History log of /linux-master/ipc/namespace.c
Revision Date Author Comments
# 30acd0bd 02-Sep-2021 Vasily Averin <vvs@virtuozzo.com>

memcg: enable accounting for new namesapces and struct nsproxy

Container admin can create new namespaces and force kernel to allocate up
to several pages of memory for the namespaces and its associated
structures.

Net and uts namespaces have enabled accounting for such allocations. It
makes sense to account for rest ones to restrict the host's memory
consumption from inside the memcg-limited container.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/5525bcbf-533e-da27-79b7-158686c64e13@virtuozzo.com
Signed-off-by: Vasily Averin <vvs@virtuozzo.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Acked-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
Acked-by: Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>
Reviewed-by: Shakeel Butt <shakeelb@google.com>
Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Cc: Andrei Vagin <avagin@gmail.com>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de>
Cc: Dmitry Safonov <0x7f454c46@gmail.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: "J. Bruce Fields" <bfields@fieldses.org>
Cc: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jirislaby@kernel.org>
Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@gmail.com>
Cc: Yutian Yang <nglaive@gmail.com>
Cc: Zefan Li <lizefan.x@bytedance.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 137ec390 03-Aug-2020 Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>

ipc: Use generic ns_common::count

Switch over ipc namespaces to use the newly introduced common lifetime
counter.

Currently every namespace type has its own lifetime counter which is stored
in the specific namespace struct. The lifetime counters are used
identically for all namespaces types. Namespaces may of course have
additional unrelated counters and these are not altered.

This introduces a common lifetime counter into struct ns_common. The
ns_common struct encompasses information that all namespaces share. That
should include the lifetime counter since its common for all of them.

It also allows us to unify the type of the counters across all namespaces.
Most of them use refcount_t but one uses atomic_t and at least one uses
kref. Especially the last one doesn't make much sense since it's just a
wrapper around refcount_t since 2016 and actually complicates cleanup
operations by having to use container_of() to cast the correct namespace
struct out of struct ns_common.

Having the lifetime counter for the namespaces in one place reduces
maintenance cost. Not just because after switching all namespaces over we
will have removed more code than we added but also because the logic is
more easily understandable and we indicate to the user that the basic
lifetime requirements for all namespaces are currently identical.

Signed-off-by: Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Acked-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/159644978697.604812.16592754423881032385.stgit@localhost.localdomain
Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>


# e1eb26fa 07-Jun-2020 Giuseppe Scrivano <gscrivan@redhat.com>

ipc/namespace.c: use a work queue to free_ipc

the reason is to avoid a delay caused by the synchronize_rcu() call in
kern_umount() when the mqueue mount is freed.

the code:

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <sched.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main()
{
int i;

for (i = 0; i < 1000; i++)
if (unshare(CLONE_NEWIPC) < 0)
error(EXIT_FAILURE, errno, "unshare");
}

goes from

Command being timed: "./ipc-namespace"
User time (seconds): 0.00
System time (seconds): 0.06
Percent of CPU this job got: 0%
Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): 0:08.05

to

Command being timed: "./ipc-namespace"
User time (seconds): 0.00
System time (seconds): 0.02
Percent of CPU this job got: 96%
Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): 0:00.03

Signed-off-by: Giuseppe Scrivano <gscrivan@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200225145419.527994-1-gscrivan@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# f2a8d52e 05-May-2020 Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>

nsproxy: add struct nsset

Add a simple struct nsset. It holds all necessary pieces to switch to a new
set of namespaces without leaving a task in a half-switched state which we
will make use of in the next patch. This patch switches the existing setns
logic over without causing a change in setns() behavior. This brings
setns() closer to how unshare() works(). The prepare_ns() function is
responsible to prepare all necessary information. This has two reasons.
First it minimizes dependencies between individual namespaces, i.e. all
install handler can expect that all fields are properly initialized
independent in what order they are called in. Second, this makes the code
easier to maintain and easier to follow if it needs to be changed.

The prepare_ns() helper will only be switched over to use a flags argument
in the next patch. Here it will still use nstype as a simple integer
argument which was argued would be clearer. I'm not particularly
opinionated about this if it really helps or not. The struct nsset itself
already contains the flags field since its name already indicates that it
can contain information required by different namespaces. None of this
should have functional consequences.

Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
Reviewed-by: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: Aleksa Sarai <cyphar@cyphar.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20200505140432.181565-2-christian.brauner@ubuntu.com


# 935c6912 01-Nov-2018 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

ipc: Convert mqueue fs to fs_context

Convert the mqueue filesystem to use the filesystem context stuff.

Notes:

(1) The relevant ipc namespace is selected in when the context is
initialised (and it defaults to the current task's ipc namespace).
The caller can override this before calling vfs_get_tree().

(2) Rather than simply calling kern_mount_data(), mq_init_ns() and
mq_internal_mount() create a context, adjust it and then do the rest
of the mount procedure.

(3) The lazy mqueue mounting on creation of a new namespace is retained
from a previous patch, but the avoidance of sget() if no superblock
yet exists is reverted and the superblock is again keyed on the
namespace pointer.

Yes, there was a performance gain in not searching the superblock
hash, but it's only paid once per ipc namespace - and only if someone
uses mqueue within that namespace, so I'm not sure it's worth it,
especially as calling sget() allows avoidance of recursion.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# eae04d25 21-Aug-2018 Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>

ipc: simplify ipc initialization

Now that we know that rhashtable_init() will not fail, we can get rid of a
lot of the unnecessary cleanup paths when the call errored out.

[manfred@colorfullife.com: variable name added to util.h to resolve checkpatch warning]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180712185241.4017-11-manfred@colorfullife.com
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b2441318 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license

Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne.

How this work was done:

Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.

The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
lines).

All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.

- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.

For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

SPDX license identifier # files
---------------------------------------------------|-------
GPL-2.0 11139

and resulted in the first patch in this series.

If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:

SPDX license identifier # files
---------------------------------------------------|-------
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930

and resulted in the second patch in this series.

- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:

SPDX license identifier # files
---------------------------------------------------|------
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1

and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).

- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
in time.

In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.

Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.

In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
correct identifier.

Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct

This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.

These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>


# 0cfb6aee 08-Sep-2017 Guillaume Knispel <guillaume.knispel@supersonicimagine.com>

ipc: optimize semget/shmget/msgget for lots of keys

ipc_findkey() used to scan all objects to look for the wanted key. This
is slow when using a high number of keys. This change adds an rhashtable
of kern_ipc_perm objects in ipc_ids, so that one lookup cease to be O(n).

This change gives a 865% improvement of benchmark reaim.jobs_per_min on a
56 threads Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2695 v3 @ 2.30GHz with 256G memory [1]

Other (more micro) benchmark results, by the author: On an i5 laptop, the
following loop executed right after a reboot took, without and with this
change:

for (int i = 0, k=0x424242; i < KEYS; ++i)
semget(k++, 1, IPC_CREAT | 0600);

total total max single max single
KEYS without with call without call with

1 3.5 4.9 µs 3.5 4.9
10 7.6 8.6 µs 3.7 4.7
32 16.2 15.9 µs 4.3 5.3
100 72.9 41.8 µs 3.7 4.7
1000 5,630.0 502.0 µs * *
10000 1,340,000.0 7,240.0 µs * *
31900 17,600,000.0 22,200.0 µs * *

*: unreliable measure: high variance

The duration for a lookup-only usage was obtained by the same loop once
the keys are present:

total total max single max single
KEYS without with call without call with

1 2.1 2.5 µs 2.1 2.5
10 4.5 4.8 µs 2.2 2.3
32 13.0 10.8 µs 2.3 2.8
100 82.9 25.1 µs * 2.3
1000 5,780.0 217.0 µs * *
10000 1,470,000.0 2,520.0 µs * *
31900 17,400,000.0 7,810.0 µs * *

Finally, executing each semget() in a new process gave, when still
summing only the durations of these syscalls:

creation:
total total
KEYS without with

1 3.7 5.0 µs
10 32.9 36.7 µs
32 125.0 109.0 µs
100 523.0 353.0 µs
1000 20,300.0 3,280.0 µs
10000 2,470,000.0 46,700.0 µs
31900 27,800,000.0 219,000.0 µs

lookup-only:
total total
KEYS without with

1 2.5 2.7 µs
10 25.4 24.4 µs
32 106.0 72.6 µs
100 591.0 352.0 µs
1000 22,400.0 2,250.0 µs
10000 2,510,000.0 25,700.0 µs
31900 28,200,000.0 115,000.0 µs

[1] http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170814060507.GE23258@yexl-desktop

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170815194954.ck32ta2z35yuzpwp@debix
Signed-off-by: Guillaume Knispel <guillaume.knispel@supersonicimagine.com>
Reviewed-by: Marc Pardo <marc.pardo@supersonicimagine.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: "Peter Zijlstra (Intel)" <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: Andrey Vagin <avagin@openvz.org>
Cc: Guillaume Knispel <guillaume.knispel@supersonicimagine.com>
Cc: Marc Pardo <marc.pardo@supersonicimagine.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# a2e0602c 08-Sep-2017 Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@intel.com>

ipc: convert ipc_namespace.count from atomic_t to refcount_t

refcount_t type and corresponding API should be used instead of atomic_t
when the variable is used as a reference counter. This allows to avoid
accidental refcounter overflows that might lead to use-after-free
situations.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1499417992-3238-2-git-send-email-elena.reshetova@intel.com
Signed-off-by: Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Hans Liljestrand <ishkamiel@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: David Windsor <dwindsor@gmail.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: <arozansk@redhat.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# f719ff9b 06-Feb-2017 Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

sched/headers: Prepare to move the task_lock()/unlock() APIs to <linux/sched/task.h>

But first update the code that uses these facilities with the
new header.

Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 5b825c3a 02-Feb-2017 Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

sched/headers: Prepare to remove <linux/cred.h> inclusion from <linux/sched.h>

Add #include <linux/cred.h> dependencies to all .c files rely on sched.h
doing that for them.

Note that even if the count where we need to add extra headers seems high,
it's still a net win, because <linux/sched.h> is included in over
2,200 files ...

Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# bcac25a5 06-Sep-2016 Andrey Vagin <avagin@openvz.org>

kernel: add a helper to get an owning user namespace for a namespace

Return -EPERM if an owning user namespace is outside of a process
current user namespace.

v2: In a first version ns_get_owner returned ENOENT for init_user_ns.
This special cases was removed from this version. There is nothing
outside of init_user_ns, so we can return EPERM.
v3: rename ns->get_owner() to ns->owner(). get_* usually means that it
grabs a reference.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrei Vagin <avagin@openvz.org>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# df75e774 22-Sep-2016 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: When the per user per user namespace limit is reached return ENOSPC

The current error codes returned when a the per user per user
namespace limit are hit (EINVAL, EUSERS, and ENFILE) are wrong. I
asked for advice on linux-api and it we made clear that those were
the wrong error code, but a correct effor code was not suggested.

The best general error code I have found for hitting a resource limit
is ENOSPC. It is not perfect but as it is unambiguous it will serve
until someone comes up with a better error code.

Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# aba35661 08-Aug-2016 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

ipcns: Add a limit on the number of ipc namespaces

Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# 3bd080e4 02-Aug-2016 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipc: delete "nr_ipc_ns"

Write-only variable.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20160708214356.GA6785@p183.telecom.by
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b236017a 30-May-2016 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

ipc: Initialize ipc_namespace->user_ns early.

Allow the ipc namespace initialization code to depend on ns->user_ns
being set during initialization.

In particular this allows mq_init_ns to use ns->user_ns for permission
checks and initializating s_user_ns while the the mq filesystem is
being mounted.

Acked-by: Seth Forshee <seth.forshee@canonical.com>
Suggested-by: Seth Forshee <seth.forshee@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# 0050ee05 12-Dec-2014 Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>

ipc/msg: increase MSGMNI, remove scaling

SysV can be abused to allocate locked kernel memory. For most systems, a
small limit doesn't make sense, see the discussion with regards to SHMMAX.

Therefore: increase MSGMNI to the maximum supported.

And: If we ignore the risk of locking too much memory, then an automatic
scaling of MSGMNI doesn't make sense. Therefore the logic can be removed.

The code preserves auto_msgmni to avoid breaking any user space applications
that expect that the value exists.

Notes:
1) If an administrator must limit the memory allocations, then he can set
MSGMNI as necessary.

Or he can disable sysv entirely (as e.g. done by Android).

2) MSGMAX and MSGMNB are intentionally not increased, as these values are used
to control latency vs. throughput:
If MSGMNB is large, then msgsnd() just returns and more messages can be queued
before a task switch to a task that calls msgrcv() is forced.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 33c42940 01-Nov-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

copy address of proc_ns_ops into ns_common

Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 6344c433 31-Oct-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

new helpers: ns_alloc_inum/ns_free_inum

take struct ns_common *, for now simply wrappers around proc_{alloc,free}_inum()

Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 64964528 31-Oct-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

make proc_ns_operations work with struct ns_common * instead of void *

We can do that now. And kill ->inum(), while we are at it - all instances
are identical.

Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 3c041184 31-Oct-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

switch the rest of proc_ns_operations to working with &...->ns

Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 435d5f4b 31-Oct-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

common object embedded into various struct ....ns

for now - just move corresponding ->proc_inum instances over there

Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 728dba3a 03-Feb-2014 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

namespaces: Use task_lock and not rcu to protect nsproxy

The synchronous syncrhonize_rcu in switch_task_namespaces makes setns
a sufficiently expensive system call that people have complained.

Upon inspect nsproxy no longer needs rcu protection for remote reads.
remote reads are rare. So optimize for same process reads and write
by switching using rask_lock instead.

This yields a simpler to understand lock, and a faster setns system call.

In particular this fixes a performance regression observed
by Rafael David Tinoco <rafael.tinoco@canonical.com>.

This is effectively a revert of Pavel Emelyanov's commit
cf7b708c8d1d7a27736771bcf4c457b332b0f818 Make access to task's nsproxy lighter
from 2007. The race this originialy fixed no longer exists as
do_notify_parent uses task_active_pid_ns(parent) instead of
parent->nsproxy.

Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# 32a27500 11-Sep-2013 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com>

ipc: drop ipc_lock_by_ptr

After previous cleanups and optimizations, this function is no longer
heavily used and we don't have a good reason to keep it. Update the few
remaining callers and get rid of it.

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com>
Cc: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# d9a605e4 11-Sep-2013 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com>

ipc: rename ids->rw_mutex

Since in some situations the lock can be shared for readers, we shouldn't
be calling it a mutex, rename it to rwsem.

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com>
Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# c7b96acf 20-Mar-2013 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Kill nsown_capable it makes the wrong thing easy

nsown_capable is a special case of ns_capable essentially for just CAP_SETUID and
CAP_SETGID. For the existing users it doesn't noticably simplify things and
from the suggested patches I have seen it encourages people to do the wrong
thing. So remove nsown_capable.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# 0bb80f24 11-Apr-2013 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

proc: Split the namespace stuff out into linux/proc_ns.h

Split the proc namespace stuff out into linux/proc_ns.h.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: netdev@vger.kernel.org
cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@ubuntu.com>
cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>


# 5e4a0847 14-Dec-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Require CAP_SYS_ADMIN for most uses of setns.

Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net> found a nasty little bug in
the permissions of setns. With unprivileged user namespaces it
became possible to create new namespaces without privilege.

However the setns calls were relaxed to only require CAP_SYS_ADMIN in
the user nameapce of the targed namespace.

Which made the following nasty sequence possible.

pid = clone(CLONE_NEWUSER | CLONE_NEWNS);
if (pid == 0) { /* child */
system("mount --bind /home/me/passwd /etc/passwd");
}
else if (pid != 0) { /* parent */
char path[PATH_MAX];
snprintf(path, sizeof(path), "/proc/%u/ns/mnt");
fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
setns(fd, 0);
system("su -");
}

Prevent this possibility by requiring CAP_SYS_ADMIN
in the current user namespace when joing all but the user namespace.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# 98f842e6 15-Jun-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

proc: Usable inode numbers for the namespace file descriptors.

Assign a unique proc inode to each namespace, and use that
inode number to ensure we only allocate at most one proc
inode for every namespace in proc.

A single proc inode per namespace allows userspace to test
to see if two processes are in the same namespace.

This has been a long requested feature and only blocked because
a naive implementation would put the id in a global space and
would ultimately require having a namespace for the names of
namespaces, making migration and certain virtualization tricks
impossible.

We still don't have per superblock inode numbers for proc, which
appears necessary for application unaware checkpoint/restart and
migrations (if the application is using namespace file descriptors)
but that is now allowd by the design if it becomes important.

I have preallocated the ipc and uts initial proc inode numbers so
their structures can be statically initialized.

Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# bcf58e72 26-Jul-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Make create_new_namespaces take a user_ns parameter

Modify create_new_namespaces to explicitly take a user namespace
parameter, instead of implicitly through the task_struct.

This allows an implementation of unshare(CLONE_NEWUSER) where
the new user namespace is not stored onto the current task_struct
until after all of the namespaces are created.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# 142e1d1d 26-Jul-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Allow unprivileged use of setns.

- Push the permission check from the core setns syscall into
the setns install methods where the user namespace of the
target namespace can be determined, and used in a ns_capable
call.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# c4a4d603 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Use cred->user_ns instead of cred->user->user_ns

Optimize performance and prepare for the removal of the user_ns reference
from user_struct. Remove the slow long walk through cred->user->user_ns and
instead go straight to cred->user_ns.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# a00eaf11 07-Mar-2010 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

ns proc: Add support for the ipc namespace

Acked-by: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>


# be4d250a 25-Mar-2011 Xiaotian Feng <dfeng@redhat.com>

ipcns: fix use after free in free_ipc_ns()

commit b515498 ("userns: add a user namespace owner of ipc ns") added a
user namespace owner of ipc ns, but it also introduced a use after free in
free_ipc_ns().

Signed-off-by: Xiaotian Feng <dfeng@redhat.com>
Acked-by: "Serge E. Hallyn" <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b0e77598 23-Mar-2011 Serge E. Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>

userns: user namespaces: convert several capable() calls

CAP_IPC_OWNER and CAP_IPC_LOCK can be checked against current_user_ns(),
because the resource comes from current's own ipc namespace.

setuid/setgid are to uids in own namespace, so again checks can be against
current_user_ns().

Changelog:
Jan 11: Use task_ns_capable() in place of sched_capable().
Jan 11: Use nsown_capable() as suggested by Bastian Blank.
Jan 11: Clarify (hopefully) some logic in futex and sched.c
Feb 15: use ns_capable for ipc, not nsown_capable
Feb 23: let copy_ipcs handle setting ipc_ns->user_ns
Feb 23: pass ns down rather than taking it from current

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b515498f 23-Mar-2011 Serge E. Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>

userns: add a user namespace owner of ipc ns

Changelog:
Feb 15: Don't set new ipc->user_ns if we didn't create a new
ipc_ns.
Feb 23: Move extern declaration to ipc_namespace.h, and group
fwd declarations at top.

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b4188def 17-Jun-2009 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipcns: make free_ipc_ns() static

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 612ce478 17-Jun-2009 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipcns: extract create_ipc_ns()

clone_ipc_ns() is misnamed, it doesn't clone anything and doesn't use
passed parameter. Rename it.

create_ipc_ns() will be used by C/R to create fresh ipcns.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Reviewed-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 64424289 17-Jun-2009 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipcns: remove useless get/put while CLONE_NEWIPC

copy_ipcs() doesn't actually copy anything. If new ipcns is created, it's
created from scratch, in this case get/put on old ipcns isn't needed.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Reviewed-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 7eafd7c7 06-Apr-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

namespaces: ipc namespaces: implement support for posix msqueues

Implement multiple mounts of the mqueue file system, and link it to usage
of CLONE_NEWIPC.

Each ipc ns has a corresponding mqueuefs superblock. When a user does
clone(CLONE_NEWIPC) or unshare(CLONE_NEWIPC), the unshare will cause an
internal mount of a new mqueuefs sb linked to the new ipc ns.

When a user does 'mount -t mqueue mqueue /dev/mqueue', he mounts the
mqueuefs superblock.

Posix message queues can be worked with both through the mq_* system calls
(see mq_overview(7)), and through the VFS through the mqueue mount. Any
usage of mq_open() and friends will work with the acting task's ipc
namespace. Any actions through the VFS will work with the mqueuefs in
which the file was created. So if a user doesn't remount mqueuefs after
unshare(CLONE_NEWIPC), mq_open("/ab") will not be reflected in "ls
/dev/mqueue".

If task a mounts mqueue for ipc_ns:1, then clones task b with a new ipcns,
ipcns:2, and then task a is the last task in ipc_ns:1 to exit, then (1)
ipc_ns:1 will be freed, (2) it's superblock will live on until task b
umounts the corresponding mqueuefs, and vfs actions will continue to
succeed, but (3) sb->s_fs_info will be NULL for the sb corresponding to
the deceased ipc_ns:1.

To make this happen, we must protect the ipc reference count when

a) a task exits and drops its ipcns->count, since it might be dropping
it to 0 and freeing the ipcns

b) a task accesses the ipcns through its mqueuefs interface, since it
bumps the ipcns refcount and might race with the last task in the ipcns
exiting.

So the kref is changed to an atomic_t so we can use
atomic_dec_and_lock(&ns->count,mq_lock), and every access to the ipcns
through ns = mqueuefs_sb->s_fs_info is protected by the same lock.

Signed-off-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 614b84cf 06-Apr-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

namespaces: mqueue ns: move mqueue_mnt into struct ipc_namespace

Move mqueue vfsmount plus a few tunables into the ipc_namespace struct.
The CONFIG_IPC_NS boolean and the ipc_namespace struct will serve both the
posix message queue namespaces and the SYSV ipc namespaces.

The sysctl code will be fixed separately in patch 3. After just this
patch, making a change to posix mqueue tunables always changes the values
in the initial ipc namespace.

Signed-off-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# e2c284d8 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: recompute msgmni on ipc namespace creation/removal

Introduce a notification mechanism that aims at recomputing msgmni each time
an ipc namespace is created or removed.

The ipc namespace notifier chain already defined for memory hotplug management
is used for that purpose too.

Each time a new ipc namespace is allocated or an existing ipc namespace is
removed, the ipcns notifier chain is notified. The callback routine for each
registered ipc namespace is then activated in order to recompute msgmni for
that namespace.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b6b337ad 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: recompute msgmni on memory add / remove

Introduce the registration of a callback routine that recomputes msg_ctlmni
upon memory add / remove.

A single notifier block is registered in the hotplug memory chain for all the
ipc namespaces.

Since the ipc namespaces are not linked together, they have their own
notification chain: one notifier_block is defined per ipc namespace.

Each time an ipc namespace is created (removed) it registers (unregisters) its
notifier block in (from) the ipcns chain. The callback routine registered in
the memory chain invokes the ipcns notifier chain with the IPCNS_LOWMEM event.
Each callback routine registered in the ipcns namespace, in turn, recomputes
msgmni for the owning namespace.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 4d89dc6a 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: scale msgmni to the number of ipc namespaces

Since all the namespaces see the same amount of memory (the total one) this
patch introduces a new variable that counts the ipc namespaces and divides
msg_ctlmni by this counter.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 01b8b07a 08-Feb-2008 Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>

IPC: consolidate sem_exit_ns(), msg_exit_ns() and shm_exit_ns()

sem_exit_ns(), msg_exit_ns() and shm_exit_ns() are all called when an
ipc_namespace is released to free all ipcs of each type. But in fact, they
do the same thing: they loop around all ipcs to free them individually by
calling a specific routine.

This patch proposes to consolidate this by introducing a common function,
free_ipcs(), that do the job. The specific routine to call on each
individual ipcs is passed as parameter. For this, these ipc-specific
'free' routines are reworked to take a generic 'struct ipc_perm' as
parameter.

Signed-off-by: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Cc: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Cc: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# ed2ddbf8 08-Feb-2008 Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>

IPC: make struct ipc_ids static in ipc_namespace

Each ipc_namespace contains a table of 3 pointers to struct ipc_ids (3 for
msg, sem and shm, structure used to store all ipcs) These 'struct ipc_ids'
are dynamically allocated for each icp_namespace as the ipc_namespace
itself (for the init namespace, they are initialized with pointers to
static variables instead)

It is so for historical reason: in fact, before the use of idr to store the
ipcs, the ipcs were stored in tables of variable length, depending of the
maximum number of ipc allowed. Now, these 'struct ipc_ids' have a fixed
size. As they are allocated in any cases for each new ipc_namespace, there
is no gain of memory in having them allocated separately of the struct
ipc_namespace.

This patch proposes to make this table static in the struct ipc_namespace.
Thus, we can allocate all in once and get rid of all the code needed to
allocate and free these ipc_ids separately.

Signed-off-by: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Acked-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Cc: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# ae5e1b22 08-Feb-2008 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

namespaces: move the IPC namespace under IPC_NS option

Currently the IPC namespace management code is spread over the ipc/*.c files.
I moved this code into ipc/namespace.c file which is compiled out when needed.

The linux/ipc_namespace.h file is used to store the prototypes of the
functions in namespace.c and the stubs for NAMESPACES=n case. This is done
so, because the stub for copy_ipc_namespace requires the knowledge of the
CLONE_NEWIPC flag, which is in sched.h. But the linux/ipc.h file itself in
included into many many .c files via the sys.h->sem.h sequence so adding the
sched.h into it will make all these .c depend on sched.h which is not that
good. On the other hand the knowledge about the namespaces stuff is required
in 4 .c files only.

Besides, this patch compiles out some auxiliary functions from ipc/sem.c,
msg.c and shm.c files. It turned out that moving these functions into
namespaces.c is not that easy because they use many other calls and macros
from the original file. Moving them would make this patch complicated. On
the other hand all these functions can be consolidated, so I will send a
separate patch doing this a bit later.

Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at>
Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru>
Cc: Sukadev Bhattiprolu <sukadev@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>