attributes to a few missing places
to show blocked function rather than locking function
in get_wchan.

Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220115231657.84828-1-minchan@kernel.org


# c0bed69d 03-Dec-2021 Kefeng Wang <wangkefeng.wang@huawei.com>

locking: Make owner_on_cpu() into <linux/sched.h>

Move the owner_on_cpu() from kernel/locking/rwsem.c into
include/linux/sched.h with under CONFIG_SMP, then use it
in the mutex/rwsem/rtmutex to simplify the code.

Signed-off-by: Kefeng Wang <wangkefeng.wang@huawei.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211203075935.136808-2-wangkefeng.wang@huawei.com


# 14c24048 18-Nov-2021 Muchun Song <songmuchun@bytedance.com>

locking/rwsem: Optimize down_read_trylock() under highly contended case

We found that a process with 10 thousnads threads has been encountered
a regression problem from Linux-v4.14 to Linux-v5.4. It is a kind of
workload which will concurrently allocate lots of memory in different
threads sometimes. In this case, we will see the down_read_trylock()
with a high hotspot. Therefore, we suppose that rwsem has a regression
at least since Linux-v5.4. In order to easily debug this problem, we
write a simply benchmark to create the similar situation lile the
following.

```c++
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sched.h>

#include <cstdio>
#include <cassert>
#include <thread>
#include <vector>
#include <chrono>

volatile int mutex;

void trigger(int cpu, char* ptr, std::size_t sz)
{
cpu_set_t set;
CPU_ZERO(&set);
CPU_SET(cpu, &set);
assert(pthread_setaffinity_np(pthread_self(), sizeof(set), &set) == 0);

while (mutex);

for (std::size_t i = 0; i < sz; i += 4096) {
*ptr = '\0';
ptr += 4096;
}
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
std::size_t sz = 100;

if (argc > 1)
sz = atoi(argv[1]);

auto nproc = std::thread::hardware_concurrency();
std::vector<std::thread> thr;
sz <<= 30;
auto* ptr = mmap(nullptr, sz, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_ANON |
MAP_PRIVATE, -1, 0);
assert(ptr != MAP_FAILED);
char* cptr = static_cast<char*>(ptr);
auto run = sz / nproc;
run = (run >> 12) << 12;

mutex = 1;

for (auto i = 0U; i < nproc; ++i) {
thr.emplace_back(std::thread([i, cptr, run]() { trigger(i, cptr, run); }));
cptr += run;
}

rusage usage_start;
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &usage_start);
auto start = std::chrono::system_clock::now();

mutex = 0;

for (auto& t : thr)
t.join();

rusage usage_end;
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &usage_end);
auto end = std::chrono::system_clock::now();
timeval utime;
timeval stime;
timersub(&usage_end.ru_utime, &usage_start.ru_utime, &utime);
timersub(&usage_end.ru_stime, &usage_start.ru_stime, &stime);
printf("usr: %ld.%06ld\n", utime.tv_sec, utime.tv_usec);
printf("sys: %ld.%06ld\n", stime.tv_sec, stime.tv_usec);
printf("real: %lu\n",
std::chrono::duration_cast<std::chrono::milliseconds>(end -
start).count());

return 0;
}
```

The functionality of above program is simply which creates `nproc`
threads and each of them are trying to touch memory (trigger page
fault) on different CPU. Then we will see the similar profile by
`perf top`.

25.55% [kernel] [k] down_read_trylock
14.78% [kernel] [k] handle_mm_fault
13.45% [kernel] [k] up_read
8.61% [kernel] [k] clear_page_erms
3.89% [kernel] [k] __do_page_fault

The highest hot instruction, which accounts for about 92%, in
down_read_trylock() is cmpxchg like the following.

91.89 │ lock cmpxchg %rdx,(%rdi)

Sice the problem is found by migrating from Linux-v4.14 to Linux-v5.4,
so we easily found that the commit ddb20d1d3aed ("locking/rwsem: Optimize
down_read_trylock()") caused the regression. The reason is that the
commit assumes the rwsem is not contended at all. But it is not always
true for mmap lock which could be contended with thousands threads.
So most threads almost need to run at least 2 times of "cmpxchg" to
acquire the lock. The overhead of atomic operation is higher than
non-atomic instructions, which caused the regression.

By using the above benchmark, the real executing time on a x86-64 system
before and after the patch were:

Before Patch After Patch
# of Threads real real reduced by
------------ ------ ------ ----------
1 65,373 65,206 ~0.0%
4 15,467 15,378 ~0.5%
40 6,214 5,528 ~11.0%

For the uncontended case, the new down_read_trylock() is the same as
before. For the contended cases, the new down_read_trylock() is faster
than before. The more contended, the more fast.

Signed-off-by: Muchun Song <songmuchun@bytedance.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211118094455.9068-1-songmuchun@bytedance.com


# d257cc8c 15-Nov-2021 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Make handoff bit handling more consistent

There are some inconsistency in the way that the handoff bit is being
handled in readers and writers that lead to a race condition.

Firstly, when a queue head writer set the handoff bit, it will clear
it when the writer is being killed or interrupted on its way out
without acquiring the lock. That is not the case for a queue head
reader. The handoff bit will simply be inherited by the next waiter.

Secondly, in the out_nolock path of rwsem_down_read_slowpath(), both
the waiter and handoff bits are cleared if the wait queue becomes
empty. For rwsem_down_write_slowpath(), however, the handoff bit is
not checked and cleared if the wait queue is empty. This can
potentially make the handoff bit set with empty wait queue.

Worse, the situation in rwsem_down_write_slowpath() relies on wstate,
a variable set outside of the critical section containing the ->count
manipulation, this leads to race condition where RWSEM_FLAG_HANDOFF
can be double subtracted, corrupting ->count.

To make the handoff bit handling more consistent and robust, extract
out handoff bit clearing code into the new rwsem_del_waiter() helper
function. Also, completely eradicate wstate; always evaluate
everything inside the same critical section.

The common function will only use atomic_long_andnot() to clear bits
when the wait queue is empty to avoid possible race condition. If the
first waiter with handoff bit set is killed or interrupted to exit the
slowpath without acquiring the lock, the next waiter will inherit the
handoff bit.

While at it, simplify the trylock for loop in
rwsem_down_write_slowpath() to make it easier to read.

Fixes: 4f23dbc1e657 ("locking/rwsem: Implement lock handoff to prevent lock starvation")
Reported-by: Zhenhua Ma <mazhenhua@xiaomi.com>
Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20211116012912.723980-1-longman@redhat.com


# 5197fcd0 13-Oct-2021 Yanfei Xu <yanfei.xu@windriver.com>

locking/rwsem: Fix comments about reader optimistic lock stealing conditions

After the commit 617f3ef95177 ("locking/rwsem: Remove reader
optimistic spinning"), reader doesn't support optimistic spinning
anymore, there is no need meet the condition which OSQ is empty.

BTW, add an unlikely() for the max reader wakeup check in the loop.

Signed-off-by: Yanfei Xu <yanfei.xu@windriver.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211013134154.1085649-4-yanfei.xu@windriver.com


# 6c2787f2 13-Oct-2021 Yanfei Xu <yanfei.xu@windriver.com>

locking: Remove rcu_read_{,un}lock() for preempt_{dis,en}able()

preempt_disable/enable() is equal to RCU read-side crital section, and
the spinning codes in mutex and rwsem could ensure that the preemption
is disabled. So let's remove the unnecessary rcu_read_lock/unlock for
saving some cycles in hot codes.

Signed-off-by: Yanfei Xu <yanfei.xu@windriver.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211013134154.1085649-2-yanfei.xu@windriver.com


# 7cdacc5f 13-Oct-2021 Yanfei Xu <yanfei.xu@windriver.com>

locking/rwsem: Disable preemption for spinning region

The spinning region rwsem_spin_on_owner() should not be preempted,
however the rwsem_down_write_slowpath() invokes it and don't disable
preemption. Fix it by adding a pair of preempt_disable/enable().

Signed-off-by: Yanfei Xu <yanfei.xu@windriver.com>
[peterz: Fix CONFIG_RWSEM_SPIN_ON_OWNER=n build]
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211013134154.1085649-3-yanfei.xu@windriver.com


# 15eb7c88 31-Aug-2021 Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>

locking/rwsem: Add missing __init_rwsem() for PREEMPT_RT

730633f0b7f95 became the first direct caller of __init_rwsem() vs the
usual init_rwsem(), exposing PREEMPT_RT's lack thereof. Add it.

[ tglx: Move it out of line ]

Signed-off-by: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/50a936b7d8f12277d6ec7ed2ef0421a381056909.camel@gmx.de


# add46132 15-Aug-2021 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/rtmutex: Extend the rtmutex core to support ww_mutex

Add a ww acquire context pointer to the waiter and various functions and
add the ww_mutex related invocations to the proper spots in the locking
code, similar to the mutex based variant.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210815211304.966139174@linutronix.de


# e17ba59b 15-Aug-2021 Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

locking/rtmutex: Guard regular sleeping locks specific functions

Guard the regular sleeping lock specific functionality, which is used for
rtmutex on non-RT enabled kernels and for mutex, rtmutex and semaphores on
RT enabled kernels so the code can be reused for the RT specific
implementation of spinlocks and rwlocks in a different compilation unit.

No functional change.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210815211303.311535693@linutronix.de


# 42254105 15-Aug-2021 Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

locking/rwsem: Add rtmutex based R/W semaphore implementation

The RT specific R/W semaphore implementation used to restrict the number of
readers to one, because a writer cannot block on multiple readers and
inherit its priority or budget.

The single reader restricting was painful in various ways:

- Performance bottleneck for multi-threaded applications in the page fault
path (mmap sem)

- Progress blocker for drivers which are carefully crafted to avoid the
potential reader/writer deadlock in mainline.

The analysis of the writer code paths shows that properly written RT tasks
should not take them. Syscalls like mmap(), file access which take mmap sem
write locked have unbound latencies, which are completely unrelated to mmap
sem. Other R/W sem users like graphics drivers are not suitable for RT tasks
either.

So there is little risk to hurt RT tasks when the RT rwsem implementation is
done in the following way:

- Allow concurrent readers

- Make writers block until the last reader left the critical section. This
blocking is not subject to priority/budget inheritance.

- Readers blocked on a writer inherit their priority/budget in the normal
way.

There is a drawback with this scheme: R/W semaphores become writer unfair
though the applications which have triggered writer starvation (mostly on
mmap_sem) in the past are not really the typical workloads running on a RT
system. So while it's unlikely to hit writer starvation, it's possible. If
there are unexpected workloads on RT systems triggering it, the problem
has to be revisited.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210815211303.016885947@linutronix.de


# d4e5076c 05-Jul-2021 xuyehan <xuyehan@xiaomi.com>

locking/rwsem: Remove an unused parameter of rwsem_wake()

The 2nd parameter 'count' is not used in this function.
The places where the function is called are also modified.

Signed-off-by: xuyehan <xuyehan@xiaomi.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/1625547043-28103-1-git-send-email-yehanxu1@gmail.com


# 2f064a59 11-Jun-2021 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

sched: Change task_struct::state

Change the type and name of task_struct::state. Drop the volatile and
shrink it to an 'unsigned int'. Rename it in order to find all uses
such that we can use READ_ONCE/WRITE_ONCE as appropriate.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Daniel Bristot de Oliveira <bristot@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210611082838.550736351@infradead.org


# e2db7592 21-Mar-2021 Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

locking: Fix typos in comments

Fix ~16 single-word typos in locking code comments.

Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 4faf62b1 16-Mar-2021 Bhaskar Chowdhury <unixbhaskar@gmail.com>

locking/rwsem: Fix comment typo

s/folowing/following/

Signed-off-by: Bhaskar Chowdhury <unixbhaskar@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210317041806.4096156-1-unixbhaskar@gmail.com


# c034f48e 25-Feb-2021 Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>

kernel: delete repeated words in comments

Drop repeated words in kernel/events/.
{if, the, that, with, time}

Drop repeated words in kernel/locking/.
{it, no, the}

Drop repeated words in kernel/sched/.
{in, not}

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210127023412.26292-1-rdunlap@infradead.org
Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org> [kernel/locking/]
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@kernel.org>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>
Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@kernel.org>
Cc: Juri Lelli <juri.lelli@redhat.com>
Cc: Vincent Guittot <vincent.guittot@linaro.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 617f3ef9 20-Nov-2020 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Remove reader optimistic spinning

Reader optimistic spinning is helpful when the reader critical section
is short and there aren't that many readers around. It also improves
the chance that a reader can get the lock as writer optimistic spinning
disproportionally favors writers much more than readers.

Since commit d3681e269fff ("locking/rwsem: Wake up almost all readers
in wait queue"), all the waiting readers are woken up so that they can
all get the read lock and run in parallel. When the number of contending
readers is large, allowing reader optimistic spinning will likely cause
reader fragmentation where multiple smaller groups of readers can get
the read lock in a sequential manner separated by writers. That reduces
reader parallelism.

One possible way to address that drawback is to limit the number of
readers (preferably one) that can do optimistic spinning. These readers
act as representatives of all the waiting readers in the wait queue as
they will wake up all those waiting readers once they get the lock.

Alternatively, as reader optimistic lock stealing has already enhanced
fairness to readers, it may be easier to just remove reader optimistic
spinning and simplifying the optimistic spinning code as a result.

Performance measurements (locking throughput kops/s) using a locking
microbenchmark with 50/50 reader/writer distribution and turbo-boost
disabled was done on a 2-socket Cascade Lake system (48-core 96-thread)
to see the impacts of these changes:

1) Vanilla - 5.10-rc3 kernel
2) Before - 5.10-rc3 kernel with previous patches in this series
2) limit-rspin - 5.10-rc3 kernel with limited reader spinning patch
3) no-rspin - 5.10-rc3 kernel with reader spinning disabled

# of threads CS Load Vanilla Before limit-rspin no-rspin
------------ ------- ------- ------ ----------- --------
2 1 5,185 5,662 5,214 5,077
4 1 5,107 4,983 5,188 4,760
8 1 4,782 4,564 4,720 4,628
16 1 4,680 4,053 4,567 3,402
32 1 4,299 1,115 1,118 1,098
64 1 3,218 983 1,001 957
96 1 1,938 944 957 930

2 20 2,008 2,128 2,264 1,665
4 20 1,390 1,033 1,046 1,101
8 20 1,472 1,155 1,098 1,213
16 20 1,332 1,077 1,089 1,122
32 20 967 914 917 980
64 20 787 874 891 858
96 20 730 836 847 844

2 100 372 356 360 355
4 100 492 425 434 392
8 100 533 537 529 538
16 100 548 572 568 598
32 100 499 520 527 537
64 100 466 517 526 512
96 100 406 497 506 509

The column "CS Load" represents the number of pause instructions issued
in the locking critical section. A CS load of 1 is extremely short and
is not likey in real situations. A load of 20 (moderate) and 100 (long)
are more realistic.

It can be seen that the previous patches in this series have reduced
performance in general except in highly contended cases with moderate
or long critical sections that performance improves a bit. This change
is mostly caused by the "Prevent potential lock starvation" patch that
reduce reader optimistic spinning and hence reduce reader fragmentation.

The patch that further limit reader optimistic spinning doesn't seem to
have too much impact on overall performance as shown in the benchmark
data.

The patch that disables reader optimistic spinning shows reduced
performance at lightly loaded cases, but comparable or slightly better
performance on with heavier contention.

This patch just removes reader optimistic spinning for now. As readers
are not going to do optimistic spinning anymore, we don't need to
consider if the OSQ is empty or not when doing lock stealing.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201121041416.12285-6-longman@redhat.com


# 1a728dff 20-Nov-2020 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Enable reader optimistic lock stealing

If the optimistic spinning queue is empty and the rwsem does not have
the handoff or write-lock bits set, it is actually not necessary to
call rwsem_optimistic_spin() to spin on it. Instead, it can steal the
lock directly as its reader bias is in the count already. If it is
the first reader in this state, it will try to wake up other readers
in the wait queue.

With this patch applied, the following were the lock event counts
after rebooting a 2-socket system and a "make -j96" kernel rebuild.

rwsem_opt_rlock=4437
rwsem_rlock=29
rwsem_rlock_steal=19

So lock stealing represents about 0.4% of all the read locks acquired
in the slow path.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201121041416.12285-4-longman@redhat.com


# 2f06f702 20-Nov-2020 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Prevent potential lock starvation

The lock handoff bit is added in commit 4f23dbc1e657 ("locking/rwsem:
Implement lock handoff to prevent lock starvation") to avoid lock
starvation. However, allowing readers to do optimistic spinning does
introduce an unlikely scenario where lock starvation can happen.

The lock handoff bit may only be set when a waiter is being woken up.
In the case of reader unlock, wakeup happens only when the reader count
reaches 0. If there is a continuous stream of incoming readers acquiring
read lock via optimistic spinning, it is possible that the reader count
may never reach 0 and so the handoff bit will never be asserted.

One way to prevent this scenario from happening is to disallow optimistic
spinning if the rwsem is currently owned by readers. If the previous
or current owner is a writer, optimistic spinning will be allowed.

If the previous owner is a reader but the reader count has reached 0
before, a wakeup should have been issued. So the handoff mechanism
will be kicked in to prevent lock starvation. As a result, it should
be OK to do optimistic spinning in this case.

This patch may have some impact on reader performance as it reduces
reader optimistic spinning especially if the lock critical sections
are short the number of contending readers are small.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201121041416.12285-3-longman@redhat.com


# c8fe8b05 20-Nov-2020 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Pass the current atomic count to rwsem_down_read_slowpath()

The atomic count value right after reader count increment can be useful
to determine the rwsem state at trylock time. So the count value is
passed down to rwsem_down_read_slowpath() to be used when appropriate.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201121041416.12285-2-longman@redhat.com


# c995e638 08-Dec-2020 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/rwsem: Fold __down_{read,write}*()

There's a lot needless duplication in __down_{read,write}*(), cure
that with a helper.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201207090243.GE3040@hirez.programming.kicks-ass.net


# 285c61ae 08-Dec-2020 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/rwsem: Introduce rwsem_write_trylock()

One copy of this logic is better than three.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201207090243.GE3040@hirez.programming.kicks-ass.net


# 3379116a 08-Dec-2020 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/rwsem: Better collate rwsem_read_trylock()

All users of rwsem_read_trylock() do rwsem_set_reader_owned(sem) on
success, move it into rwsem_read_trylock() proper.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201207090243.GE3040@hirez.programming.kicks-ass.net


# 31784cff 03-Dec-2020 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

rwsem: Implement down_read_interruptible

In preparation for converting exec_update_mutex to a rwsem so that
multiple readers can execute in parallel and not deadlock, add
down_read_interruptible. This is needed for perf_event_open to be
converted (with no semantic changes) from working on a mutex to
wroking on a rwsem.

Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/87k0tybqfy.fsf@x220.int.ebiederm.org


# 0f9368b5 03-Dec-2020 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

rwsem: Implement down_read_killable_nested

In preparation for converting exec_update_mutex to a rwsem so that
multiple readers can execute in parallel and not deadlock, add
down_read_killable_nested. This is needed so that kcmp_lock
can be converted from working on a mutexes to working on rw_semaphores.

Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/87o8jabqh3.fsf@x220.int.ebiederm.org


# de8f5e4f 20-Mar-2020 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

lockdep: Introduce wait-type checks

Extend lockdep to validate lock wait-type context.

The current wait-types are:

LD_WAIT_FREE, /* wait free, rcu etc.. */
LD_WAIT_SPIN, /* spin loops, raw_spinlock_t etc.. */
LD_WAIT_CONFIG, /* CONFIG_PREEMPT_LOCK, spinlock_t etc.. */
LD_WAIT_SLEEP, /* sleeping locks, mutex_t etc.. */

Where lockdep validates that the current lock (the one being acquired)
fits in the current wait-context (as generated by the held stack).

This ensures that there is no attempt to acquire mutexes while holding
spinlocks, to acquire spinlocks while holding raw_spinlocks and so on. In
other words, its a more fancy might_sleep().

Obviously RCU made the entire ordeal more complex than a simple single
value test because RCU can be acquired in (pretty much) any context and
while it presents a context to nested locks it is not the same as it
got acquired in.

Therefore its necessary to split the wait_type into two values, one
representing the acquire (outer) and one representing the nested context
(inner). For most 'normal' locks these two are the same.

[ To make static initialization easier we have the rule that:
.outer == INV means .outer == .inner; because INV == 0. ]

It further means that its required to find the minimal .inner of the held
stack to compare against the outer of the new lock; because while 'normal'
RCU presents a CONFIG type to nested locks, if it is taken while already
holding a SPIN type it obviously doesn't relax the rules.

Below is an example output generated by the trivial test code:

raw_spin_lock(&foo);
spin_lock(&bar);
spin_unlock(&bar);
raw_spin_unlock(&foo);

[ BUG: Invalid wait context ]
-----------------------------
swapper/0/1 is trying to lock:
ffffc90000013f20 (&bar){....}-{3:3}, at: kernel_init+0xdb/0x187
other info that might help us debug this:
1 lock held by swapper/0/1:
#0: ffffc90000013ee0 (&foo){+.+.}-{2:2}, at: kernel_init+0xd1/0x187

The way to read it is to look at the new -{n,m} part in the lock
description; -{3:3} for the attempted lock, and try and match that up to
the held locks, which in this case is the one: -{2,2}.

This tells that the acquiring lock requires a more relaxed environment than
presented by the lock stack.

Currently only the normal locks and RCU are converted, the rest of the
lockdep users defaults to .inner = INV which is ignored. More conversions
can be done when desired.

The check for spinlock_t nesting is not enabled by default. It's a separate
config option for now as there are known problems which are currently
addressed. The config option allows to identify these problems and to
verify that the solutions found are indeed solving them.

The config switch will be removed and the checks will permanently enabled
once the vast majority of issues has been addressed.

[ bigeasy: Move LD_WAIT_FREE,… out of CONFIG_LOCKDEP to avoid compile
failure with CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK + !CONFIG_LOCKDEP]
[ tglx: Add the config option ]

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200321113242.427089655@linutronix.de


# bcba67cd 04-Feb-2020 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/rwsem: Remove RWSEM_OWNER_UNKNOWN

Remove the now unused RWSEM_OWNER_UNKNOWN hack. This hack breaks
PREEMPT_RT and getting rid of it was the entire motivation for
re-writing the percpu rwsem.

The biggest problem is that it is fundamentally incompatible with any
form of Priority Inheritance, any exclusively held lock must have a
distinct owner.

Requested-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Juri Lelli <juri.lelli@redhat.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200204092228.GP14946@hirez.programming.kicks-ass.net


# 7f26482a 30-Oct-2019 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/percpu-rwsem: Remove the embedded rwsem

The filesystem freezer uses percpu-rwsem in a way that is effectively
write_non_owner() and achieves this with a few horrible hacks that
rely on the rwsem (!percpu) implementation.

When PREEMPT_RT replaces the rwsem implementation with a PI aware
variant this comes apart.

Remove the embedded rwsem and implement it using a waitqueue and an
atomic_t.

- make readers_block an atomic, and use it, with the waitqueue
for a blocking test-and-set write-side.

- have the read-side wait for the 'lock' state to clear.

Have the waiters use FIFO queueing and mark them (reader/writer) with
a new WQ_FLAG. Use a custom wake_function to wake either a single
writer or all readers until a writer.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Juri Lelli <juri.lelli@redhat.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200204092403.GB14879@hirez.programming.kicks-ass.net


# 1751060e 30-Oct-2019 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/percpu-rwsem, lockdep: Make percpu-rwsem use its own lockdep_map

As preparation for replacing the embedded rwsem, give percpu-rwsem its
own lockdep_map.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Tested-by: Juri Lelli <juri.lelli@redhat.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200131151539.927625541@infradead.org


# 39e7234f 15-Jan-2020 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Fix kernel crash when spinning on RWSEM_OWNER_UNKNOWN

The commit 91d2a812dfb9 ("locking/rwsem: Make handoff writer
optimistically spin on owner") will allow a recently woken up waiting
writer to spin on the owner. Unfortunately, if the owner happens to be
RWSEM_OWNER_UNKNOWN, the code will incorrectly spin on it leading to a
kernel crash. This is fixed by passing the proper non-spinnable bits
to rwsem_spin_on_owner() so that RWSEM_OWNER_UNKNOWN will be treated
as a non-spinnable target.

Fixes: 91d2a812dfb9 ("locking/rwsem: Make handoff writer optimistically spin on owner")

Reported-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Tested-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200115154336.8679-1-longman@redhat.com


# 5facae4f 18-Sep-2019 Qian Cai <cai@lca.pw>

locking/lockdep: Remove unused @nested argument from lock_release()

Since the following commit:

b4adfe8e05f1 ("locking/lockdep: Remove unused argument in __lock_release")

@nested is no longer used in lock_release(), so remove it from all
lock_release() calls and friends.

Signed-off-by: Qian Cai <cai@lca.pw>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Vetter <daniel.vetter@ffwll.ch>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: airlied@linux.ie
Cc: akpm@linux-foundation.org
Cc: alexander.levin@microsoft.com
Cc: daniel@iogearbox.net
Cc: davem@davemloft.net
Cc: dri-devel@lists.freedesktop.org
Cc: duyuyang@gmail.com
Cc: gregkh@linuxfoundation.org
Cc: hannes@cmpxchg.org
Cc: intel-gfx@lists.freedesktop.org
Cc: jack@suse.com
Cc: jlbec@evilplan.or
Cc: joonas.lahtinen@linux.intel.com
Cc: joseph.qi@linux.alibaba.com
Cc: jslaby@suse.com
Cc: juri.lelli@redhat.com
Cc: maarten.lankhorst@linux.intel.com
Cc: mark@fasheh.com
Cc: mhocko@kernel.org
Cc: mripard@kernel.org
Cc: ocfs2-devel@oss.oracle.com
Cc: rodrigo.vivi@intel.com
Cc: sean@poorly.run
Cc: st@kernel.org
Cc: tj@kernel.org
Cc: tytso@mit.edu
Cc: vdavydov.dev@gmail.com
Cc: vincent.guittot@linaro.org
Cc: viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/1568909380-32199-1-git-send-email-cai@lca.pw
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# fce45cd4 28-Jul-2019 Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>

locking/rwsem: Check for operations on an uninitialized rwsem

Currently rwsems is the only locking primitive that lacks this
debug feature. Add it under CONFIG_DEBUG_RWSEMS and do the magic
checking in the locking fastpath (trylock) operation such that
we cover all cases. The unlocking part is pretty straightforward.

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Cc: mingo@kernel.org
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190729044735.9632-1-dave@stgolabs.net


# 91d2a812 25-Jun-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Make handoff writer optimistically spin on owner

When the handoff bit is set by a writer, no other tasks other than
the setting writer itself is allowed to acquire the lock. If the
to-be-handoff'ed writer goes to sleep, there will be a wakeup latency
period where the lock is free, but no one can acquire it. That is less
than ideal.

To reduce that latency, the handoff writer will now optimistically spin
on the owner if it happens to be a on-cpu writer. It will spin until
it releases the lock and the to-be-handoff'ed writer can then acquire
the lock immediately without any delay. Of course, if the owner is not
a on-cpu writer, the to-be-handoff'ed writer will have to sleep anyway.

The optimistic spinning code is also modified to not stop spinning
when the handoff bit is set. This will prevent an occasional setting of
handoff bit from causing a bunch of optimistic spinners from entering
into the wait queue causing significant reduction in throughput.

On a 1-socket 22-core 44-thread Skylake system, the AIM7 shared_memory
workload was run with 7000 users. The throughput (jobs/min) of the
following kernels were as follows:

1) 5.2-rc6
- 8,092,486
2) 5.2-rc6 + tip's rwsem patches
- 7,567,568
3) 5.2-rc6 + tip's rwsem patches + this patch
- 7,954,545

Using perf-record(1), the %cpu time used by rwsem_down_write_slowpath(),
rwsem_down_write_failed() and their callees for the 3 kernels were 1.70%,
5.46% and 2.08% respectively.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: x86@kernel.org
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190625143913.24154-1-longman@redhat.com


# 6ffddfb9 18-Jul-2019 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking/rwsem: Add ACQUIRE comments

Since we just reviewed read_slowpath for ACQUIRE correctness, add a
few coments to retain our findings.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 99143f82 18-Jul-2019 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

lcoking/rwsem: Add missing ACQUIRE to read_slowpath sleep loop

While reviewing another read_slowpath patch, both Will and I noticed
another missing ACQUIRE, namely:

X = 0;

CPU0 CPU1

rwsem_down_read()
for (;;) {
set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);

X = 1;
rwsem_up_write();
rwsem_mark_wake()
atomic_long_add(adjustment, &sem->count);
smp_store_release(&waiter->task, NULL);

if (!waiter.task)
break;

...
}

r = X;

Allows 'r == 0'.

Reported-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reported-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: 1da177e4c3f4 ("Linux-2.6.12-rc2")
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# e1b98fa3 18-Jul-2019 Jan Stancek <jstancek@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Add missing ACQUIRE to read_slowpath exit when queue is empty

LTP mtest06 has been observed to occasionally hit "still mapped when
deleted" and following BUG_ON on arm64.

The extra mapcount originated from pagefault handler, which handled
pagefault for vma that has already been detached. vma is detached
under mmap_sem write lock by detach_vmas_to_be_unmapped(), which
also invalidates vmacache.

When the pagefault handler (under mmap_sem read lock) calls
find_vma(), vmacache_valid() wrongly reports vmacache as valid.

After rwsem down_read() returns via 'queue empty' path (as of v5.2),
it does so without an ACQUIRE on sem->count:

down_read()
__down_read()
rwsem_down_read_failed()
__rwsem_down_read_failed_common()
raw_spin_lock_irq(&sem->wait_lock);
if (list_empty(&sem->wait_list)) {
if (atomic_long_read(&sem->count) >= 0) {
raw_spin_unlock_irq(&sem->wait_lock);
return sem;

The problem can be reproduced by running LTP mtest06 in a loop and
building the kernel (-j $NCPUS) in parallel. It does reproduces since
v4.20 on arm64 HPE Apollo 70 (224 CPUs, 256GB RAM, 2 nodes). It
triggers reliably in about an hour.

The patched kernel ran fine for 10+ hours.

Signed-off-by: Jan Stancek <jstancek@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: dbueso@suse.de
Fixes: 4b486b535c33 ("locking/rwsem: Exit read lock slowpath if queue empty & no writer")
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/50b8914e20d1d62bb2dee42d342836c2c16ebee7.1563438048.git.jstancek@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 78134300 20-Jul-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Don't call owner_on_cpu() on read-owner

For writer, the owner value is cleared on unlock. For reader, it is
left intact on unlock for providing better debugging aid on crash dump
and the unlock of one reader may not mean the lock is free.

As a result, the owner_on_cpu() shouldn't be used on read-owner
as the task pointer value may not be valid and it might have
been freed. That is the case in rwsem_spin_on_owner(), but not in
rwsem_can_spin_on_owner(). This can lead to use-after-free error from
KASAN. For example,

BUG: KASAN: use-after-free in rwsem_down_write_slowpath
(/home/miguel/kernel/linux/kernel/locking/rwsem.c:669
/home/miguel/kernel/linux/kernel/locking/rwsem.c:1125)

Fix this by checking for RWSEM_READER_OWNED flag before calling
owner_on_cpu().

Reported-by: Luis Henriques <lhenriques@suse.com>
Tested-by: Luis Henriques <lhenriques@suse.com>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Fixes: 94a9717b3c40e ("locking/rwsem: Make rwsem->owner an atomic_long_t")
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/81e82d5b-5074-77e8-7204-28479bbe0df0@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# a15ea1a3 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Guard against making count negative

The upper bits of the count field is used as reader count. When
sufficient number of active readers are present, the most significant
bit will be set and the count becomes negative. If the number of active
readers keep on piling up, we may eventually overflow the reader counts.
This is not likely to happen unless the number of bits reserved for
reader count is reduced because those bits are need for other purpose.

To prevent this count overflow from happening, the most significant
bit is now treated as a guard bit (RWSEM_FLAG_READFAIL). Read-lock
attempts will now fail for both the fast and slow paths whenever this
bit is set. So all those extra readers will be put to sleep in the wait
list. Wakeup will not happen until the reader count reaches 0.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-17-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 5cfd92e1 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Adaptive disabling of reader optimistic spinning

Reader optimistic spinning is helpful when the reader critical section
is short and there aren't that many readers around. It makes readers
relatively more preferred than writers. When a writer times out spinning
on a reader-owned lock and set the nospinnable bits, there are two main
reasons for that.

1) The reader critical section is long, perhaps the task sleeps after
acquiring the read lock.
2) There are just too many readers contending the lock causing it to
take a while to service all of them.

In the former case, long reader critical section will impede the progress
of writers which is usually more important for system performance.
In the later case, reader optimistic spinning tends to make the reader
groups that contain readers that acquire the lock together smaller
leading to more of them. That may hurt performance in some cases. In
other words, the setting of nonspinnable bits indicates that reader
optimistic spinning may not be helpful for those workloads that cause it.

Therefore, any writers that have observed the setting of the writer
nonspinnable bit for a given rwsem after they fail to acquire the lock
via optimistic spinning will set the reader nonspinnable bit once they
acquire the write lock. Similarly, readers that observe the setting
of reader nonspinnable bit at slowpath entry will also set the reader
nonspinnable bit when they acquire the read lock via the wakeup path.

Once the reader nonspinnable bit is on, it will only be reset when
a writer is able to acquire the rwsem in the fast path or somehow a
reader or writer in the slowpath doesn't observe the nonspinable bit.

This is to discourage reader optmistic spinning on that particular
rwsem and make writers more preferred. This adaptive disabling of reader
optimistic spinning will alleviate some of the negative side effect of
this feature.

In addition, this patch tries to make readers in the spinning queue
follow the phase-fair principle after quitting optimistic spinning
by checking if another reader has somehow acquired a read lock after
this reader enters the optimistic spinning queue. If so and the rwsem
is still reader-owned, this reader is in the right read-phase and can
attempt to acquire the lock.

On a 2-socket 40-core 80-thread Skylake system, the page_fault1 test of
the will-it-scale benchmark was run with various number of threads. The
number of operations done before reader optimistic spinning patches,
this patch and after this patch were:

Threads Before rspin Before patch After patch %change
------- ------------ ------------ ----------- -------
20 5541068 5345484 5455667 -3.5%/ +2.1%
40 10185150 7292313 9219276 -28.5%/+26.4%
60 8196733 6460517 7181209 -21.2%/+11.2%
80 9508864 6739559 8107025 -29.1%/+20.3%

This patch doesn't recover all the lost performance, but it is more
than half. Given the fact that reader optimistic spinning does benefit
some workloads, this is a good compromise.

Using the rwsem locking microbenchmark with very short critical section,
this patch doesn't have too much impact on locking performance as shown
by the locking rates (kops/s) below with equal numbers of readers and
writers before and after this patch:

# of Threads Pre-patch Post-patch
------------ --------- ----------
2 4,730 4,969
4 4,814 4,786
8 4,866 4,815
16 4,715 4,511
32 3,338 3,500
64 3,212 3,389
80 3,110 3,044

When running the locking microbenchmark with 40 dedicated reader and writer
threads, however, the reader performance is curtailed to favor the writer.

Before patch:

40 readers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 204,026/234,309/254,816
40 writers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 88,515/95,884/115,644

After patch:

40 readers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 33,813/35,260/36,791
40 writers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 95,368/96,565/97,798

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-16-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 7d43f1ce 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Enable time-based spinning on reader-owned rwsem

When the rwsem is owned by reader, writers stop optimistic spinning
simply because there is no easy way to figure out if all the readers
are actively running or not. However, there are scenarios where
the readers are unlikely to sleep and optimistic spinning can help
performance.

This patch provides a simple mechanism for spinning on a reader-owned
rwsem by a writer. It is a time threshold based spinning where the
allowable spinning time can vary from 10us to 25us depending on the
condition of the rwsem.

When the time threshold is exceeded, the nonspinnable bits will be set
in the owner field to indicate that no more optimistic spinning will
be allowed on this rwsem until it becomes writer owned again. Not even
readers is allowed to acquire the reader-locked rwsem by optimistic
spinning for fairness.

We also want a writer to acquire the lock after the readers hold the
lock for a relatively long time. In order to give preference to writers
under such a circumstance, the single RWSEM_NONSPINNABLE bit is now split
into two - one for reader and one for writer. When optimistic spinning
is disabled, both bits will be set. When the reader count drop down
to 0, the writer nonspinnable bit will be cleared to allow writers to
spin on the lock, but not the readers. When a writer acquires the lock,
it will write its own task structure pointer into sem->owner and clear
the reader nonspinnable bit in the process.

The time taken for each iteration of the reader-owned rwsem spinning
loop varies. Below are sample minimum elapsed times for 16 iterations
of the loop.

System Time for 16 Iterations
------ ----------------------
1-socket Skylake ~800ns
4-socket Broadwell ~300ns
2-socket ThunderX2 (arm64) ~250ns

When the lock cacheline is contended, we can see up to almost 10X
increase in elapsed time. So 25us will be at most 500, 1300 and 1600
iterations for each of the above systems.

With a locking microbenchmark running on 5.1 based kernel, the total
locking rates (in kops/s) on a 8-socket IvyBridge-EX system with
equal numbers of readers and writers before and after this patch were
as follows:

# of Threads Pre-patch Post-patch
------------ --------- ----------
2 1,759 6,684
4 1,684 6,738
8 1,074 7,222
16 900 7,163
32 458 7,316
64 208 520
128 168 425
240 143 474

This patch gives a big boost in performance for mixed reader/writer
workloads.

With 32 locking threads, the rwsem lock event data were:

rwsem_opt_fail=79850
rwsem_opt_nospin=5069
rwsem_opt_rlock=597484
rwsem_opt_wlock=957339
rwsem_sleep_reader=57782
rwsem_sleep_writer=55663

With 64 locking threads, the data looked like:

rwsem_opt_fail=346723
rwsem_opt_nospin=6293
rwsem_opt_rlock=1127119
rwsem_opt_wlock=1400628
rwsem_sleep_reader=308201
rwsem_sleep_writer=72281

So a lot more threads acquired the lock in the slowpath and more threads
went to sleep.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-15-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 94a9717b 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Make rwsem->owner an atomic_long_t

The rwsem->owner contains not just the task structure pointer, it also
holds some flags for storing the current state of the rwsem. Some of
the flags may have to be atomically updated. To reflect the new reality,
the owner is now changed to an atomic_long_t type.

New helper functions are added to properly separate out the task
structure pointer and the embedded flags.

Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-14-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# cf69482d 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Enable readers spinning on writer

This patch enables readers to optimistically spin on a
rwsem when it is owned by a writer instead of going to sleep
directly. The rwsem_can_spin_on_owner() function is extracted
out of rwsem_optimistic_spin() and is called directly by
rwsem_down_read_slowpath() and rwsem_down_write_slowpath().

With a locking microbenchmark running on 5.1 based kernel, the total
locking rates (in kops/s) on a 8-socket IvyBrige-EX system with equal
numbers of readers and writers before and after the patch were as
follows:

# of Threads Pre-patch Post-patch
------------ --------- ----------
4 1,674 1,684
8 1,062 1,074
16 924 900
32 300 458
64 195 208
128 164 168
240 149 143

The performance change wasn't significant in this case, but this change
is required by a follow-on patch.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-13-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 02f1082b 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Clarify usage of owner's nonspinaable bit

Bit 1 of sem->owner (RWSEM_ANONYMOUSLY_OWNED) is used to designate an
anonymous owner - readers or an anonymous writer. The setting of this
anonymous bit is used as an indicator that optimistic spinning cannot
be done on this rwsem.

With the upcoming reader optimistic spinning patches, a reader-owned
rwsem can be spinned on for a limit period of time. We still need
this bit to indicate a rwsem is nonspinnable, but not setting this
bit loses its meaning that the owner is known. So rename the bit
to RWSEM_NONSPINNABLE to clarify its meaning.

This patch also fixes a DEBUG_RWSEMS_WARN_ON() bug in __up_write().

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-12-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# d3681e26 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Wake up almost all readers in wait queue

When the front of the wait queue is a reader, other readers
immediately following the first reader will also be woken up at the
same time. However, if there is a writer in between. Those readers
behind the writer will not be woken up.

Because of optimistic spinning, the lock acquisition order is not FIFO
anyway. The lock handoff mechanism will ensure that lock starvation
will not happen.

Assuming that the lock hold times of the other readers still in the
queue will be about the same as the readers that are being woken up,
there is really not much additional cost other than the additional
latency due to the wakeup of additional tasks by the waker. Therefore
all the readers up to a maximum of 256 in the queue are woken up when
the first waiter is a reader to improve reader throughput. This is
somewhat similar in concept to a phase-fair R/W lock.

With a locking microbenchmark running on 5.1 based kernel, the total
locking rates (in kops/s) on a 8-socket IvyBridge-EX system with
equal numbers of readers and writers before and after this patch were
as follows:

# of Threads Pre-Patch Post-patch
------------ --------- ----------
4 1,641 1,674
8 731 1,062
16 564 924
32 78 300
64 38 195
240 50 149

There is no performance gain at low contention level. At high contention
level, however, this patch gives a pretty decent performance boost.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-11-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 990fa738 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: More optimal RT task handling of null owner

An RT task can do optimistic spinning only if the lock holder is
actually running. If the state of the lock holder isn't known, there
is a possibility that high priority of the RT task may block forward
progress of the lock holder if it happens to reside on the same CPU.
This will lead to deadlock. So we have to make sure that an RT task
will not spin on a reader-owned rwsem.

When the owner is temporarily set to NULL, there are two cases
where we may want to continue spinning:

1) The lock owner is in the process of releasing the lock, sem->owner
is cleared but the lock has not been released yet.

2) The lock was free and owner cleared, but another task just comes
in and acquire the lock before we try to get it. The new owner may
be a spinnable writer.

So an RT task is now made to retry one more time to see if it can
acquire the lock or continue spinning on the new owning writer.

When testing on a 8-socket IvyBridge-EX system, the one additional retry
seems to improve locking performance of RT write locking threads under
heavy contentions. The table below shows the locking rates (in kops/s)
with various write locking threads before and after the patch.

Locking threads Pre-patch Post-patch
--------------- --------- -----------
4 2,753 2,608
8 2,529 2,520
16 1,727 1,918
32 1,263 1,956
64 889 1,343

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-10-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 00f3c5a3 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Always release wait_lock before waking up tasks

With the use of wake_q, we can do task wakeups without holding the
wait_lock. There is one exception in the rwsem code, though. It is
when the writer in the slowpath detects that there are waiters ahead
but the rwsem is not held by a writer. This can lead to a long wait_lock
hold time especially when a large number of readers are to be woken up.

Remediate this situation by releasing the wait_lock before waking
up tasks and re-acquiring it afterward. The rwsem_try_write_lock()
function is also modified to read the rwsem count directly to avoid
stale count value.

Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-9-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 4f23dbc1 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Implement lock handoff to prevent lock starvation

Because of writer lock stealing, it is possible that a constant
stream of incoming writers will cause a waiting writer or reader to
wait indefinitely leading to lock starvation.

This patch implements a lock handoff mechanism to disable lock stealing
and force lock handoff to the first waiter or waiters (for readers)
in the queue after at least a 4ms waiting period unless it is a RT
writer task which doesn't need to wait. The waiting period is used to
avoid discouraging lock stealing too much to affect performance.

The setting and clearing of the handoff bit is serialized by the
wait_lock. So racing is not possible.

A rwsem microbenchmark was run for 5 seconds on a 2-socket 40-core
80-thread Skylake system with a v5.1 based kernel and 240 write_lock
threads with 5us sleep critical section.

Before the patch, the min/mean/max numbers of locking operations for
the locking threads were 1/7,792/173,696. After the patch, the figures
became 5,842/6,542/7,458. It can be seen that the rwsem became much
more fair, though there was a drop of about 16% in the mean locking
operations done which was a tradeoff of having better fairness.

Making the waiter set the handoff bit right after the first wakeup can
impact performance especially with a mixed reader/writer workload. With
the same microbenchmark with short critical section and equal number of
reader and writer threads (40/40), the reader/writer locking operation
counts with the current patch were:

40 readers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 1,793/1,794/1,796
40 writers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 1,793/34,956/86,081

By making waiter set handoff bit immediately after wakeup:

40 readers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 43/44/46
40 writers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 43/1,263/3,191

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-8-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 3f6d517a 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Make rwsem_spin_on_owner() return owner state

This patch modifies rwsem_spin_on_owner() to return four possible
values to better reflect the state of lock holder which enables us to
make a better decision of what to do next.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-7-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 6cef7ff6 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Code cleanup after files merging

After merging all the relevant rwsem code into one single file, there
are a number of optimizations and cleanups that can be done:

1) Remove all the EXPORT_SYMBOL() calls for functions that are not
accessed elsewhere.
2) Remove all the __visible tags as none of the functions will be
called from assembly code anymore.
3) Make all the internal functions static.
4) Remove some unneeded blank lines.
5) Remove the intermediate rwsem_down_{read|write}_failed*() functions
and rename __rwsem_down_{read|write}_failed_common() to
rwsem_down_{read|write}_slowpath().
6) Remove "__" prefix of __rwsem_mark_wake().
7) Use atomic_long_try_cmpxchg_acquire() as much as possible.
8) Remove the rwsem_rtrylock and rwsem_wtrylock lock events as they
are not that useful.

That enables the compiler to do better optimization and reduce code
size. The text+data size of rwsem.o on an x86-64 machine with gcc8 was
reduced from 10237 bytes to 5030 bytes with this change.

Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-6-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 5dec94d4 20-May-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Merge rwsem.h and rwsem-xadd.c into rwsem.c

Now we only have one implementation of rwsem. Even though we still use
xadd to handle reader locking, we use cmpxchg for writer instead. So
the filename rwsem-xadd.c is not strictly correct. Also no one outside
of the rwsem code need to know the internal implementation other than
function prototypes for two internal functions that are called directly
from percpu-rwsem.c.

So the rwsem-xadd.c and rwsem.h files are now merged into rwsem.c in
the following order:

<upper part of rwsem.h>
<rwsem-xadd.c>
<lower part of rwsem.h>
<rwsem.c>

The rwsem.h file now contains only 2 function declarations for
__up_read() and __down_read().

This is a code relocation patch with no code change at all except
making __up_read() and __down_read() non-static functions so they
can be used by percpu-rwsem.c.

Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: huang ying <huang.ying.caritas@gmail.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520205918.22251-5-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 3b4ba664 04-Apr-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Enhance DEBUG_RWSEMS_WARN_ON() macro

Currently, the DEBUG_RWSEMS_WARN_ON() macro just dumps a stack trace
when the rwsem isn't in the right state. It does not show the actual
states of the rwsem. This may not be that helpful in the debugging
process.

Enhance the DEBUG_RWSEMS_WARN_ON() macro to also show the current
content of the rwsem count and owner fields to give more information
about what is wrong with the rwsem. The debug_locks_off() function is
called as is done inside DEBUG_LOCKS_WARN_ON().

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190404174320.22416-7-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# a68e2c4c 04-Apr-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Add debug check for __down_read*()

When rwsem_down_read_failed*() return, the read lock is acquired
indirectly by others. So debug checks are added in __down_read() and
__down_read_killable() to make sure the rwsem is really reader-owned.

The other debug check calls in kernel/locking/rwsem.c except the
one in up_read_non_owner() are also moved over to rwsem-xadd.h.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190404174320.22416-6-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# c7580c1e 04-Apr-2019 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Move owner setting code from rwsem.c to rwsem.h

Move all the owner setting code closer to the rwsem-xadd fast paths
directly within rwsem.h file as well as in the slowpaths where owner
setting is done after acquring the lock. This will enable us to add
DEBUG_RWSEMS check in a later patch to make sure that read lock is
really acquired when rwsem_down_read_failed() returns, for instance.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190404174320.22416-3-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 925b9cd1 06-Sep-2018 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Make owner store task pointer of last owning reader

Currently, when a reader acquires a lock, it only sets the
RWSEM_READER_OWNED bit in the owner field. The other bits are simply
not used. When debugging hanging cases involving rwsems and readers,
the owner value does not provide much useful information at all.

This patch modifies the current behavior to always store the task_struct
pointer of the last rwsem-acquiring reader in a reader-owned rwsem. This
may be useful in debugging rwsem hanging cases especially if only one
reader is involved. However, the task in the owner field may not the
real owner or one of the real owners at all when the owner value is
examined, for example, in a crash dump. So it is just an additional
hint about the past history.

If CONFIG_DEBUG_RWSEMS=y is enabled, the owner field will be checked at
unlock time too to make sure the task pointer value is valid. That does
have a slight performance cost and so is only enabled as part of that
debug option.

From the performance point of view, it is expected that the changes
shouldn't have any noticeable performance impact. A rwsem microbenchmark
(with 48 worker threads and 1:1 reader/writer ratio) was ran on a
2-socket 24-core 48-thread Haswell system. The locking rates on a
4.19-rc1 based kernel were as follows:

1) Unpatched kernel: 543.3 kops/s
2) Patched kernel: 549.2 kops/s
3) Patched kernel (CONFIG_DEBUG_RWSEMS on): 546.6 kops/s

There was actually a slight increase in performance (1.1%) in this
particular case. Maybe it was caused by the elimination of a branch or
just a testing noise. Turning on the CONFIG_DEBUG_RWSEMS option also
had less than the expected impact on performance.

The least significant 2 bits of the owner value are now used to designate
the rwsem is readers owned and the owners are anonymous.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1536265114-10842-1-git-send-email-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 03eeafdd 24-May-2018 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Fix up_read_non_owner() warning with DEBUG_RWSEMS

It was found that the use of up_read_non_owner() in NFS was causing
the following warning when DEBUG_RWSEMS was configured.

DEBUG_LOCKS_WARN_ON(sem->owner != ((struct task_struct *)(1UL << 0)))

Looking into the rwsem.c file, it was discovered that the corresponding
down_read_non_owner() function was not setting the owner field properly.
This is fixed now, and the warning should be gone.

Fixes: 5149cbac4235 ("locking/rwsem: Add DEBUG_RWSEMS to look for lock/unlock mismatches")
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Tested-by: Gavin Schenk <g.schenk@eckelmann.de>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: linux-nfs@vger.kernel.org
Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/1527168398-4291-1-git-send-email-longman@redhat.com


# d7d760ef 15-May-2018 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Add a new RWSEM_ANONYMOUSLY_OWNED flag

There are use cases where a rwsem can be acquired by one task, but
released by another task. In thess cases, optimistic spinning may need
to be disabled. One example will be the filesystem freeze/thaw code
where the task that freezes the filesystem will acquire a write lock
on a rwsem and then un-owns it before returning to userspace. Later on,
another task will come along, acquire the ownership, thaw the filesystem
and release the rwsem.

Bit 0 of the owner field was used to designate that it is a reader
owned rwsem. It is now repurposed to mean that the owner of the rwsem
is not known. If only bit 0 is set, the rwsem is reader owned. If bit
0 and other bits are set, it is writer owned with an unknown owner.
One such value for the latter case is (-1L). So we can set owner to 1 for
reader-owned, -1 for writer-owned. The owner is unknown in both cases.

To handle transfer of rwsem ownership, the higher level code should
set the owner field to -1 to indicate a write-locked rwsem with unknown
owner. Optimistic spinning will be disabled in this case.

Once the higher level code figures who the new owner is, it can then
set the owner field accordingly.

Tested-by: Amir Goldstein <amir73il@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Theodore Y. Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1526420991-21213-2-git-send-email-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 5149cbac 30-Mar-2018 Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>

locking/rwsem: Add DEBUG_RWSEMS to look for lock/unlock mismatches

For a rwsem, locking can either be exclusive or shared. The corresponding
exclusive or shared unlock must be used. Otherwise, the protected data
structures may get corrupted or the lock may be in an inconsistent state.

In order to detect such anomaly, a new configuration option DEBUG_RWSEMS
is added which can be enabled to look for such mismatches and print
warnings that that happens.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1522445280-7767-2-git-send-email-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# b2441318 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license

Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne.

How this work was done:

Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.

The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
lines).

All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.

- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.

For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

SPDX license identifier # files
---------------------------------------------------|-------
GPL-2.0 11139

and resulted in the first patch in this series.

If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:

SPDX license identifier # files
---------------------------------------------------|-------
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930

and resulted in the second patch in this series.

- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:

SPDX license identifier # files
---------------------------------------------------|------
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1

and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).

- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
in time.

In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.

Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.

In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
correct identifier.

Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct

This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.

These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>


# 76f8507f 29-Sep-2017 Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>

locking/rwsem: Add down_read_killable()

Similar to down_read() and down_write_killable(),
add killable version of down_read(), based on
__down_read_killable() function, added in previous
patches.

Signed-off-by: Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: arnd@arndb.de
Cc: avagin@virtuozzo.com
Cc: davem@davemloft.net
Cc: fenghua.yu@intel.com
Cc: gorcunov@virtuozzo.com
Cc: heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com
Cc: hpa@zytor.com
Cc: ink@jurassic.park.msu.ru
Cc: mattst88@gmail.com
Cc: rientjes@google.com
Cc: rth@twiddle.net
Cc: schwidefsky@de.ibm.com
Cc: tony.luck@intel.com
Cc: viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/150670119884.23930.2585570605960763239.stgit@localhost.localdomain
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 6419c4af 02-Feb-2017 J. R. Okajima <hooanon05g@gmail.com>

locking/lockdep: Add new check to lock_downgrade()

Commit:

f8319483f57f ("locking/lockdep: Provide a type check for lock_is_held")

didn't fully cover rwsems as downgrade_write() was left out.

Introduce lock_downgrade() and use it to add new checks.

See-also: http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=148581164003149&w=2
Originally-written-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: J. R. Okajima <hooanon05g@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1486053497-9948-3-git-send-email-hooanon05g@gmail.com
[ Rewrote the changelog. ]
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# b17b0153 08-Feb-2017 Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

sched/headers: Prepare for new header dependencies before moving code to <linux/sched/debug.h>

We are going to split <linux/sched/debug.h> out of <linux/sched.h>, which
will have to be picked up from other headers and a couple of .c files.

Create a trivial placeholder <linux/sched/debug.h> file that just
maps to <linux/sched.h> to make this patch obviously correct and
bisectable.

Include the new header in the files that are going to need it.

Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 19c5d690 17-May-2016 Waiman Long <Waiman.Long@hpe.com>

locking/rwsem: Add reader-owned state to the owner field

Currently, it is not possible to determine for sure if a reader
owns a rwsem by looking at the content of the rwsem data structure.
This patch adds a new state RWSEM_READER_OWNED to the owner field
to indicate that readers currently own the lock. This enables us to
address the following 2 issues in the rwsem optimistic spinning code:

1) rwsem_can_spin_on_owner() will disallow optimistic spinning if
the owner field is NULL which can mean either the readers own
the lock or the owning writer hasn't set the owner field yet.
In the latter case, we miss the chance to do optimistic spinning.

2) While a writer is waiting in the OSQ and a reader takes the lock,
the writer will continue to spin when out of the OSQ in the main
rwsem_optimistic_spin() loop as the owner field is NULL wasting
CPU cycles if some of readers are sleeping.

Adding the new state will allow optimistic spinning to go forward as
long as the owner field is not RWSEM_READER_OWNED and the owner is
running, if set, but stop immediately when that state has been reached.

On a 4-socket Haswell machine running on a 4.6-rc1 based kernel, the
fio test with multithreaded randrw and randwrite tests on the same
file on a XFS partition on top of a NVDIMM were run, the aggregated
bandwidths before and after the patch were as follows:

Test BW before patch BW after patch % change
---- --------------- -------------- --------
randrw 988 MB/s 1192 MB/s +21%
randwrite 1513 MB/s 1623 MB/s +7.3%

The perf profile of the rwsem_down_write_failed() function in randrw
before and after the patch were:

19.95% 5.88% fio [kernel.vmlinux] [k] rwsem_down_write_failed
14.20% 1.52% fio [kernel.vmlinux] [k] rwsem_down_write_failed

The actual CPU cycles spend in rwsem_down_write_failed() dropped from
5.88% to 1.52% after the patch.

The xfstests was also run and no regression was observed.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <Waiman.Long@hpe.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Jason Low <jason.low2@hp.com>
Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com>
Cc: Douglas Hatch <doug.hatch@hpe.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Hurley <peter@hurleysoftware.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Scott J Norton <scott.norton@hpe.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1463534783-38814-2-git-send-email-Waiman.Long@hpe.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 887bddfa 25-May-2016 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

add down_write_killable_nested()

Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 916633a4 07-Apr-2016 Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>

locking/rwsem: Provide down_write_killable()

Now that all the architectures implement the necessary glue code
we can introduce down_write_killable(). The only difference wrt. regular
down_write() is that the slow path waits in TASK_KILLABLE state and the
interruption by the fatal signal is reported as -EINTR to the caller.

Signed-off-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Chris Zankel <chris@zankel.net>
Cc: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Max Filippov <jcmvbkbc@gmail.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Signed-off-by: Jason Low <jason.low2@hp.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
Cc: linux-alpha@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-arch@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-ia64@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-s390@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-sh@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-xtensa@linux-xtensa.org
Cc: sparclinux@vger.kernel.org
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1460041951-22347-12-git-send-email-mhocko@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 7a215f89 30-Jan-2015 Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>

locking/rwsem: Set lock ownership ASAP

In order to optimize the spinning step, we need to set the lock
owner as soon as the lock is acquired; after a successful counter
cmpxchg operation, that is. This is particularly useful as rwsems
need to set the owner to nil for readers, so there is a greater
chance of falling out of the spinning. Currently we only set the
owner much later in the game, in the more generic level -- latency
can be specially bad when waiting for a node->next pointer when
releasing the osq in up_write calls.

As such, update the owner inside rwsem_try_write_lock (when the
lock is obtained after blocking) and rwsem_try_write_lock_unqueued
(when the lock is obtained while spinning). This requires creating
a new internal rwsem.h header to share the owner related calls.

Also cleanup some headers for mutex and rwsem.

Suggested-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Jason Low <jason.low2@hp.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1422609267-15102-4-git-send-email-dave@stgolabs.net
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 5db6c6fe 11-Jul-2014 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>

locking/rwsem: Add CONFIG_RWSEM_SPIN_ON_OWNER

Just like with mutexes (CONFIG_MUTEX_SPIN_ON_OWNER),
encapsulate the dependencies for rwsem optimistic spinning.
No logical changes here as it continues to depend on both
SMP and the XADD algorithm variant.

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
Acked-by: Jason Low <jason.low2@hp.com>
[ Also make it depend on ARCH_SUPPORTS_ATOMIC_RMW. ]
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1405112406-13052-2-git-send-email-davidlohr@hp.com
Cc: aswin@hp.com
Cc: Chris Mason <clm@fb.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
Cc: Josef Bacik <jbacik@fusionio.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Waiman Long <Waiman.Long@hp.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 4fc828e2 02-May-2014 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>

locking/rwsem: Support optimistic spinning

We have reached the point where our mutexes are quite fine tuned
for a number of situations. This includes the use of heuristics
and optimistic spinning, based on MCS locking techniques.

Exclusive ownership of read-write semaphores are, conceptually,
just about the same as mutexes, making them close cousins. To
this end we need to make them both perform similarly, and
right now, rwsems are simply not up to it. This was discovered
by both reverting commit 4fc3f1d6 (mm/rmap, migration: Make
rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() more scalable) and
similarly, converting some other mutexes (ie: i_mmap_mutex) to
rwsems. This creates a situation where users have to choose
between a rwsem and mutex taking into account this important
performance difference. Specifically, biggest difference between
both locks is when we fail to acquire a mutex in the fastpath,
optimistic spinning comes in to play and we can avoid a large
amount of unnecessary sleeping and overhead of moving tasks in
and out of wait queue. Rwsems do not have such logic.

This patch, based on the work from Tim Chen and I, adds support
for write-side optimistic spinning when the lock is contended.
It also includes support for the recently added cancelable MCS
locking for adaptive spinning. Note that is is only applicable
to the xadd method, and the spinlock rwsem variant remains intact.

Allowing optimistic spinning before putting the writer on the wait
queue reduces wait queue contention and provided greater chance
for the rwsem to get acquired. With these changes, rwsem is on par
with mutex. The performance benefits can be seen on a number of
workloads. For instance, on a 8 socket, 80 core 64bit Westmere box,
aim7 shows the following improvements in throughput:

+--------------+---------------------+-----------------+
| Workload | throughput-increase | number of users |
+--------------+---------------------+-----------------+
| alltests | 20% | >1000 |
| custom | 27%, 60% | 10-100, >1000 |
| high_systime | 36%, 30% | >100, >1000 |
| shared | 58%, 29% | 10-100, >1000 |
+--------------+---------------------+-----------------+

There was also improvement on smaller systems, such as a quad-core
x86-64 laptop running a 30Gb PostgreSQL (pgbench) workload for up
to +60% in throughput for over 50 clients. Additionally, benefits
were also noticed in exim (mail server) workloads. Furthermore, no
performance regression have been seen at all.

Based-on-work-from: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
[peterz: rej fixup due to comment patches, sched/rt.h header]
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Alex Shi <alex.shi@linaro.org>
Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Hurley <peter@hurleysoftware.com>
Cc: "Paul E.McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Jason Low <jason.low2@hp.com>
Cc: Aswin Chandramouleeswaran <aswin@hp.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: "Scott J Norton" <scott.norton@hp.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Chris Mason <clm@fb.com>
Cc: Josef Bacik <jbacik@fusionio.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1399055055.6275.15.camel@buesod1.americas.hpqcorp.net
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# ed428bfc 31-Oct-2013 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

locking: Move the rwsem code to kernel/locking/

Notably: changed lib/rwsem* targets from lib- to obj-, no idea about
the ramifications of that.

Suggested-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/n/tip-g0kynfh5feriwc6p3h6kpbw6@git.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>