History log of /linux-master/include/uapi/linux/stat.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 72d1249e 01-Dec-2020 Eric Sandeen <sandeen@redhat.com>

uapi: fix statx attribute value overlap for DAX & MOUNT_ROOT

STATX_ATTR_MOUNT_ROOT and STATX_ATTR_DAX got merged with the same value,
so one of them needs fixing. Move STATX_ATTR_DAX.

While we're in here, clarify the value-matching scheme for some of the
attributes, and explain why the value for DAX does not match.

Fixes: 80340fe3605c ("statx: add mount_root")
Fixes: 712b2698e4c0 ("fs/stat: Define DAX statx attribute")
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel/7027520f-7c79-087e-1d00-743bdefa1a1e@redhat.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20201202214629.1563760-1-ira.weiny@intel.com/
Reported-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Sandeen <sandeen@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Reviewed-by: Ira Weiny <ira.weiny@intel.com>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> # 5.8
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 80340fe3 14-May-2020 Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@redhat.com>

statx: add mount_root

Determining whether a path or file descriptor refers to a mountpoint (or
more precisely a mount root) is not trivial using current tools.

Add a flag to statx that indicates whether the path or fd refers to the
root of a mount or not.

Cc: linux-api@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-man@vger.kernel.org
Reported-by: Lennart Poettering <mzxreary@0pointer.de>
Reported-by: J. Bruce Fields <bfields@fieldses.org>
Signed-off-by: Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>

# fa2fcf4f 14-May-2020 Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@redhat.com>

statx: add mount ID

Systemd is hacking around to get it and it's trivial to add to statx, so...

Cc: linux-api@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-man@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>

# 581701b7 14-May-2020 Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@redhat.com>

uapi: deprecate STATX_ALL

Constants of the *_ALL type can be actively harmful due to the fact that
developers will usually fail to consider the possible effects of future
changes to the definition.

Deprecate STATX_ALL in the uapi, while no damage has been done yet.

We could keep something like this around in the kernel, but there's
actually no point, since all filesystems should be explicitly checking
flags that they support and not rely on the VFS masking unknown ones out: a
flag could be known to the VFS, yet not known to the filesystem.

Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: linux-api@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-man@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>

# 712b2698 30-Apr-2020 Ira Weiny <ira.weiny@intel.com>

fs/stat: Define DAX statx attribute

In order for users to determine if a file is currently operating in DAX
state (effective DAX). Define a statx attribute value and set that
attribute if the effective DAX flag is set.

To go along with this we propose the following addition to the statx man


The file is in the DAX (cpu direct access) state. DAX state
attempts to minimize software cache effects for both I/O and
memory mappings of this file. It requires a file system which
has been configured to support DAX.

DAX generally assumes all accesses are via cpu load / store
instructions which can minimize overhead for small accesses, but
may adversely affect cpu utilization for large transfers.

File I/O is done directly to/from user-space buffers and memory
mapped I/O may be performed with direct memory mappings that
bypass kernel page cache.

While the DAX property tends to result in data being transferred
synchronously, it does not give the same guarantees of O_SYNC
where data and the necessary metadata are transferred together.

A DAX file may support being mapped with the MAP_SYNC flag,
which enables a program to use CPU cache flush instructions to
persist CPU store operations without an explicit fsync(2). See
mmap(2) for more information.

Reviewed-by: Dave Chinner <dchinner@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Reviewed-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Ira Weiny <ira.weiny@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>

# 3ad2522c 29-Oct-2019 Eric Biggers <ebiggers@google.com>

statx: define STATX_ATTR_VERITY

Add a statx attribute bit STATX_ATTR_VERITY which will be set if the
file has fs-verity enabled. This is the statx() equivalent of
FS_VERITY_FL which is returned by FS_IOC_GETFLAGS.

This is useful because it allows applications to check whether a file is
a verity file without opening it. Opening a verity file can be
expensive because the fsverity_info is set up on open, which involves
parsing metadata and optionally verifying a cryptographic signature.

This is analogous to how various other bits are exposed through both
FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and statx(), e.g. the encrypt bit.

Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@dilger.ca>
Acked-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@google.com>

# 6f52b16c 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX license identifier to uapi header files with no license

Many user space API headers are missing licensing information, which
makes it hard for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default are files without license information under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPLV2. Marking them GPLV2 would exclude
them from being included in non GPLV2 code, which is obviously not
intended. The user space API headers fall under the syscall exception
which is in the kernels COPYING file:

NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use kernel
services by normal system calls - this is merely considered normal use
of the kernel, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".

otherwise syscall usage would not be possible.

Update the files which contain no license information with an SPDX
license identifier. The chosen identifier is 'GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note' which is the officially assigned identifier for the
Linux syscall exception. SPDX license identifiers are a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne. See the previous patch in this series for the
methodology of how this patch was researched.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# 1741937d 26-Apr-2017 Dmitry V. Levin <ldv@altlinux.org>

uapi: change the type of struct statx_timestamp.tv_nsec to unsigned

The comment asserting that the value of struct statx_timestamp.tv_nsec
must be negative when statx_timestamp.tv_sec is negative, is wrong, as
could be seen from the following example:

#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
#include <assert.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <asm/unistd.h>
#include <linux/stat.h>

int main(void)
static const struct timespec ts[2] = {
{ .tv_nsec = UTIME_OMIT },
{ .tv_sec = -2, .tv_nsec = 42 }
assert(utimensat(AT_FDCWD, ".", ts, 0) == 0);

struct stat st;
assert(stat(".", &st) == 0);
printf("st_mtim.tv_sec = %lld, st_mtim.tv_nsec = %lu\n",
(long long) st.st_mtim.tv_sec,
(unsigned long) st.st_mtim.tv_nsec);

struct statx stx;
assert(syscall(__NR_statx, AT_FDCWD, ".", 0, 0, &stx) == 0);
printf("stx_mtime.tv_sec = %lld, stx_mtime.tv_nsec = %lu\n",
(long long) stx.stx_mtime.tv_sec,
(unsigned long) stx.stx_mtime.tv_nsec);

return 0;

It expectedly prints:
st_mtim.tv_sec = -2, st_mtim.tv_nsec = 42
stx_mtime.tv_sec = -2, stx_mtime.tv_nsec = 42

The more generic comment asserting that the value of struct
statx_timestamp.tv_nsec might be negative is confusing to say the least.

It contradicts both the struct stat.st_[acm]time_nsec tradition and
struct timespec.tv_nsec requirements in utimensat syscall.
If statx syscall ever returns a stx_[acm]time containing a negative
tv_nsec that cannot be passed unmodified to utimensat syscall,
it will cause an immense confusion.

Fix this source of confusion by changing the type of struct
statx_timestamp.tv_nsec from __s32 to __u32.

Fixes: a528d35e8bfc ("statx: Add a system call to make enhanced file info available")
Signed-off-by: Dmitry V. Levin <ldv@altlinux.org>
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: linux-api@vger.kernel.org
cc: mtk.manpages@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# 3209f68b 31-Mar-2017 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

statx: Include a mask for stx_attributes in struct statx

Include a mask in struct stat to indicate which bits of stx_attributes the
filesystem actually supports.

This would also be useful if we add another system call that allows you to
do a 'bulk attribute set' and pass in a statx struct with the masks
appropriately set to say what you want to set.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# 47071aee 31-Mar-2017 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

statx: Reserve the top bit of the mask for future struct expansion

Reserve the top bit of the mask for future expansion of the statx struct
and give an error if statx() sees it set. All the other bits are ignored
if we see them set but don't support the bit; we just clear the bit in the
returned mask.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# a528d35e 31-Jan-2017 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

statx: Add a system call to make enhanced file info available

Add a system call to make extended file information available, including
file creation and some attribute flags where available through the
underlying filesystem.

The getattr inode operation is altered to take two additional arguments: a
u32 request_mask and an unsigned int flags that indicate the
synchronisation mode. This change is propagated to the vfs_getattr*()

Functions like vfs_stat() are now inline wrappers around new functions
vfs_statx() and vfs_statx_fd() to reduce stack usage.


The idea was initially proposed as a set of xattrs that could be retrieved
with getxattr(), but the general preference proved to be for a new syscall
with an extended stat structure.

A number of requests were gathered for features to be included. The
following have been included:

(1) Make the fields a consistent size on all arches and make them large.

(2) Spare space, request flags and information flags are provided for
future expansion.

(3) Better support for the y2038 problem [Arnd Bergmann] (tv_sec is an

(4) Creation time: The SMB protocol carries the creation time, which could
be exported by Samba, which will in turn help CIFS make use of
FS-Cache as that can be used for coherency data (stx_btime).

This is also specified in NFSv4 as a recommended attribute and could
be exported by NFSD [Steve French].

(5) Lightweight stat: Ask for just those details of interest, and allow a
netfs (such as NFS) to approximate anything not of interest, possibly
without going to the server [Trond Myklebust, Ulrich Drepper, Andreas

(6) Heavyweight stat: Force a netfs to go to the server, even if it thinks
its cached attributes are up to date [Trond Myklebust]

And the following have been left out for future extension:

(7) Data version number: Could be used by userspace NFS servers [Aneesh

Can also be used to modify fill_post_wcc() in NFSD which retrieves
i_version directly, but has just called vfs_getattr(). It could get
it from the kstat struct if it used vfs_xgetattr() instead.

(There's disagreement on the exact semantics of a single field, since
not all filesystems do this the same way).

(8) BSD stat compatibility: Including more fields from the BSD stat such
as creation time (st_btime) and inode generation number (st_gen)
[Jeremy Allison, Bernd Schubert].

(9) Inode generation number: Useful for FUSE and userspace NFS servers
[Bernd Schubert].

(This was asked for but later deemed unnecessary with the
open-by-handle capability available and caused disagreement as to
whether it's a security hole or not).

(10) Extra coherency data may be useful in making backups [Andreas Dilger].

(No particular data were offered, but things like last backup
timestamp, the data version number and the DOS archive bit would come
into this category).

(11) Allow the filesystem to indicate what it can/cannot provide: A
filesystem can now say it doesn't support a standard stat feature if
that isn't available, so if, for instance, inode numbers or UIDs don't
exist or are fabricated locally...

(This requires a separate system call - I have an fsinfo() call idea
for this).

(12) Store a 16-byte volume ID in the superblock that can be returned in
struct xstat [Steve French].

(Deferred to fsinfo).

(13) Include granularity fields in the time data to indicate the
granularity of each of the times (NFSv4 time_delta) [Steve French].

(Deferred to fsinfo).

(14) FS_IOC_GETFLAGS value. These could be translated to BSD's st_flags.
Note that the Linux IOC flags are a mess and filesystems such as Ext4
define flags that aren't in linux/fs.h, so translation in the kernel
may be a necessity (or, possibly, we provide the filesystem type too).

(Some attributes are made available in stx_attributes, but the general
feeling was that the IOC flags were to ext[234]-specific and shouldn't
be exposed through statx this way).

(15) Mask of features available on file (eg: ACLs, seclabel) [Brad Boyer,
Michael Kerrisk].

(Deferred, probably to fsinfo. Finding out if there's an ACL or
seclabal might require extra filesystem operations).

(16) Femtosecond-resolution timestamps [Dave Chinner].

(A __reserved field has been left in the statx_timestamp struct for
this - if there proves to be a need).

(17) A set multiple attributes syscall to go with this.


The new system call is:

int ret = statx(int dfd,
const char *filename,
unsigned int flags,
unsigned int mask,
struct statx *buffer);

The dfd, filename and flags parameters indicate the file to query, in a
similar way to fstatat(). There is no equivalent of lstat() as that can be
emulated with statx() by passing AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW in flags. There is
also no equivalent of fstat() as that can be emulated by passing a NULL
filename to statx() with the fd of interest in dfd.

Whether or not statx() synchronises the attributes with the backing store
can be controlled by OR'ing a value into the flags argument (this typically
only affects network filesystems):

(1) AT_STATX_SYNC_AS_STAT tells statx() to behave as stat() does in this

(2) AT_STATX_FORCE_SYNC will require a network filesystem to synchronise
its attributes with the server - which might require data writeback to
occur to get the timestamps correct.

(3) AT_STATX_DONT_SYNC will suppress synchronisation with the server in a
network filesystem. The resulting values should be considered

mask is a bitmask indicating the fields in struct statx that are of
interest to the caller. The user should set this to STATX_BASIC_STATS to
get the basic set returned by stat(). It should be noted that asking for
more information may entail extra I/O operations.

buffer points to the destination for the data. This must be 256 bytes in


The following structures are defined in which to return the main attribute

struct statx_timestamp {
__s64 tv_sec;
__s32 tv_nsec;
__s32 __reserved;

struct statx {
__u32 stx_mask;
__u32 stx_blksize;
__u64 stx_attributes;
__u32 stx_nlink;
__u32 stx_uid;
__u32 stx_gid;
__u16 stx_mode;
__u16 __spare0[1];
__u64 stx_ino;
__u64 stx_size;
__u64 stx_blocks;
__u64 __spare1[1];
struct statx_timestamp stx_atime;
struct statx_timestamp stx_btime;
struct statx_timestamp stx_ctime;
struct statx_timestamp stx_mtime;
__u32 stx_rdev_major;
__u32 stx_rdev_minor;
__u32 stx_dev_major;
__u32 stx_dev_minor;
__u64 __spare2[14];

The defined bits in request_mask and stx_mask are:

STATX_TYPE Want/got stx_mode & S_IFMT
STATX_MODE Want/got stx_mode & ~S_IFMT
STATX_NLINK Want/got stx_nlink
STATX_UID Want/got stx_uid
STATX_GID Want/got stx_gid
STATX_ATIME Want/got stx_atime{,_ns}
STATX_MTIME Want/got stx_mtime{,_ns}
STATX_CTIME Want/got stx_ctime{,_ns}
STATX_INO Want/got stx_ino
STATX_SIZE Want/got stx_size
STATX_BLOCKS Want/got stx_blocks
STATX_BASIC_STATS [The stuff in the normal stat struct]
STATX_BTIME Want/got stx_btime{,_ns}
STATX_ALL [All currently available stuff]

stx_btime is the file creation time, stx_mask is a bitmask indicating the
data provided and __spares*[] are where as-yet undefined fields can be

Time fields are structures with separate seconds and nanoseconds fields
plus a reserved field in case we want to add even finer resolution. Note
that times will be negative if before 1970; in such a case, the nanosecond
fields will also be negative if not zero.

The bits defined in the stx_attributes field convey information about a
file, how it is accessed, where it is and what it does. The following
attributes map to FS_*_FL flags and are the same numerical value:

STATX_ATTR_COMPRESSED File is compressed by the fs
STATX_ATTR_IMMUTABLE File is marked immutable
STATX_ATTR_APPEND File is append-only
STATX_ATTR_NODUMP File is not to be dumped
STATX_ATTR_ENCRYPTED File requires key to decrypt in fs

Within the kernel, the supported flags are listed by:


[Are any other IOC flags of sufficient general interest to be exposed
through this interface?]

New flags include:

STATX_ATTR_AUTOMOUNT Object is an automount trigger

These are for the use of GUI tools that might want to mark files specially,
depending on what they are.

Fields in struct statx come in a number of classes:

(0) stx_dev_*, stx_blksize.

These are local system information and are always available.

(1) stx_mode, stx_nlinks, stx_uid, stx_gid, stx_[amc]time, stx_ino,
stx_size, stx_blocks.

These will be returned whether the caller asks for them or not. The
corresponding bits in stx_mask will be set to indicate whether they
actually have valid values.

If the caller didn't ask for them, then they may be approximated. For
example, NFS won't waste any time updating them from the server,
unless as a byproduct of updating something requested.

If the values don't actually exist for the underlying object (such as
UID or GID on a DOS file), then the bit won't be set in the stx_mask,
even if the caller asked for the value. In such a case, the returned
value will be a fabrication.

Note that there are instances where the type might not be valid, for
instance Windows reparse points.

(2) stx_rdev_*.

This will be set only if stx_mode indicates we're looking at a
blockdev or a chardev, otherwise will be 0.

(3) stx_btime.

Similar to (1), except this will be set to 0 if it doesn't exist.


The following test program can be used to test the statx system call:


Just compile and run, passing it paths to the files you want to examine.
The file is built automatically if CONFIG_SAMPLES is enabled.

Here's some example output. Firstly, an NFS directory that crosses to
another FSID. Note that the AUTOMOUNT attribute is set because transiting
this directory will cause d_automount to be invoked by the VFS.

[root@andromeda ~]# /tmp/test-statx -A /warthog/data
statx(/warthog/data) = 0
Size: 4096 Blocks: 8 IO Block: 1048576 directory
Device: 00:26 Inode: 1703937 Links: 125
Access: (3777/drwxrwxrwx) Uid: 0 Gid: 4041
Access: 2016-11-24 09:02:12.219699527+0000
Modify: 2016-11-17 10:44:36.225653653+0000
Change: 2016-11-17 10:44:36.225653653+0000
Attributes: 0000000000001000 (-------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- ---m---- --------)

Secondly, the result of automounting on that directory.

[root@andromeda ~]# /tmp/test-statx /warthog/data
statx(/warthog/data) = 0
Size: 4096 Blocks: 8 IO Block: 1048576 directory
Device: 00:27 Inode: 2 Links: 125
Access: (3777/drwxrwxrwx) Uid: 0 Gid: 4041
Access: 2016-11-24 09:02:12.219699527+0000
Modify: 2016-11-17 10:44:36.225653653+0000
Change: 2016-11-17 10:44:36.225653653+0000

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# 607ca46e 13-Oct-2012 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

UAPI: (Scripted) Disintegrate include/linux

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Acked-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Acked-by: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com>