History log of /linux-master/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 34d4ef57 23-May-2022 Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>

bpf: Add dynptr data slices

This patch adds a new helper function

void *bpf_dynptr_data(struct bpf_dynptr *ptr, u32 offset, u32 len);

which returns a pointer to the underlying data of a dynptr. *len*
must be a statically known value. The bpf program may access the returned
data slice as a normal buffer (eg can do direct reads and writes), since
the verifier associates the length with the returned pointer, and
enforces that no out of bounds accesses occur.

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220523210712.3641569-6-joannelkoong@gmail.com


# 13bbbfbe 23-May-2022 Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>

bpf: Add bpf_dynptr_read and bpf_dynptr_write

This patch adds two helper functions, bpf_dynptr_read and
bpf_dynptr_write:

long bpf_dynptr_read(void *dst, u32 len, struct bpf_dynptr *src, u32 offset);

long bpf_dynptr_write(struct bpf_dynptr *dst, u32 offset, void *src, u32 len);

The dynptr passed into these functions must be valid dynptrs that have
been initialized.

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220523210712.3641569-5-joannelkoong@gmail.com


# bc34dee6 23-May-2022 Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>

bpf: Dynptr support for ring buffers

Currently, our only way of writing dynamically-sized data into a ring
buffer is through bpf_ringbuf_output but this incurs an extra memcpy
cost. bpf_ringbuf_reserve + bpf_ringbuf_commit avoids this extra
memcpy, but it can only safely support reservation sizes that are
statically known since the verifier cannot guarantee that the bpf
program won’t access memory outside the reserved space.

The bpf_dynptr abstraction allows for dynamically-sized ring buffer
reservations without the extra memcpy.

There are 3 new APIs:

long bpf_ringbuf_reserve_dynptr(void *ringbuf, u32 size, u64 flags, struct bpf_dynptr *ptr);
void bpf_ringbuf_submit_dynptr(struct bpf_dynptr *ptr, u64 flags);
void bpf_ringbuf_discard_dynptr(struct bpf_dynptr *ptr, u64 flags);

These closely follow the functionalities of the original ringbuf APIs.
For example, all ringbuffer dynptrs that have been reserved must be
either submitted or discarded before the program exits.

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: David Vernet <void@manifault.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220523210712.3641569-4-joannelkoong@gmail.com


# 263ae152 23-May-2022 Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>

bpf: Add bpf_dynptr_from_mem for local dynptrs

This patch adds a new api bpf_dynptr_from_mem:

long bpf_dynptr_from_mem(void *data, u32 size, u64 flags, struct bpf_dynptr *ptr);

which initializes a dynptr to point to a bpf program's local memory. For now
only local memory that is of reg type PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE is supported.

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220523210712.3641569-3-joannelkoong@gmail.com


# 97e03f52 23-May-2022 Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>

bpf: Add verifier support for dynptrs

This patch adds the bulk of the verifier work for supporting dynamic
pointers (dynptrs) in bpf.

A bpf_dynptr is opaque to the bpf program. It is a 16-byte structure
defined internally as:

struct bpf_dynptr_kern {
void *data;
u32 size;
u32 offset;
} __aligned(8);

The upper 8 bits of *size* is reserved (it contains extra metadata about
read-only status and dynptr type). Consequently, a dynptr only supports
memory less than 16 MB.

There are different types of dynptrs (eg malloc, ringbuf, ...). In this
patchset, the most basic one, dynptrs to a bpf program's local memory,
is added. For now only local memory that is of reg type PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE
is supported.

In the verifier, dynptr state information will be tracked in stack
slots. When the program passes in an uninitialized dynptr
(ARG_PTR_TO_DYNPTR | MEM_UNINIT), the stack slots corresponding
to the frame pointer where the dynptr resides at are marked
STACK_DYNPTR. For helper functions that take in initialized dynptrs (eg
bpf_dynptr_read + bpf_dynptr_write which are added later in this
patchset), the verifier enforces that the dynptr has been initialized
properly by checking that their corresponding stack slots have been
marked as STACK_DYNPTR.

The 6th patch in this patchset adds test cases that the verifier should
successfully reject, such as for example attempting to use a dynptr
after doing a direct write into it inside the bpf program.

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannelkoong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: David Vernet <void@manifault.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220523210712.3641569-2-joannelkoong@gmail.com


# 3bc253c2 19-May-2022 Geliang Tang <geliang.tang@suse.com>

bpf: Add bpf_skc_to_mptcp_sock_proto

This patch implements a new struct bpf_func_proto, named
bpf_skc_to_mptcp_sock_proto. Define a new bpf_id BTF_SOCK_TYPE_MPTCP,
and a new helper bpf_skc_to_mptcp_sock(), which invokes another new
helper bpf_mptcp_sock_from_subflow() in net/mptcp/bpf.c to get struct
mptcp_sock from a given subflow socket.

v2: Emit BTF type, add func_id checks in verifier.c and bpf_trace.c,
remove build check for CONFIG_BPF_JIT
v5: Drop EXPORT_SYMBOL (Martin)

Co-developed-by: Nicolas Rybowski <nicolas.rybowski@tessares.net>
Co-developed-by: Matthieu Baerts <matthieu.baerts@tessares.net>
Signed-off-by: Nicolas Rybowski <nicolas.rybowski@tessares.net>
Signed-off-by: Matthieu Baerts <matthieu.baerts@tessares.net>
Signed-off-by: Geliang Tang <geliang.tang@suse.com>
Signed-off-by: Mat Martineau <mathew.j.martineau@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220519233016.105670-2-mathew.j.martineau@linux.intel.com


# 07343110 11-May-2022 Feng Zhou <zhoufeng.zf@bytedance.com>

bpf: add bpf_map_lookup_percpu_elem for percpu map

Add new ebpf helpers bpf_map_lookup_percpu_elem.

The implementation method is relatively simple, refer to the implementation
method of map_lookup_elem of percpu map, increase the parameters of cpu, and
obtain it according to the specified cpu.

Signed-off-by: Feng Zhou <zhoufeng.zf@bytedance.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220511093854.411-2-zhoufeng.zf@bytedance.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 2fcc8241 10-May-2022 Kui-Feng Lee <kuifeng@fb.com>

bpf, x86: Attach a cookie to fentry/fexit/fmod_ret/lsm.

Pass a cookie along with BPF_LINK_CREATE requests.

Add a bpf_cookie field to struct bpf_tracing_link to attach a cookie.
The cookie of a bpf_tracing_link is available by calling
bpf_get_attach_cookie when running the BPF program of the attached
link.

The value of a cookie will be set at bpf_tramp_run_ctx by the
trampoline of the link.

Signed-off-by: Kui-Feng Lee <kuifeng@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220510205923.3206889-4-kuifeng@fb.com


# f7e0beaf 10-May-2022 Kui-Feng Lee <kuifeng@fb.com>

bpf, x86: Generate trampolines from bpf_tramp_links

Replace struct bpf_tramp_progs with struct bpf_tramp_links to collect
struct bpf_tramp_link(s) for a trampoline. struct bpf_tramp_link
extends bpf_link to act as a linked list node.

arch_prepare_bpf_trampoline() accepts a struct bpf_tramp_links to
collects all bpf_tramp_link(s) that a trampoline should call.

Change BPF trampoline and bpf_struct_ops to pass bpf_tramp_links
instead of bpf_tramp_progs.

Signed-off-by: Kui-Feng Lee <kuifeng@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220510205923.3206889-2-kuifeng@fb.com


# 26101f5a 30-Apr-2022 Kaixi Fan <fankaixi.li@bytedance.com>

bpf: Add source ip in "struct bpf_tunnel_key"

Add tunnel source ip field in "struct bpf_tunnel_key". Add related code
to set and get tunnel source field.

Signed-off-by: Kaixi Fan <fankaixi.li@bytedance.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220430074844.69214-2-fankaixi.li@bytedance.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c0a5a21c 24-Apr-2022 Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>

bpf: Allow storing referenced kptr in map

Extending the code in previous commits, introduce referenced kptr
support, which needs to be tagged using 'kptr_ref' tag instead. Unlike
unreferenced kptr, referenced kptr have a lot more restrictions. In
addition to the type matching, only a newly introduced bpf_kptr_xchg
helper is allowed to modify the map value at that offset. This transfers
the referenced pointer being stored into the map, releasing the
references state for the program, and returning the old value and
creating new reference state for the returned pointer.

Similar to unreferenced pointer case, return value for this case will
also be PTR_TO_BTF_ID_OR_NULL. The reference for the returned pointer
must either be eventually released by calling the corresponding release
function, otherwise it must be transferred into another map.

It is also allowed to call bpf_kptr_xchg with a NULL pointer, to clear
the value, and obtain the old value if any.

BPF_LDX, BPF_STX, and BPF_ST cannot access referenced kptr. A future
commit will permit using BPF_LDX for such pointers, but attempt at
making it safe, since the lifetime of object won't be guaranteed.

There are valid reasons to enforce the restriction of permitting only
bpf_kptr_xchg to operate on referenced kptr. The pointer value must be
consistent in face of concurrent modification, and any prior values
contained in the map must also be released before a new one is moved
into the map. To ensure proper transfer of this ownership, bpf_kptr_xchg
returns the old value, which the verifier would require the user to
either free or move into another map, and releases the reference held
for the pointer being moved in.

In the future, direct BPF_XCHG instruction may also be permitted to work
like bpf_kptr_xchg helper.

Note that process_kptr_func doesn't have to call
check_helper_mem_access, since we already disallow rdonly/wronly flags
for map, which is what check_map_access_type checks, and we already
ensure the PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE refers to kptr by obtaining its off_desc,
so check_map_access is also not required.

Signed-off-by: Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220424214901.2743946-4-memxor@gmail.com


# ee2a0988 14-Mar-2022 Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org>

bpf: Adjust BPF stack helper functions to accommodate skip > 0

Let's say that the caller has storage for num_elem stack frames. Then,
the BPF stack helper functions walk the stack for only num_elem frames.
This means that if skip > 0, one keeps only 'num_elem - skip' frames.

This is because it sets init_nr in the perf_callchain_entry to the end
of the buffer to save num_elem entries only. I believe it was because
the perf callchain code unwound the stack frames until it reached the
global max size (sysctl_perf_event_max_stack).

However it now has perf_callchain_entry_ctx.max_stack to limit the
iteration locally. This simplifies the code to handle init_nr in the
BPF callstack entries and removes the confusion with the perf_event's
__PERF_SAMPLE_CALLCHAIN_EARLY which sets init_nr to 0.

Also change the comment on bpf_get_stack() in the header file to be
more explicit what the return value means.

Fixes: c195651e565a ("bpf: add bpf_get_stack helper")
Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/30a7b5d5-6726-1cc2-eaee-8da2828a9a9c@oracle.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220314182042.71025-1-namhyung@kernel.org

Based-on-patch-by: Eugene Loh <eugene.loh@oracle.com>


# ca74823c 16-Mar-2022 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>

bpf: Add cookie support to programs attached with kprobe multi link

Adding support to call bpf_get_attach_cookie helper from
kprobe programs attached with kprobe multi link.

The cookie is provided by array of u64 values, where each
value is paired with provided function address or symbol
with the same array index.

When cookie array is provided it's sorted together with
addresses (check bpf_kprobe_multi_cookie_swap). This way
we can find cookie based on the address in
bpf_get_attach_cookie helper.

Suggested-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220316122419.933957-7-jolsa@kernel.org


# 0dcac272 16-Mar-2022 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>

bpf: Add multi kprobe link

Adding new link type BPF_LINK_TYPE_KPROBE_MULTI that attaches kprobe
program through fprobe API.

The fprobe API allows to attach probe on multiple functions at once
very fast, because it works on top of ftrace. On the other hand this
limits the probe point to the function entry or return.

The kprobe program gets the same pt_regs input ctx as when it's attached
through the perf API.

Adding new attach type BPF_TRACE_KPROBE_MULTI that allows attachment
kprobe to multiple function with new link.

User provides array of addresses or symbols with count to attach the
kprobe program to. The new link_create uapi interface looks like:

struct {
__u32 flags;
__u32 cnt;
__aligned_u64 syms;
__aligned_u64 addrs;
} kprobe_multi;

The flags field allows single BPF_TRACE_KPROBE_MULTI bit to create
return multi kprobe.

Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220316122419.933957-4-jolsa@kernel.org


# 174b1694 01-Mar-2022 Roberto Sassu <roberto.sassu@huawei.com>

bpf-lsm: Introduce new helper bpf_ima_file_hash()

ima_file_hash() has been modified to calculate the measurement of a file on
demand, if it has not been already performed by IMA or the measurement is
not fresh. For compatibility reasons, ima_inode_hash() remains unchanged.

Keep the same approach in eBPF and introduce the new helper
bpf_ima_file_hash() to take advantage of the modified behavior of
ima_file_hash().

Signed-off-by: Roberto Sassu <roberto.sassu@huawei.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220302111404.193900-4-roberto.sassu@huawei.com


# 58617014 10-Mar-2022 Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>

bpf: Fix comment for helper bpf_current_task_under_cgroup()

Fix the descriptions of the return values of helper bpf_current_task_under_cgroup().

Fixes: c6b5fb8690fa ("bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (42-50)")
Signed-off-by: Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220310155335.1278783-1-hengqi.chen@gmail.com


# 9bb984f2 09-Mar-2022 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Remove BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_NONE and rename s/delivery_time_/tstamp_/

This patch is to simplify the uapi bpf.h regarding to the tstamp type
and use a similar way as the kernel to describe the value stored
in __sk_buff->tstamp.

My earlier thought was to avoid describing the semantic and
clock base for the rcv timestamp until there is more clarity
on the use case, so the __sk_buff->delivery_time_type naming instead
of __sk_buff->tstamp_type.

With some thoughts, it can reuse the UNSPEC naming. This patch first
removes BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_NONE and also

rename BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_UNSPEC to BPF_SKB_TSTAMP_UNSPEC
and BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_MONO to BPF_SKB_TSTAMP_DELIVERY_MONO.

The semantic of BPF_SKB_TSTAMP_DELIVERY_MONO is the same:
__sk_buff->tstamp has delivery time in mono clock base.

BPF_SKB_TSTAMP_UNSPEC means __sk_buff->tstamp has the (rcv)
tstamp at ingress and the delivery time at egress. At egress,
the clock base could be found from skb->sk->sk_clockid.
__sk_buff->tstamp == 0 naturally means NONE, so NONE is not needed.

With BPF_SKB_TSTAMP_UNSPEC for the rcv tstamp at ingress,
the __sk_buff->delivery_time_type is also renamed to __sk_buff->tstamp_type
which was also suggested in the earlier discussion:
https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/b181acbe-caf8-502d-4b7b-7d96b9fc5d55@iogearbox.net/

The above will then make __sk_buff->tstamp and __sk_buff->tstamp_type
the same as its kernel skb->tstamp and skb->mono_delivery_time
counter part.

The internal kernel function bpf_skb_convert_dtime_type_read() is then
renamed to bpf_skb_convert_tstamp_type_read() and it can be simplified
with the BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_NONE gone. A BPF_ALU32_IMM(BPF_AND)
insn is also saved by using BPF_JMP32_IMM(BPF_JSET).

The bpf helper bpf_skb_set_delivery_time() is also renamed to
bpf_skb_set_tstamp(). The arg name is changed from dtime
to tstamp also. It only allows setting tstamp 0 for
BPF_SKB_TSTAMP_UNSPEC and it could be relaxed later
if there is use case to change mono delivery time to
non mono.

prog->delivery_time_access is also renamed to prog->tstamp_type_access.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220309090509.3712315-1-kafai@fb.com


# b530e9e1 09-Mar-2022 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

bpf: Add "live packet" mode for XDP in BPF_PROG_RUN

This adds support for running XDP programs through BPF_PROG_RUN in a mode
that enables live packet processing of the resulting frames. Previous uses
of BPF_PROG_RUN for XDP returned the XDP program return code and the
modified packet data to userspace, which is useful for unit testing of XDP
programs.

The existing BPF_PROG_RUN for XDP allows userspace to set the ingress
ifindex and RXQ number as part of the context object being passed to the
kernel. This patch reuses that code, but adds a new mode with different
semantics, which can be selected with the new BPF_F_TEST_XDP_LIVE_FRAMES
flag.

When running BPF_PROG_RUN in this mode, the XDP program return codes will
be honoured: returning XDP_PASS will result in the frame being injected
into the networking stack as if it came from the selected networking
interface, while returning XDP_TX and XDP_REDIRECT will result in the frame
being transmitted out that interface. XDP_TX is translated into an
XDP_REDIRECT operation to the same interface, since the real XDP_TX action
is only possible from within the network drivers themselves, not from the
process context where BPF_PROG_RUN is executed.

Internally, this new mode of operation creates a page pool instance while
setting up the test run, and feeds pages from that into the XDP program.
The setup cost of this is amortised over the number of repetitions
specified by userspace.

To support the performance testing use case, we further optimise the setup
step so that all pages in the pool are pre-initialised with the packet
data, and pre-computed context and xdp_frame objects stored at the start of
each page. This makes it possible to entirely avoid touching the page
content on each XDP program invocation, and enables sending up to 9
Mpps/core on my test box.

Because the data pages are recycled by the page pool, and the test runner
doesn't re-initialise them for each run, subsequent invocations of the XDP
program will see the packet data in the state it was after the last time it
ran on that particular page. This means that an XDP program that modifies
the packet before redirecting it has to be careful about which assumptions
it makes about the packet content, but that is only an issue for the most
naively written programs.

Enabling the new flag is only allowed when not setting ctx_out and data_out
in the test specification, since using it means frames will be redirected
somewhere else, so they can't be returned.

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220309105346.100053-2-toke@redhat.com


# 8d21ec0e 02-Mar-2022 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add __sk_buff->delivery_time_type and bpf_skb_set_skb_delivery_time()

* __sk_buff->delivery_time_type:
This patch adds __sk_buff->delivery_time_type. It tells if the
delivery_time is stored in __sk_buff->tstamp or not.

It will be most useful for ingress to tell if the __sk_buff->tstamp
has the (rcv) timestamp or delivery_time. If delivery_time_type
is 0 (BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_NONE), it has the (rcv) timestamp.

Two non-zero types are defined for the delivery_time_type,
BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_MONO and BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_UNSPEC. For UNSPEC,
it can only happen in egress because only mono delivery_time can be
forwarded to ingress now. The clock of UNSPEC delivery_time
can be deduced from the skb->sk->sk_clockid which is how
the sch_etf doing it also.

* Provide forwarded delivery_time to tc-bpf@ingress:
With the help of the new delivery_time_type, the tc-bpf has a way
to tell if the __sk_buff->tstamp has the (rcv) timestamp or
the delivery_time. During bpf load time, the verifier will learn if
the bpf prog has accessed the new __sk_buff->delivery_time_type.
If it does, it means the tc-bpf@ingress is expecting the
skb->tstamp could have the delivery_time. The kernel will then
read the skb->tstamp as-is during bpf insn rewrite without
checking the skb->mono_delivery_time. This is done by adding a
new prog->delivery_time_access bit. The same goes for
writing skb->tstamp.

* bpf_skb_set_delivery_time():
The bpf_skb_set_delivery_time() helper is added to allow setting both
delivery_time and the delivery_time_type at the same time. If the
tc-bpf does not need to change the delivery_time_type, it can directly
write to the __sk_buff->tstamp as the existing tc-bpf has already been
doing. It will be most useful at ingress to change the
__sk_buff->tstamp from the (rcv) timestamp to
a mono delivery_time and then bpf_redirect_*().

bpf only has mono clock helper (bpf_ktime_get_ns), and
the current known use case is the mono EDT for fq, and
only mono delivery time can be kept during forward now,
so bpf_skb_set_delivery_time() only supports setting
BPF_SKB_DELIVERY_TIME_MONO. It can be extended later when use cases
come up and the forwarding path also supports other clock bases.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 9a69e2b3 09-Feb-2022 Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>

bpf: Make remote_port field in struct bpf_sk_lookup 16-bit wide

remote_port is another case of a BPF context field documented as a 32-bit
value in network byte order for which the BPF context access converter
generates a load of a zero-padded 16-bit integer in network byte order.

First such case was dst_port in bpf_sock which got addressed in commit
4421a582718a ("bpf: Make dst_port field in struct bpf_sock 16-bit wide").

Loading 4-bytes from the remote_port offset and converting the value with
bpf_ntohl() leads to surprising results, as the expected value is shifted
by 16 bits.

Reduce the confusion by splitting the field in two - a 16-bit field holding
a big-endian integer, and a 16-bit zero-padding anonymous field that
follows it.

Suggested-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220209184333.654927-2-jakub@cloudflare.com


# 4421a582 29-Jan-2022 Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>

bpf: Make dst_port field in struct bpf_sock 16-bit wide

Menglong Dong reports that the documentation for the dst_port field in
struct bpf_sock is inaccurate and confusing. From the BPF program PoV, the
field is a zero-padded 16-bit integer in network byte order. The value
appears to the BPF user as if laid out in memory as so:

offsetof(struct bpf_sock, dst_port) + 0 <port MSB>
+ 8 <port LSB>
+16 0x00
+24 0x00

32-, 16-, and 8-bit wide loads from the field are all allowed, but only if
the offset into the field is 0.

32-bit wide loads from dst_port are especially confusing. The loaded value,
after converting to host byte order with bpf_ntohl(dst_port), contains the
port number in the upper 16-bits.

Remove the confusion by splitting the field into two 16-bit fields. For
backward compatibility, allow 32-bit wide loads from offsetof(struct
bpf_sock, dst_port).

While at it, allow loads 8-bit loads at offset [0] and [1] from dst_port.

Reported-by: Menglong Dong <imagedong@tencent.com>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220130115518.213259-2-jakub@cloudflare.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 376040e4 24-Jan-2022 Kenny Yu <kennyyu@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_copy_from_user_task() helper

This adds a helper for bpf programs to read the memory of other
tasks.

As an example use case at Meta, we are using a bpf task iterator program
and this new helper to print C++ async stack traces for all threads of
a given process.

Signed-off-by: Kenny Yu <kennyyu@fb.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220124185403.468466-3-kennyyu@fb.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 3f364222 21-Jan-2022 Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>

net: xdp: introduce bpf_xdp_pointer utility routine

Similar to skb_header_pointer, introduce bpf_xdp_pointer utility routine
to return a pointer to a given position in the xdp_buff if the requested
area (offset + len) is contained in a contiguous memory area otherwise it
will be copied in a bounce buffer provided by the caller.
Similar to the tc counterpart, introduce the two following xdp helpers:
- bpf_xdp_load_bytes
- bpf_xdp_store_bytes

Reviewed-by: Eelco Chaudron <echaudro@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Toke Hoiland-Jorgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/ab285c1efdd5b7a9d361348b1e7d3ef49f6382b3.1642758637.git.lorenzo@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 0165cc81 21-Jan-2022 Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce bpf_xdp_get_buff_len helper

Introduce bpf_xdp_get_buff_len helper in order to return the xdp buffer
total size (linear and paged area)

Acked-by: Toke Hoiland-Jorgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/aac9ac3504c84026cf66a3c71b7c5ae89bc991be.1642758637.git.lorenzo@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c2f2cdbe 21-Jan-2022 Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_F_XDP_HAS_FRAGS flag in prog_flags loading the ebpf program

Introduce BPF_F_XDP_HAS_FRAGS and the related field in bpf_prog_aux
in order to notify the driver the loaded program support xdp frags.

Acked-by: Toke Hoiland-Jorgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/db2e8075b7032a356003f407d1b0deb99adaa0ed.1642758637.git.lorenzo@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# b44123b4 15-Dec-2021 YiFei Zhu <zhuyifei@google.com>

bpf: Add cgroup helpers bpf_{get,set}_retval to get/set syscall return value

The helpers continue to use int for retval because all the hooks
are int-returning rather than long-returning. The return value of
bpf_set_retval is int for future-proofing, in case in the future
there may be errors trying to set the retval.

After the previous patch, if a program rejects a syscall by
returning 0, an -EPERM will be generated no matter if the retval
is already set to -err. This patch change it being forced only if
retval is not -err. This is because we want to support, for
example, invoking bpf_set_retval(-EINVAL) and return 0, and have
the syscall return value be -EINVAL not -EPERM.

For BPF_PROG_CGROUP_INET_EGRESS_RUN_ARRAY, the prior behavior is
that, if the return value is NET_XMIT_DROP, the packet is silently
dropped. We preserve this behavior for backward compatibility
reasons, so even if an errno is set, the errno does not return to
caller. However, setting a non-err to retval cannot propagate so
this is not allowed and we return a -EFAULT in that case.

Signed-off-by: YiFei Zhu <zhuyifei@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/b4013fd5d16bed0b01977c1fafdeae12e1de61fb.1639619851.git.zhuyifei@google.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# e40fbbf0 19-Jan-2022 Usama Arif <usama.arif@bytedance.com>

uapi/bpf: Add missing description and returns for helper documentation

Both description and returns section will become mandatory
for helpers and syscalls in a later commit to generate man pages.

This commit also adds in the documentation that BPF_PROG_RUN is
an alias for BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN for anyone searching for the
syscall in the generated man pages.

Signed-off-by: Usama Arif <usama.arif@bytedance.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220119114442.1452088-1-usama.arif@bytedance.com


# f92c1e18 08-Dec-2021 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com>

bpf: Add get_func_[arg|ret|arg_cnt] helpers

Adding following helpers for tracing programs:

Get n-th argument of the traced function:
long bpf_get_func_arg(void *ctx, u32 n, u64 *value)

Get return value of the traced function:
long bpf_get_func_ret(void *ctx, u64 *value)

Get arguments count of the traced function:
long bpf_get_func_arg_cnt(void *ctx)

The trampoline now stores number of arguments on ctx-8
address, so it's easy to verify argument index and find
return value argument's position.

Moving function ip address on the trampoline stack behind
the number of functions arguments, so it's now stored on
ctx-16 address if it's needed.

All helpers above are inlined by verifier.

Also bit unrelated small change - using newly added function
bpf_prog_has_trampoline in check_get_func_ip.

Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211208193245.172141-5-jolsa@kernel.org


# c5fb1993 10-Dec-2021 Hou Tao <houtao1@huawei.com>

bpf: Add bpf_strncmp helper

The helper compares two strings: one string is a null-terminated
read-only string, and another string has const max storage size
but doesn't need to be null-terminated. It can be used to compare
file name in tracing or LSM program.

Signed-off-by: Hou Tao <houtao1@huawei.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211210141652.877186-2-houtao1@huawei.com


# fbd94c7a 01-Dec-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Pass a set of bpf_core_relo-s to prog_load command.

struct bpf_core_relo is generated by llvm and processed by libbpf.
It's a de-facto uapi.
With CO-RE in the kernel the struct bpf_core_relo becomes uapi de-jure.
Add an ability to pass a set of 'struct bpf_core_relo' to prog_load command
and let the kernel perform CO-RE relocations.

Note the struct bpf_line_info and struct bpf_func_info have the same
layout when passed from LLVM to libbpf and from libbpf to the kernel
except "insn_off" fields means "byte offset" when LLVM generates it.
Then libbpf converts it to "insn index" to pass to the kernel.
The struct bpf_core_relo's "insn_off" field is always "byte offset".

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211201181040.23337-6-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 46334a0c 01-Dec-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Define enum bpf_core_relo_kind as uapi.

enum bpf_core_relo_kind is generated by llvm and processed by libbpf.
It's a de-facto uapi.
With CO-RE in the kernel the bpf_core_relo_kind values become uapi de-jure.
Also rename them with BPF_CORE_ prefix to distinguish from conflicting names in
bpf_core_read.h. The enums bpf_field_info_kind, bpf_type_id_kind,
bpf_type_info_kind, bpf_enum_value_kind are passing different values from bpf
program into llvm.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211201181040.23337-5-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# e6f2dd0f 29-Nov-2021 Joanne Koong <joannekoong@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_loop helper

This patch adds the kernel-side and API changes for a new helper
function, bpf_loop:

long bpf_loop(u32 nr_loops, void *callback_fn, void *callback_ctx,
u64 flags);

where long (*callback_fn)(u32 index, void *ctx);

bpf_loop invokes the "callback_fn" **nr_loops** times or until the
callback_fn returns 1. The callback_fn can only return 0 or 1, and
this is enforced by the verifier. The callback_fn index is zero-indexed.

A few things to please note:
~ The "u64 flags" parameter is currently unused but is included in
case a future use case for it arises.
~ In the kernel-side implementation of bpf_loop (kernel/bpf/bpf_iter.c),
bpf_callback_t is used as the callback function cast.
~ A program can have nested bpf_loop calls but the program must
still adhere to the verifier constraint of its stack depth (the stack depth
cannot exceed MAX_BPF_STACK))
~ Recursive callback_fns do not pass the verifier, due to the call stack
for these being too deep.
~ The next patch will include the tests and benchmark

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannekoong@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211130030622.4131246-2-joannekoong@fb.com


# ebf7f6f0 04-Nov-2021 Tiezhu Yang <yangtiezhu@loongson.cn>

bpf: Change value of MAX_TAIL_CALL_CNT from 32 to 33

In the current code, the actual max tail call count is 33 which is greater
than MAX_TAIL_CALL_CNT (defined as 32). The actual limit is not consistent
with the meaning of MAX_TAIL_CALL_CNT and thus confusing at first glance.
We can see the historical evolution from commit 04fd61ab36ec ("bpf: allow
bpf programs to tail-call other bpf programs") and commit f9dabe016b63
("bpf: Undo off-by-one in interpreter tail call count limit"). In order
to avoid changing existing behavior, the actual limit is 33 now, this is
reasonable.

After commit 874be05f525e ("bpf, tests: Add tail call test suite"), we can
see there exists failed testcase.

On all archs when CONFIG_BPF_JIT_ALWAYS_ON is not set:
# echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
# modprobe test_bpf
# dmesg | grep -w FAIL
Tail call error path, max count reached jited:0 ret 34 != 33 FAIL

On some archs:
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
# modprobe test_bpf
# dmesg | grep -w FAIL
Tail call error path, max count reached jited:1 ret 34 != 33 FAIL

Although the above failed testcase has been fixed in commit 18935a72eb25
("bpf/tests: Fix error in tail call limit tests"), it would still be good
to change the value of MAX_TAIL_CALL_CNT from 32 to 33 to make the code
more readable.

The 32-bit x86 JIT was using a limit of 32, just fix the wrong comments and
limit to 33 tail calls as the constant MAX_TAIL_CALL_CNT updated. For the
mips64 JIT, use "ori" instead of "addiu" as suggested by Johan Almbladh.
For the riscv JIT, use RV_REG_TCC directly to save one register move as
suggested by Björn Töpel. For the other implementations, no function changes,
it does not change the current limit 33, the new value of MAX_TAIL_CALL_CNT
can reflect the actual max tail call count, the related tail call testcases
in test_bpf module and selftests can work well for the interpreter and the
JIT.

Here are the test results on x86_64:

# uname -m
x86_64
# echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
# modprobe test_bpf test_suite=test_tail_calls
# dmesg | tail -1
test_bpf: test_tail_calls: Summary: 8 PASSED, 0 FAILED, [0/8 JIT'ed]
# rmmod test_bpf
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
# modprobe test_bpf test_suite=test_tail_calls
# dmesg | tail -1
test_bpf: test_tail_calls: Summary: 8 PASSED, 0 FAILED, [8/8 JIT'ed]
# rmmod test_bpf
# ./test_progs -t tailcalls
#142 tailcalls:OK
Summary: 1/11 PASSED, 0 SKIPPED, 0 FAILED

Signed-off-by: Tiezhu Yang <yangtiezhu@loongson.cn>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Tested-by: Johan Almbladh <johan.almbladh@anyfinetworks.com>
Tested-by: Ilya Leoshkevich <iii@linux.ibm.com>
Acked-by: Björn Töpel <bjorn@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Johan Almbladh <johan.almbladh@anyfinetworks.com>
Acked-by: Ilya Leoshkevich <iii@linux.ibm.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/1636075800-3264-1-git-send-email-yangtiezhu@loongson.cn


# f8931565 10-Nov-2021 Mark Pashmfouroush <markpash@cloudflare.com>

bpf: Add ingress_ifindex to bpf_sk_lookup

It may be helpful to have access to the ifindex during bpf socket
lookup. An example may be to scope certain socket lookup logic to
specific interfaces, i.e. an interface may be made exempt from custom
lookup code.

Add the ifindex of the arriving connection to the bpf_sk_lookup API.

Signed-off-by: Mark Pashmfouroush <markpash@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211110111016.5670-2-markpash@cloudflare.com


# 7c7e3d31 05-Nov-2021 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce helper bpf_find_vma

In some profiler use cases, it is necessary to map an address to the
backing file, e.g., a shared library. bpf_find_vma helper provides a
flexible way to achieve this. bpf_find_vma maps an address of a task to
the vma (vm_area_struct) for this address, and feed the vma to an callback
BPF function. The callback function is necessary here, as we need to
ensure mmap_sem is unlocked.

It is necessary to lock mmap_sem for find_vma. To lock and unlock mmap_sem
safely when irqs are disable, we use the same mechanism as stackmap with
build_id. Specifically, when irqs are disabled, the unlocked is postponed
in an irq_work. Refactor stackmap.c so that the irq_work is shared among
bpf_find_vma and stackmap helpers.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211105232330.1936330-2-songliubraving@fb.com


# 8845b468 29-Oct-2021 Joanne Koong <joannekoong@fb.com>

bpf: Add alignment padding for "map_extra" + consolidate holes

This patch makes 2 changes regarding alignment padding
for the "map_extra" field.

1) In the kernel header, "map_extra" and "btf_value_type_id"
are rearranged to consolidate the hole.

Before:
struct bpf_map {
...
u32 max_entries; /* 36 4 */
u32 map_flags; /* 40 4 */

/* XXX 4 bytes hole, try to pack */

u64 map_extra; /* 48 8 */
int spin_lock_off; /* 56 4 */
int timer_off; /* 60 4 */
/* --- cacheline 1 boundary (64 bytes) --- */
u32 id; /* 64 4 */
int numa_node; /* 68 4 */
...
bool frozen; /* 117 1 */

/* XXX 10 bytes hole, try to pack */

/* --- cacheline 2 boundary (128 bytes) --- */
...
struct work_struct work; /* 144 72 */

/* --- cacheline 3 boundary (192 bytes) was 24 bytes ago --- */
struct mutex freeze_mutex; /* 216 144 */

/* --- cacheline 5 boundary (320 bytes) was 40 bytes ago --- */
u64 writecnt; /* 360 8 */

/* size: 384, cachelines: 6, members: 26 */
/* sum members: 354, holes: 2, sum holes: 14 */
/* padding: 16 */
/* forced alignments: 2, forced holes: 1, sum forced holes: 10 */

} __attribute__((__aligned__(64)));

After:
struct bpf_map {
...
u32 max_entries; /* 36 4 */
u64 map_extra; /* 40 8 */
u32 map_flags; /* 48 4 */
int spin_lock_off; /* 52 4 */
int timer_off; /* 56 4 */
u32 id; /* 60 4 */

/* --- cacheline 1 boundary (64 bytes) --- */
int numa_node; /* 64 4 */
...
bool frozen /* 113 1 */

/* XXX 14 bytes hole, try to pack */

/* --- cacheline 2 boundary (128 bytes) --- */
...
struct work_struct work; /* 144 72 */

/* --- cacheline 3 boundary (192 bytes) was 24 bytes ago --- */
struct mutex freeze_mutex; /* 216 144 */

/* --- cacheline 5 boundary (320 bytes) was 40 bytes ago --- */
u64 writecnt; /* 360 8 */

/* size: 384, cachelines: 6, members: 26 */
/* sum members: 354, holes: 1, sum holes: 14 */
/* padding: 16 */
/* forced alignments: 2, forced holes: 1, sum forced holes: 14 */

} __attribute__((__aligned__(64)));

2) Add alignment padding to the bpf_map_info struct
More details can be found in commit 36f9814a494a ("bpf: fix uapi hole
for 32 bit compat applications")

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannekoong@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211029224909.1721024-3-joannekoong@fb.com


# d6aef08a 27-Oct-2021 Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>

bpf: Add bpf_kallsyms_lookup_name helper

This helper allows us to get the address of a kernel symbol from inside
a BPF_PROG_TYPE_SYSCALL prog (used by gen_loader), so that we can
relocate typeless ksym vars.

Signed-off-by: Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211028063501.2239335-2-memxor@gmail.com


# 9330986c 27-Oct-2021 Joanne Koong <joannekoong@fb.com>

bpf: Add bloom filter map implementation

This patch adds the kernel-side changes for the implementation of
a bpf bloom filter map.

The bloom filter map supports peek (determining whether an element
is present in the map) and push (adding an element to the map)
operations.These operations are exposed to userspace applications
through the already existing syscalls in the following way:

BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM -> peek
BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM -> push

The bloom filter map does not have keys, only values. In light of
this, the bloom filter map's API matches that of queue stack maps:
user applications use BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM/BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM
which correspond internally to bpf_map_peek_elem/bpf_map_push_elem,
and bpf programs must use the bpf_map_peek_elem and bpf_map_push_elem
APIs to query or add an element to the bloom filter map. When the
bloom filter map is created, it must be created with a key_size of 0.

For updates, the user will pass in the element to add to the map
as the value, with a NULL key. For lookups, the user will pass in the
element to query in the map as the value, with a NULL key. In the
verifier layer, this requires us to modify the argument type of
a bloom filter's BPF_FUNC_map_peek_elem call to ARG_PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE;
as well, in the syscall layer, we need to copy over the user value
so that in bpf_map_peek_elem, we know which specific value to query.

A few things to please take note of:
* If there are any concurrent lookups + updates, the user is
responsible for synchronizing this to ensure no false negative lookups
occur.
* The number of hashes to use for the bloom filter is configurable from
userspace. If no number is specified, the default used will be 5 hash
functions. The benchmarks later in this patchset can help compare the
performance of using different number of hashes on different entry
sizes. In general, using more hashes decreases both the false positive
rate and the speed of a lookup.
* Deleting an element in the bloom filter map is not supported.
* The bloom filter map may be used as an inner map.
* The "max_entries" size that is specified at map creation time is used
to approximate a reasonable bitmap size for the bloom filter, and is not
otherwise strictly enforced. If the user wishes to insert more entries
into the bloom filter than "max_entries", they may do so but they should
be aware that this may lead to a higher false positive rate.

Signed-off-by: Joanne Koong <joannekoong@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211027234504.30744-2-joannekoong@fb.com


# aba64c7d 20-Oct-2021 Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>

bpf: Add verified_insns to bpf_prog_info and fdinfo

This stat is currently printed in the verifier log and not stored
anywhere. To ease consumption of this data, add a field to bpf_prog_aux
so it can be exposed via BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD and fdinfo.

Signed-off-by: Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211020074818.1017682-2-davemarchevsky@fb.com


# 9eeb3aa3 21-Oct-2021 Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>

bpf: Add bpf_skc_to_unix_sock() helper

The helper is used in tracing programs to cast a socket
pointer to a unix_sock pointer.
The return value could be NULL if the casting is illegal.

Suggested-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Hengqi Chen <hengqi.chen@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20211021134752.1223426-2-hengqi.chen@gmail.com


# a42effb0 17-Sep-2021 Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>

bpf: Clarify data_len param in bpf_snprintf and bpf_seq_printf comments

Since the data_len in these two functions is a byte len of the preceding
u64 *data array, it must always be a multiple of 8. If this isn't the
case both helpers error out, so let's make the requirement explicit so
users don't need to infer it.

Signed-off-by: Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210917182911.2426606-10-davemarchevsky@fb.com


# 10aceb62 17-Sep-2021 Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_trace_vprintk helper

This helper is meant to be "bpf_trace_printk, but with proper vararg
support". Follow bpf_snprintf's example and take a u64 pseudo-vararg
array. Write to /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe using the same
mechanism as bpf_trace_printk. The functionality of this helper was
requested in the libbpf issue tracker [0].

[0] Closes: https://github.com/libbpf/libbpf/issues/315

Signed-off-by: Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210917182911.2426606-4-davemarchevsky@fb.com


# 33656275 14-Sep-2021 Matteo Croce <mcroce@microsoft.com>

bpf: Update bpf_get_smp_processor_id() documentation

BPF programs run with migration disabled regardless of preemption, as
they are protected by migrate_disable(). Update the uapi documentation
accordingly.

Signed-off-by: Matteo Croce <mcroce@microsoft.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210914235400.59427-1-mcroce@linux.microsoft.com


# 856c02db 10-Sep-2021 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce helper bpf_get_branch_snapshot

Introduce bpf_get_branch_snapshot(), which allows tracing pogram to get
branch trace from hardware (e.g. Intel LBR). To use the feature, the
user need to create perf_event with proper branch_record filtering
on each cpu, and then calls bpf_get_branch_snapshot in the bpf function.
On Intel CPUs, VLBR event (raw event 0x1b00) can be use for this.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210910183352.3151445-3-songliubraving@fb.com


# f64c4ace 09-Sep-2021 Vadim Fedorenko <vfedorenko@novek.ru>

bpf: Add hardware timestamp field to __sk_buff

BPF programs may want to know hardware timestamps if NIC supports
such timestamping.

Expose this data as hwtstamp field of __sk_buff the same way as
gso_segs/gso_size. This field could be accessed from the same
programs as tstamp field, but it's read-only field. Explicit test
to deny access to padding data is added to bpf_skb_is_valid_access.

Also update BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN tests of the feature.

Signed-off-by: Vadim Fedorenko <vfedorenko@novek.ru>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210909220409.8804-2-vfedorenko@novek.ru


# dd6e10fb 23-Aug-2021 Daniel Xu <dxu@dxuuu.xyz>

bpf: Add bpf_task_pt_regs() helper

The motivation behind this helper is to access userspace pt_regs in a
kprobe handler.

uprobe's ctx is the userspace pt_regs. kprobe's ctx is the kernelspace
pt_regs. bpf_task_pt_regs() allows accessing userspace pt_regs in a
kprobe handler. The final case (kernelspace pt_regs in uprobe) is
pretty rare (usermode helper) so I think that can be solved later if
necessary.

More concretely, this helper is useful in doing BPF-based DWARF stack
unwinding. Currently the kernel can only do framepointer based stack
unwinds for userspace code. This is because the DWARF state machines are
too fragile to be computed in kernelspace [0]. The idea behind
DWARF-based stack unwinds w/ BPF is to copy a chunk of the userspace
stack (while in prog context) and send it up to userspace for unwinding
(probably with libunwind) [1]. This would effectively enable profiling
applications with -fomit-frame-pointer using kprobes and uprobes.

[0]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/2/10/356
[1]: https://github.com/danobi/bpf-dwarf-walk

Signed-off-by: Daniel Xu <dxu@dxuuu.xyz>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/e2718ced2d51ef4268590ab8562962438ab82815.1629772842.git.dxu@dxuuu.xyz


# 6fc88c35 19-Aug-2021 Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>

bpf: Migrate cgroup_bpf to internal cgroup_bpf_attach_type enum

Add an enum (cgroup_bpf_attach_type) containing only valid cgroup_bpf
attach types and a function to map bpf_attach_type values to the new
enum. Inspired by netns_bpf_attach_type.

Then, migrate cgroup_bpf to use cgroup_bpf_attach_type wherever
possible. Functionality is unchanged as attach_type_to_prog_type
switches in bpf/syscall.c were preventing non-cgroup programs from
making use of the invalid cgroup_bpf array slots.

As a result struct cgroup_bpf uses 504 fewer bytes relative to when its
arrays were sized using MAX_BPF_ATTACH_TYPE.

bpf_cgroup_storage is notably not migrated as struct
bpf_cgroup_storage_key is part of uapi and contains a bpf_attach_type
member which is not meant to be opaque. Similarly, bpf_cgroup_link
continues to report its bpf_attach_type member to userspace via fdinfo
and bpf_link_info.

To ease disambiguation, bpf_attach_type variables are renamed from
'type' to 'atype' when changed to cgroup_bpf_attach_type.

Signed-off-by: Dave Marchevsky <davemarchevsky@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210819092420.1984861-2-davemarchevsky@fb.com


# 7adfc6c9 15-Aug-2021 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

bpf: Add bpf_get_attach_cookie() BPF helper to access bpf_cookie value

Add new BPF helper, bpf_get_attach_cookie(), which can be used by BPF programs
to get access to a user-provided bpf_cookie value, specified during BPF
program attachment (BPF link creation) time.

Naming is hard, though. With the concept being named "BPF cookie", I've
considered calling the helper:
- bpf_get_cookie() -- seems too unspecific and easily mistaken with socket
cookie;
- bpf_get_bpf_cookie() -- too much tautology;
- bpf_get_link_cookie() -- would be ok, but while we create a BPF link to
attach BPF program to BPF hook, it's still an "attachment" and the
bpf_cookie is associated with BPF program attachment to a hook, not a BPF
link itself. Technically, we could support bpf_cookie with old-style
cgroup programs.So I ultimately rejected it in favor of
bpf_get_attach_cookie().

Currently all perf_event-backed BPF program types support
bpf_get_attach_cookie() helper. Follow-up patches will add support for
fentry/fexit programs as well.

While at it, mark bpf_tracing_func_proto() as static to make it obvious that
it's only used from within the kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210815070609.987780-7-andrii@kernel.org


# 82e6b1ee 15-Aug-2021 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

bpf: Allow to specify user-provided bpf_cookie for BPF perf links

Add ability for users to specify custom u64 value (bpf_cookie) when creating
BPF link for perf_event-backed BPF programs (kprobe/uprobe, perf_event,
tracepoints).

This is useful for cases when the same BPF program is used for attaching and
processing invocation of different tracepoints/kprobes/uprobes in a generic
fashion, but such that each invocation is distinguished from each other (e.g.,
BPF program can look up additional information associated with a specific
kernel function without having to rely on function IP lookups). This enables
new use cases to be implemented simply and efficiently that previously were
possible only through code generation (and thus multiple instances of almost
identical BPF program) or compilation at runtime (BCC-style) on target hosts
(even more expensive resource-wise). For uprobes it is not even possible in
some cases to know function IP before hand (e.g., when attaching to shared
library without PID filtering, in which case base load address is not known
for a library).

This is done by storing u64 bpf_cookie in struct bpf_prog_array_item,
corresponding to each attached and run BPF program. Given cgroup BPF programs
already use two 8-byte pointers for their needs and cgroup BPF programs don't
have (yet?) support for bpf_cookie, reuse that space through union of
cgroup_storage and new bpf_cookie field.

Make it available to kprobe/tracepoint BPF programs through bpf_trace_run_ctx.
This is set by BPF_PROG_RUN_ARRAY, used by kprobe/uprobe/tracepoint BPF
program execution code, which luckily is now also split from
BPF_PROG_RUN_ARRAY_CG. This run context will be utilized by a new BPF helper
giving access to this user-provided cookie value from inside a BPF program.
Generic perf_event BPF programs will access this value from perf_event itself
through passed in BPF program context.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210815070609.987780-6-andrii@kernel.org


# b89fbfbb 15-Aug-2021 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

bpf: Implement minimal BPF perf link

Introduce a new type of BPF link - BPF perf link. This brings perf_event-based
BPF program attachments (perf_event, tracepoints, kprobes, and uprobes) into
the common BPF link infrastructure, allowing to list all active perf_event
based attachments, auto-detaching BPF program from perf_event when link's FD
is closed, get generic BPF link fdinfo/get_info functionality.

BPF_LINK_CREATE command expects perf_event's FD as target_fd. No extra flags
are currently supported.

Force-detaching and atomic BPF program updates are not yet implemented, but
with perf_event-based BPF links we now have common framework for this without
the need to extend ioctl()-based perf_event interface.

One interesting consideration is a new value for bpf_attach_type, which
BPF_LINK_CREATE command expects. Generally, it's either 1-to-1 mapping from
bpf_attach_type to bpf_prog_type, or many-to-1 mapping from a subset of
bpf_attach_types to one bpf_prog_type (e.g., see BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_SKB or
BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK). In this case, though, we have three different
program types (KPROBE, TRACEPOINT, PERF_EVENT) using the same perf_event-based
mechanism, so it's many bpf_prog_types to one bpf_attach_type. I chose to
define a single BPF_PERF_EVENT attach type for all of them and adjust
link_create()'s logic for checking correspondence between attach type and
program type.

The alternative would be to define three new attach types (e.g., BPF_KPROBE,
BPF_TRACEPOINT, and BPF_PERF_EVENT), but that seemed like unnecessary overkill
and BPF_KPROBE will cause naming conflicts with BPF_KPROBE() macro, defined by
libbpf. I chose to not do this to avoid unnecessary proliferation of
bpf_attach_type enum values and not have to deal with naming conflicts.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210815070609.987780-5-andrii@kernel.org


# 9ffd9f3f 14-Jul-2021 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com>

bpf: Add bpf_get_func_ip helper for kprobe programs

Adding bpf_get_func_ip helper for BPF_PROG_TYPE_KPROBE programs,
so it's now possible to call bpf_get_func_ip from both kprobe and
kretprobe programs.

Taking the caller's address from 'struct kprobe::addr', which is
defined for both kprobe and kretprobe.

Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210714094400.396467-5-jolsa@kernel.org


# 9b99edca 14-Jul-2021 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com>

bpf: Add bpf_get_func_ip helper for tracing programs

Adding bpf_get_func_ip helper for BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACING programs,
specifically for all trampoline attach types.

The trampoline's caller IP address is stored in (ctx - 8) address.
so there's no reason to actually call the helper, but rather fixup
the call instruction and return [ctx - 8] value directly.

Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210714094400.396467-4-jolsa@kernel.org


# b00628b1 14-Jul-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Introduce bpf timers.

Introduce 'struct bpf_timer { __u64 :64; __u64 :64; };' that can be embedded
in hash/array/lru maps as a regular field and helpers to operate on it:

// Initialize the timer.
// First 4 bits of 'flags' specify clockid.
// Only CLOCK_MONOTONIC, CLOCK_REALTIME, CLOCK_BOOTTIME are allowed.
long bpf_timer_init(struct bpf_timer *timer, struct bpf_map *map, int flags);

// Configure the timer to call 'callback_fn' static function.
long bpf_timer_set_callback(struct bpf_timer *timer, void *callback_fn);

// Arm the timer to expire 'nsec' nanoseconds from the current time.
long bpf_timer_start(struct bpf_timer *timer, u64 nsec, u64 flags);

// Cancel the timer and wait for callback_fn to finish if it was running.
long bpf_timer_cancel(struct bpf_timer *timer);

Here is how BPF program might look like:
struct map_elem {
int counter;
struct bpf_timer timer;
};

struct {
__uint(type, BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH);
__uint(max_entries, 1000);
__type(key, int);
__type(value, struct map_elem);
} hmap SEC(".maps");

static int timer_cb(void *map, int *key, struct map_elem *val);
/* val points to particular map element that contains bpf_timer. */

SEC("fentry/bpf_fentry_test1")
int BPF_PROG(test1, int a)
{
struct map_elem *val;
int key = 0;

val = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&hmap, &key);
if (val) {
bpf_timer_init(&val->timer, &hmap, CLOCK_REALTIME);
bpf_timer_set_callback(&val->timer, timer_cb);
bpf_timer_start(&val->timer, 1000 /* call timer_cb2 in 1 usec */, 0);
}
}

This patch adds helper implementations that rely on hrtimers
to call bpf functions as timers expire.
The following patches add necessary safety checks.

Only programs with CAP_BPF are allowed to use bpf_timer.

The amount of timers used by the program is constrained by
the memcg recorded at map creation time.

The bpf_timer_init() helper needs explicit 'map' argument because inner maps
are dynamic and not known at load time. While the bpf_timer_set_callback() is
receiving hidden 'aux->prog' argument supplied by the verifier.

The prog pointer is needed to do refcnting of bpf program to make sure that
program doesn't get freed while the timer is armed. This approach relies on
"user refcnt" scheme used in prog_array that stores bpf programs for
bpf_tail_call. The bpf_timer_set_callback() will increment the prog refcnt which is
paired with bpf_timer_cancel() that will drop the prog refcnt. The
ops->map_release_uref is responsible for cancelling the timers and dropping
prog refcnt when user space reference to a map reaches zero.
This uref approach is done to make sure that Ctrl-C of user space process will
not leave timers running forever unless the user space explicitly pinned a map
that contained timers in bpffs.

bpf_timer_init() and bpf_timer_set_callback() will return -EPERM if map doesn't
have user references (is not held by open file descriptor from user space and
not pinned in bpffs).

The bpf_map_delete_elem() and bpf_map_update_elem() operations cancel
and free the timer if given map element had it allocated.
"bpftool map update" command can be used to cancel timers.

The 'struct bpf_timer' is explicitly __attribute__((aligned(8))) because
'__u64 :64' has 1 byte alignment of 8 byte padding.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210715005417.78572-4-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# f170acda 14-Jul-2021 Kuniyuki Iwashima <kuniyu@amazon.co.jp>

bpf: Fix a typo of reuseport map in bpf.h.

Fix s/BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_ARRAY/BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_SOCKARRAY/ typo
in bpf.h.

Fixes: 2dbb9b9e6df6 ("bpf: Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT")
Signed-off-by: Kuniyuki Iwashima <kuniyu@amazon.co.jp>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210714124317.67526-1-kuniyu@amazon.co.jp


# 47316f4a 07-Jul-2021 Zvi Effron <zeffron@riotgames.com>

bpf: Support input xdp_md context in BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN

Support passing a xdp_md via ctx_in/ctx_out in bpf_attr for
BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN.

The intended use case is to pass some XDP meta data to the test runs of
XDP programs that are used as tail calls.

For programs that use bpf_prog_test_run_xdp, support xdp_md input and
output. Unlike with an actual xdp_md during a non-test run, data_meta must
be 0 because it must point to the start of the provided user data. From
the initial xdp_md, use data and data_end to adjust the pointers in the
generated xdp_buff. All other non-zero fields are prohibited (with
EINVAL). If the user has set ctx_out/ctx_size_out, copy the (potentially
different) xdp_md back to the userspace.

We require all fields of input xdp_md except the ones we explicitly
support to be set to zero. The expectation is that in the future we might
add support for more fields and we want to fail explicitly if the user
runs the program on the kernel where we don't yet support them.

Co-developed-by: Cody Haas <chaas@riotgames.com>
Co-developed-by: Lisa Watanabe <lwatanabe@riotgames.com>
Signed-off-by: Cody Haas <chaas@riotgames.com>
Signed-off-by: Lisa Watanabe <lwatanabe@riotgames.com>
Signed-off-by: Zvi Effron <zeffron@riotgames.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210707221657.3985075-3-zeffron@riotgames.com


# d5e4ddae 12-Jun-2021 Kuniyuki Iwashima <kuniyu@amazon.co.jp>

bpf: Support socket migration by eBPF.

This patch introduces a new bpf_attach_type for BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT
to check if the attached eBPF program is capable of migrating sockets. When
the eBPF program is attached, we run it for socket migration if the
expected_attach_type is BPF_SK_REUSEPORT_SELECT_OR_MIGRATE or
net.ipv4.tcp_migrate_req is enabled.

Currently, the expected_attach_type is not enforced for the
BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT type of program. Thus, this commit follows the
earlier idea in the commit aac3fc320d94 ("bpf: Post-hooks for sys_bind") to
fix up the zero expected_attach_type in bpf_prog_load_fixup_attach_type().

Moreover, this patch adds a new field (migrating_sk) to sk_reuseport_md to
select a new listener based on the child socket. migrating_sk varies
depending on if it is migrating a request in the accept queue or during
3WHS.

- accept_queue : sock (ESTABLISHED/SYN_RECV)
- 3WHS : request_sock (NEW_SYN_RECV)

In the eBPF program, we can select a new listener by
BPF_FUNC_sk_select_reuseport(). Also, we can cancel migration by returning
SK_DROP. This feature is useful when listeners have different settings at
the socket API level or when we want to free resources as soon as possible.

- SK_PASS with selected_sk, select it as a new listener
- SK_PASS with selected_sk NULL, fallbacks to the random selection
- SK_DROP, cancel the migration.

There is a noteworthy point. We select a listening socket in three places,
but we do not have struct skb at closing a listener or retransmitting a
SYN+ACK. On the other hand, some helper functions do not expect skb is NULL
(e.g. skb_header_pointer() in BPF_FUNC_skb_load_bytes(), skb_tail_pointer()
in BPF_FUNC_skb_load_bytes_relative()). So we allocate an empty skb
temporarily before running the eBPF program.

Suggested-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Kuniyuki Iwashima <kuniyu@amazon.co.jp>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/netdev/20201123003828.xjpjdtk4ygl6tg6h@kafai-mbp.dhcp.thefacebook.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/netdev/20201203042402.6cskdlit5f3mw4ru@kafai-mbp.dhcp.thefacebook.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/netdev/20201209030903.hhow5r53l6fmozjn@kafai-mbp.dhcp.thefacebook.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210612123224.12525-10-kuniyu@amazon.co.jp


# e0610476 12-Jun-2021 Kuniyuki Iwashima <kuniyu@amazon.co.jp>

bpf: Support BPF_FUNC_get_socket_cookie() for BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT.

We will call sock_reuseport.prog for socket migration in the next commit,
so the eBPF program has to know which listener is closing to select a new
listener.

We can currently get a unique ID of each listener in the userspace by
calling bpf_map_lookup_elem() for BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_SOCKARRAY map.

This patch makes the pointer of sk available in sk_reuseport_md so that we
can get the ID by BPF_FUNC_get_socket_cookie() in the eBPF program.

Suggested-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Kuniyuki Iwashima <kuniyu@amazon.co.jp>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/netdev/20201119001154.kapwihc2plp4f7zc@kafai-mbp.dhcp.thefacebook.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210612123224.12525-9-kuniyu@amazon.co.jp


# e624d4ed 19-May-2021 Hangbin Liu <liuhangbin@gmail.com>

xdp: Extend xdp_redirect_map with broadcast support

This patch adds two flags BPF_F_BROADCAST and BPF_F_EXCLUDE_INGRESS to
extend xdp_redirect_map for broadcast support.

With BPF_F_BROADCAST the packet will be broadcasted to all the interfaces
in the map. with BPF_F_EXCLUDE_INGRESS the ingress interface will be
excluded when do broadcasting.

When getting the devices in dev hash map via dev_map_hash_get_next_key(),
there is a possibility that we fall back to the first key when a device
was removed. This will duplicate packets on some interfaces. So just walk
the whole buckets to avoid this issue. For dev array map, we also walk the
whole map to find valid interfaces.

Function bpf_clear_redirect_map() was removed in
commit ee75aef23afe ("bpf, xdp: Restructure redirect actions").
Add it back as we need to use ri->map again.

With test topology:
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Host A (i40e 10G) | ---------- | eno1(i40e 10G) |
+-------------------+ | |
| Host B |
+-------------------+ | |
| Host C (i40e 10G) | ---------- | eno2(i40e 10G) |
+-------------------+ | |
| +------+ |
| veth0 -- | Peer | |
| veth1 -- | | |
| veth2 -- | NS | |
| +------+ |
+-------------------+

On Host A:
# pktgen/pktgen_sample03_burst_single_flow.sh -i eno1 -d $dst_ip -m $dst_mac -s 64

On Host B(Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2690 v3 @ 2.60GHz, 128G Memory):
Use xdp_redirect_map and xdp_redirect_map_multi in samples/bpf for testing.
All the veth peers in the NS have a XDP_DROP program loaded. The
forward_map max_entries in xdp_redirect_map_multi is modify to 4.

Testing the performance impact on the regular xdp_redirect path with and
without patch (to check impact of additional check for broadcast mode):

5.12 rc4 | redirect_map i40e->i40e | 2.0M | 9.7M
5.12 rc4 | redirect_map i40e->veth | 1.7M | 11.8M
5.12 rc4 + patch | redirect_map i40e->i40e | 2.0M | 9.6M
5.12 rc4 + patch | redirect_map i40e->veth | 1.7M | 11.7M

Testing the performance when cloning packets with the redirect_map_multi
test, using a redirect map size of 4, filled with 1-3 devices:

5.12 rc4 + patch | redirect_map multi i40e->veth (x1) | 1.7M | 11.4M
5.12 rc4 + patch | redirect_map multi i40e->veth (x2) | 1.1M | 4.3M
5.12 rc4 + patch | redirect_map multi i40e->veth (x3) | 0.8M | 2.6M

Signed-off-by: Hangbin Liu <liuhangbin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210519090747.1655268-3-liuhangbin@gmail.com


# 3e87f192 11-May-2021 Denis Salopek <denis.salopek@sartura.hr>

bpf: Add lookup_and_delete_elem support to hashtab

Extend the existing bpf_map_lookup_and_delete_elem() functionality to
hashtab map types, in addition to stacks and queues.
Create a new hashtab bpf_map_ops function that does lookup and deletion
of the element under the same bucket lock and add the created map_ops to
bpf.h.

Signed-off-by: Denis Salopek <denis.salopek@sartura.hr>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/4d18480a3e990ffbf14751ddef0325eed3be2966.1620763117.git.denis.salopek@sartura.hr


# 5d67f349 18-May-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Add cmd alias BPF_PROG_RUN

Add BPF_PROG_RUN command as an alias to BPF_RPOG_TEST_RUN to better
indicate the full range of use cases done by the command.

Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210519014032.20908-1-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 3abea089 13-May-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Add bpf_sys_close() helper.

Add bpf_sys_close() helper to be used by the syscall/loader program to close
intermediate FDs and other cleanup.
Note this helper must never be allowed inside fdget/fdput bracketing.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210514003623.28033-11-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 3d78417b 13-May-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Add bpf_btf_find_by_name_kind() helper.

Add new helper:
long bpf_btf_find_by_name_kind(char *name, int name_sz, u32 kind, int flags)
Description
Find BTF type with given name and kind in vmlinux BTF or in module's BTFs.
Return
Returns btf_id and btf_obj_fd in lower and upper 32 bits.

It will be used by loader program to find btf_id to attach the program to
and to find btf_ids of ksyms.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210514003623.28033-10-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 387544bf 13-May-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Introduce fd_idx

Typical program loading sequence involves creating bpf maps and applying
map FDs into bpf instructions in various places in the bpf program.
This job is done by libbpf that is using compiler generated ELF relocations
to patch certain instruction after maps are created and BTFs are loaded.
The goal of fd_idx is to allow bpf instructions to stay immutable
after compilation. At load time the libbpf would still create maps as usual,
but it wouldn't need to patch instructions. It would store map_fds into
__u32 fd_array[] and would pass that pointer to sys_bpf(BPF_PROG_LOAD).

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210514003623.28033-9-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 79a7f8bd 13-May-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Introduce bpf_sys_bpf() helper and program type.

Add placeholders for bpf_sys_bpf() helper and new program type.
Make sure to check that expected_attach_type is zero for future extensibility.
Allow tracing helper functions to be used in this program type, since they will
only execute from user context via bpf_prog_test_run.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210514003623.28033-2-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 7b15523a 19-Apr-2021 Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>

bpf: Add a bpf_snprintf helper

The implementation takes inspiration from the existing bpf_trace_printk
helper but there are a few differences:

To allow for a large number of format-specifiers, parameters are
provided in an array, like in bpf_seq_printf.

Because the output string takes two arguments and the array of
parameters also takes two arguments, the format string needs to fit in
one argument. Thankfully, ARG_PTR_TO_CONST_STR is guaranteed to point to
a zero-terminated read-only map so we don't need a format string length
arg.

Because the format-string is known at verification time, we also do
a first pass of format string validation in the verifier logic. This
makes debugging easier.

Signed-off-by: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210419155243.1632274-4-revest@chromium.org


# 441e8c66 13-Apr-2021 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

bpf: Return target info when a tracing bpf_link is queried

There is currently no way to discover the target of a tracing program
attachment after the fact. Add this information to bpf_link_info and return
it when querying the bpf_link fd.

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210413091607.58945-1-toke@redhat.com


# 5c507329 12-Apr-2021 Pedro Tammela <pctammela@gmail.com>

libbpf: Clarify flags in ringbuf helpers

In 'bpf_ringbuf_reserve()' we require the flag to '0' at the moment.

For 'bpf_ringbuf_{discard,submit,output}' a flag of '0' might send a
notification to the process if needed.

Signed-off-by: Pedro Tammela <pctammela@mojatatu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210412192434.944343-1-pctammela@mojatatu.com


# f3c45326 10-Apr-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document PROG_TEST_RUN limitations

Per net/bpf/test_run.c, particular prog types have additional
restrictions around the parameters that can be provided, so document
these in the header.

I didn't bother documenting the limitation on duration for raw
tracepoints since that's an output parameter anyway.

Tested with ./tools/testing/selftests/bpf/test_doc_build.sh.

Suggested-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210410174549.816482-1-joe@cilium.io


# a7ba4558 30-Mar-2021 Cong Wang <cong.wang@bytedance.com>

sock_map: Introduce BPF_SK_SKB_VERDICT

Reusing BPF_SK_SKB_STREAM_VERDICT is possible but its name is
confusing and more importantly we still want to distinguish them
from user-space. So we can just reuse the stream verdict code but
introduce a new type of eBPF program, skb_verdict. Users are not
allowed to attach stream_verdict and skb_verdict programs to the
same map.

Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <cong.wang@bytedance.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210331023237.41094-10-xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com


# e6ac2450 24-Mar-2021 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Support bpf program calling kernel function

This patch adds support to BPF verifier to allow bpf program calling
kernel function directly.

The use case included in this set is to allow bpf-tcp-cc to directly
call some tcp-cc helper functions (e.g. "tcp_cong_avoid_ai()"). Those
functions have already been used by some kernel tcp-cc implementations.

This set will also allow the bpf-tcp-cc program to directly call the
kernel tcp-cc implementation, For example, a bpf_dctcp may only want to
implement its own dctcp_cwnd_event() and reuse other dctcp_*() directly
from the kernel tcp_dctcp.c instead of reimplementing (or
copy-and-pasting) them.

The tcp-cc kernel functions mentioned above will be white listed
for the struct_ops bpf-tcp-cc programs to use in a later patch.
The white listed functions are not bounded to a fixed ABI contract.
Those functions have already been used by the existing kernel tcp-cc.
If any of them has changed, both in-tree and out-of-tree kernel tcp-cc
implementations have to be changed. The same goes for the struct_ops
bpf-tcp-cc programs which have to be adjusted accordingly.

This patch is to make the required changes in the bpf verifier.

First change is in btf.c, it adds a case in "btf_check_func_arg_match()".
When the passed in "btf->kernel_btf == true", it means matching the
verifier regs' states with a kernel function. This will handle the
PTR_TO_BTF_ID reg. It also maps PTR_TO_SOCK_COMMON, PTR_TO_SOCKET,
and PTR_TO_TCP_SOCK to its kernel's btf_id.

In the later libbpf patch, the insn calling a kernel function will
look like:

insn->code == (BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL)
insn->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_KFUNC_CALL /* <- new in this patch */
insn->imm == func_btf_id /* btf_id of the running kernel */

[ For the future calling function-in-kernel-module support, an array
of module btf_fds can be passed at the load time and insn->off
can be used to index into this array. ]

At the early stage of verifier, the verifier will collect all kernel
function calls into "struct bpf_kfunc_desc". Those
descriptors are stored in "prog->aux->kfunc_tab" and will
be available to the JIT. Since this "add" operation is similar
to the current "add_subprog()" and looking for the same insn->code,
they are done together in the new "add_subprog_and_kfunc()".

In the "do_check()" stage, the new "check_kfunc_call()" is added
to verify the kernel function call instruction:
1. Ensure the kernel function can be used by a particular BPF_PROG_TYPE.
A new bpf_verifier_ops "check_kfunc_call" is added to do that.
The bpf-tcp-cc struct_ops program will implement this function in
a later patch.
2. Call "btf_check_kfunc_args_match()" to ensure the regs can be
used as the args of a kernel function.
3. Mark the regs' type, subreg_def, and zext_dst.

At the later do_misc_fixups() stage, the new fixup_kfunc_call()
will replace the insn->imm with the function address (relative
to __bpf_call_base). If needed, the jit can find the btf_func_model
by calling the new bpf_jit_find_kfunc_model(prog, insn).
With the imm set to the function address, "bpftool prog dump xlated"
will be able to display the kernel function calls the same way as
it displays other bpf helper calls.

gpl_compatible program is required to call kernel function.

This feature currently requires JIT.

The verifier selftests are adjusted because of the changes in
the verbose log in add_subprog_and_kfunc().

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210325015142.1544736-1-kafai@fb.com


# d01b59c9 03-Mar-2021 Xuesen Huang <huangxuesen@kuaishou.com>

bpf: Add bpf_skb_adjust_room flag BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_ENCAP_L2_ETH

bpf_skb_adjust_room sets the inner_protocol as skb->protocol for packets
encapsulation. But that is not appropriate when pushing Ethernet header.

Add an option to further specify encap L2 type and set the inner_protocol
as ETH_P_TEB.

Suggested-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Xuesen Huang <huangxuesen@kuaishou.com>
Signed-off-by: Zhiyong Cheng <chengzhiyong@kuaishou.com>
Signed-off-by: Li Wang <wangli09@kuaishou.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210304064046.6232-1-hxseverything@gmail.com


# 7c32e8f8 03-Mar-2021 Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>

bpf: Add PROG_TEST_RUN support for sk_lookup programs

Allow to pass sk_lookup programs to PROG_TEST_RUN. User space
provides the full bpf_sk_lookup struct as context. Since the
context includes a socket pointer that can't be exposed
to user space we define that PROG_TEST_RUN returns the cookie
of the selected socket or zero in place of the socket pointer.

We don't support testing programs that select a reuseport socket,
since this would mean running another (unrelated) BPF program
from the sk_lookup test handler.

Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210303101816.36774-3-lmb@cloudflare.com


# 923a932c 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

scripts/bpf: Abstract eBPF API target parameter

Abstract out the target parameter so that upcoming commits, more than
just the existing "helpers" target can be called to generate specific
portions of docs from the eBPF UAPI headers.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-10-joe@cilium.io


# 0cb80454 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document BPF_MAP_*_BATCH syscall commands

Based roughly on the following commits:
* Commit cb4d03ab499d ("bpf: Add generic support for lookup batch op")
* Commit 057996380a42 ("bpf: Add batch ops to all htab bpf map")
* Commit aa2e93b8e58e ("bpf: Add generic support for update and delete
batch ops")

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Brian Vazquez <brianvv@google.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-9-joe@cilium.io


# 5d999994 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document BPF_PROG_QUERY syscall command

Commit 468e2f64d220 ("bpf: introduce BPF_PROG_QUERY command") originally
introduced this, but there have been several additions since then.
Unlike BPF_PROG_ATTACH, it appears that the sockmap progs are not able
to be queried so far.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-8-joe@cilium.io


# 2a3fdca4 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN syscall command

Based on a brief read of the corresponding source code.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-7-joe@cilium.io


# 32e76b18 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document BPF_PROG_ATTACH syscall command

Document the prog attach command in more detail, based on git commits:
* commit f4324551489e ("bpf: add BPF_PROG_ATTACH and BPF_PROG_DETACH
commands")
* commit 4f738adba30a ("bpf: create tcp_bpf_ulp allowing BPF to monitor
socket TX/RX data")
* commit f4364dcfc86d ("media: rc: introduce BPF_PROG_LIRC_MODE2")
* commit d58e468b1112 ("flow_dissector: implements flow dissector BPF
hook")

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-6-joe@cilium.io


# 8aacb3c8 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document BPF_PROG_PIN syscall command

Commit b2197755b263 ("bpf: add support for persistent maps/progs")
contains the original implementation and git logs, used as reference for
this documentation.

Also pull in the filename restriction as documented in commit 6d8cb045cde6
("bpf: comment why dots in filenames under BPF virtual FS are not allowed")

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-5-joe@cilium.io


# 6690523b 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Document BPF_F_LOCK in syscall commands

Document the meaning of the BPF_F_LOCK flag for the map lookup/update
descriptions. Based on commit 96049f3afd50 ("bpf: introduce BPF_F_LOCK
flag").

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-4-joe@cilium.io


# f67c9cbf 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Add minimal bpf() command documentation

Introduce high-level descriptions of the intent and return codes of the
bpf() syscall commands. Subsequent patches may further flesh out the
content to provide a more useful programming reference.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-3-joe@cilium.io


# 7799e4d9 02-Mar-2021 Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>

bpf: Import syscall arg documentation

These descriptions are present in the man-pages project from the
original submissions around 2015-2016. Import them so that they can be
kept up to date as developers extend the bpf syscall commands.

These descriptions follow the pattern used by scripts/bpf_helpers_doc.py
so that we can take advantage of the parser to generate more up-to-date
man page writing based upon these headers.

Some minor wording adjustments were made to make the descriptions
more consistent for the description / return format.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@cilium.io>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210302171947.2268128-2-joe@cilium.io

Co-authored-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Co-authored-by: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>


# 69c087ba 26-Feb-2021 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_for_each_map_elem() helper

The bpf_for_each_map_elem() helper is introduced which
iterates all map elements with a callback function. The
helper signature looks like
long bpf_for_each_map_elem(map, callback_fn, callback_ctx, flags)
and for each map element, the callback_fn will be called. For example,
like hashmap, the callback signature may look like
long callback_fn(map, key, val, callback_ctx)

There are two known use cases for this. One is from upstream ([1]) where
a for_each_map_elem helper may help implement a timeout mechanism
in a more generic way. Another is from our internal discussion
for a firewall use case where a map contains all the rules. The packet
data can be compared to all these rules to decide allow or deny
the packet.

For array maps, users can already use a bounded loop to traverse
elements. Using this helper can avoid using bounded loop. For other
type of maps (e.g., hash maps) where bounded loop is hard or
impossible to use, this helper provides a convenient way to
operate on all elements.

For callback_fn, besides map and map element, a callback_ctx,
allocated on caller stack, is also passed to the callback
function. This callback_ctx argument can provide additional
input and allow to write to caller stack for output.

If the callback_fn returns 0, the helper will iterate through next
element if available. If the callback_fn returns 1, the helper
will stop iterating and returns to the bpf program. Other return
values are not used for now.

Currently, this helper is only available with jit. It is possible
to make it work with interpreter with so effort but I leave it
as the future work.

[1]: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210122205415.113822-1-xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com/

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210226204925.3884923-1-yhs@fb.com


# a83586a7 23-Feb-2021 Hangbin Liu <liuhangbin@gmail.com>

bpf: Remove blank line in bpf helper description comment

Commit 34b2021cc616 ("bpf: Add BPF-helper for MTU checking") added an extra
blank line in bpf helper description. This will make bpf_helpers_doc.py stop
building bpf_helper_defs.h immediately after bpf_check_mtu(), which will
affect future added functions.

Fixes: 34b2021cc616 ("bpf: Add BPF-helper for MTU checking")
Signed-off-by: Hangbin Liu <liuhangbin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210223131457.1378978-1-liuhangbin@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# e5e35e75 08-Mar-2021 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: BPF-helper for MTU checking add length input

The FIB lookup example[1] show how the IP-header field tot_len
(iph->tot_len) is used as input to perform the MTU check.

This patch extend the BPF-helper bpf_check_mtu() with the same ability
to provide the length as user parameter input, via mtu_len parameter.

This still needs to be done before the bpf_check_mtu() helper API
becomes frozen.

[1] samples/bpf/xdp_fwd_kern.c

Fixes: 34b2021cc616 ("bpf: Add BPF-helper for MTU checking")
Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/161521555850.3515614.6533850861569774444.stgit@firesoul


# a7c9c25a 23-Feb-2021 Hangbin Liu <liuhangbin@gmail.com>

bpf: Remove blank line in bpf helper description comment

Commit 34b2021cc616 ("bpf: Add BPF-helper for MTU checking") added an extra
blank line in bpf helper description. This will make bpf_helpers_doc.py stop
building bpf_helper_defs.h immediately after bpf_check_mtu(), which will
affect future added functions.

Fixes: 34b2021cc616 ("bpf: Add BPF-helper for MTU checking")
Signed-off-by: Hangbin Liu <liuhangbin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210223131457.1378978-1-liuhangbin@gmail.com


# 34b2021c 09-Feb-2021 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: Add BPF-helper for MTU checking

This BPF-helper bpf_check_mtu() works for both XDP and TC-BPF programs.

The SKB object is complex and the skb->len value (accessible from
BPF-prog) also include the length of any extra GRO/GSO segments, but
without taking into account that these GRO/GSO segments get added
transport (L4) and network (L3) headers before being transmitted. Thus,
this BPF-helper is created such that the BPF-programmer don't need to
handle these details in the BPF-prog.

The API is designed to help the BPF-programmer, that want to do packet
context size changes, which involves other helpers. These other helpers
usually does a delta size adjustment. This helper also support a delta
size (len_diff), which allow BPF-programmer to reuse arguments needed by
these other helpers, and perform the MTU check prior to doing any actual
size adjustment of the packet context.

It is on purpose, that we allow the len adjustment to become a negative
result, that will pass the MTU check. This might seem weird, but it's not
this helpers responsibility to "catch" wrong len_diff adjustments. Other
helpers will take care of these checks, if BPF-programmer chooses to do
actual size adjustment.

V14:
- Improve man-page desc of len_diff.

V13:
- Enforce flag BPF_MTU_CHK_SEGS cannot use len_diff.

V12:
- Simplify segment check that calls skb_gso_validate_network_len.
- Helpers should return long

V9:
- Use dev->hard_header_len (instead of ETH_HLEN)
- Annotate with unlikely req from Daniel
- Fix logic error using skb_gso_validate_network_len from Daniel

V6:
- Took John's advice and dropped BPF_MTU_CHK_RELAX
- Returned MTU is kept at L3-level (like fib_lookup)

V4: Lot of changes
- ifindex 0 now use current netdev for MTU lookup
- rename helper from bpf_mtu_check to bpf_check_mtu
- fix bug for GSO pkt length (as skb->len is total len)
- remove __bpf_len_adj_positive, simply allow negative len adj

Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/161287790461.790810.3429728639563297353.stgit@firesoul


# e1850ea9 09-Feb-2021 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: bpf_fib_lookup return MTU value as output when looked up

The BPF-helpers for FIB lookup (bpf_xdp_fib_lookup and bpf_skb_fib_lookup)
can perform MTU check and return BPF_FIB_LKUP_RET_FRAG_NEEDED. The BPF-prog
don't know the MTU value that caused this rejection.

If the BPF-prog wants to implement PMTU (Path MTU Discovery) (rfc1191) it
need to know this MTU value for the ICMP packet.

Patch change lookup and result struct bpf_fib_lookup, to contain this MTU
value as output via a union with 'tot_len' as this is the value used for
the MTU lookup.

V5:
- Fixed uninit value spotted by Dan Carpenter.
- Name struct output member mtu_result

Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
Reported-by: Dan Carpenter <dan.carpenter@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/161287789952.790810.13134700381067698781.stgit@firesoul


# c5dbb89f 09-Feb-2021 Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>

bpf: Expose bpf_get_socket_cookie to tracing programs

This needs a new helper that:
- can work in a sleepable context (using sock_gen_cookie)
- takes a struct sock pointer and checks that it's not NULL

Signed-off-by: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210210111406.785541-2-revest@chromium.org


# 07881ccb 09-Feb-2021 Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>

bpf: Be less specific about socket cookies guarantees

Since "92acdc58ab11 bpf, net: Rework cookie generator as per-cpu one"
socket cookies are not guaranteed to be non-decreasing. The
bpf_get_socket_cookie helper descriptions are currently specifying that
cookies are non-decreasing but we don't want users to rely on that.

Reported-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210210111406.785541-1-revest@chromium.org


# 9ed9e9ba 09-Feb-2021 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Count the number of times recursion was prevented

Add per-program counter for number of times recursion prevention mechanism
was triggered and expose it via show_fdinfo and bpf_prog_info.
Teach bpftool to print it.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210210033634.62081-7-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 5ffa2550 14-Jan-2021 Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>

bpf: Add instructions for atomic_[cmp]xchg

This adds two atomic opcodes, both of which include the BPF_FETCH
flag. XCHG without the BPF_FETCH flag would naturally encode
atomic_set. This is not supported because it would be of limited
value to userspace (it doesn't imply any barriers). CMPXCHG without
BPF_FETCH woulud be an atomic compare-and-write. We don't have such
an operation in the kernel so it isn't provided to BPF either.

There are two significant design decisions made for the CMPXCHG
instruction:

- To solve the issue that this operation fundamentally has 3
operands, but we only have two register fields. Therefore the
operand we compare against (the kernel's API calls it 'old') is
hard-coded to be R0. x86 has similar design (and A64 doesn't
have this problem).

A potential alternative might be to encode the other operand's
register number in the immediate field.

- The kernel's atomic_cmpxchg returns the old value, while the C11
userspace APIs return a boolean indicating the comparison
result. Which should BPF do? A64 returns the old value. x86 returns
the old value in the hard-coded register (and also sets a
flag). That means return-old-value is easier to JIT, so that's
what we use.

Signed-off-by: Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210114181751.768687-8-jackmanb@google.com


# 5ca419f2 14-Jan-2021 Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>

bpf: Add BPF_FETCH field / create atomic_fetch_add instruction

The BPF_FETCH field can be set in bpf_insn.imm, for BPF_ATOMIC
instructions, in order to have the previous value of the
atomically-modified memory location loaded into the src register
after an atomic op is carried out.

Suggested-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210114181751.768687-7-jackmanb@google.com


# 91c960b0 14-Jan-2021 Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>

bpf: Rename BPF_XADD and prepare to encode other atomics in .imm

A subsequent patch will add additional atomic operations. These new
operations will use the same opcode field as the existing XADD, with
the immediate discriminating different operations.

In preparation, rename the instruction mode BPF_ATOMIC and start
calling the zero immediate BPF_ADD.

This is possible (doesn't break existing valid BPF progs) because the
immediate field is currently reserved MBZ and BPF_ADD is zero.

All uses are removed from the tree but the BPF_XADD definition is
kept around to avoid breaking builds for people including kernel
headers.

Signed-off-by: Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Björn Töpel <bjorn.topel@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210114181751.768687-5-jackmanb@google.com


# c6458e72 11-Jan-2021 Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>

bpf: Clarify return value of probe str helpers

When the buffer is too small to contain the input string, these helpers
return the length of the buffer, not the length of the original string.
This tries to make the docs totally clear about that, since "the length
of the [copied ]string" could also refer to the length of the input.

Signed-off-by: Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20210112123422.2011234-1-jackmanb@google.com


# b7906b70 11-Dec-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

bpf: Fix enum names for bpf_this_cpu_ptr() and bpf_per_cpu_ptr() helpers

Remove bpf_ prefix, which causes these helpers to be reported in verifier
dump as bpf_bpf_this_cpu_ptr() and bpf_bpf_per_cpu_ptr(), respectively. Lets
fix it as long as it is still possible before UAPI freezes on these helpers.

Fixes: eaa6bcb71ef6 ("bpf: Introduce bpf_per_cpu_ptr()")
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 4f19cab7 03-Dec-2020 Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>

bpf: Add a bpf_sock_from_file helper

While eBPF programs can check whether a file is a socket by file->f_op
== &socket_file_ops, they cannot convert the void private_data pointer
to a struct socket BTF pointer. In order to do this a new helper
wrapping sock_from_file is added.

This is useful to tracing programs but also other program types
inheriting this set of helpers such as iterators or LSM programs.

Signed-off-by: Florent Revest <revest@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201204113609.1850150-2-revest@google.com


# 290248a5 03-Dec-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

bpf: Allow to specify kernel module BTFs when attaching BPF programs

Add ability for user-space programs to specify non-vmlinux BTF when attaching
BTF-powered BPF programs: raw_tp, fentry/fexit/fmod_ret, LSM, etc. For this,
attach_prog_fd (now with the alias name attach_btf_obj_fd) should specify FD
of a module or vmlinux BTF object. For backwards compatibility reasons,
0 denotes vmlinux BTF. Only kernel BTF (vmlinux or module) can be specified.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201203204634.1325171-11-andrii@kernel.org


# 27672f0d 24-Nov-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Add a BPF helper for getting the IMA hash of an inode

Provide a wrapper function to get the IMA hash of an inode. This helper
is useful in fingerprinting files (e.g executables on execution) and
using these fingerprints in detections like an executable unlinking
itself.

Since the ima_inode_hash can sleep, it's only allowed for sleepable
LSM hooks.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201124151210.1081188-3-kpsingh@chromium.org


# d0551261 17-Nov-2020 Dmitrii Banshchikov <me@ubique.spb.ru>

bpf: Add bpf_ktime_get_coarse_ns helper

The helper uses CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE source of time that is less
accurate but more performant.

We have a BPF CGROUP_SKB firewall that supports event logging through
bpf_perf_event_output(). Each event has a timestamp and currently we use
bpf_ktime_get_ns() for it. Use of bpf_ktime_get_coarse_ns() saves ~15-20
ns in time required for event logging.

bpf_ktime_get_ns():
EgressLogByRemoteEndpoint 113.82ns 8.79M

bpf_ktime_get_coarse_ns():
EgressLogByRemoteEndpoint 95.40ns 10.48M

Signed-off-by: Dmitrii Banshchikov <me@ubique.spb.ru>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201117184549.257280-1-me@ubique.spb.ru


# 3f6719c7 17-Nov-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Add bpf_bprm_opts_set helper

The helper allows modification of certain bits on the linux_binprm
struct starting with the secureexec bit which can be updated using the
BPF_F_BPRM_SECUREEXEC flag.

secureexec can be set by the LSM for privilege gaining executions to set
the AT_SECURE auxv for glibc. When set, the dynamic linker disables the
use of certain environment variables (like LD_PRELOAD).

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201117232929.2156341-1-kpsingh@chromium.org


# 53297220 09-Nov-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>

bpf: Assign ID to vmlinux BTF and return extra info for BTF in GET_OBJ_INFO

Allocate ID for vmlinux BTF. This makes it visible when iterating over all BTF
objects in the system. To allow distinguishing vmlinux BTF (and later kernel
module BTF) from user-provided BTFs, expose extra kernel_btf flag, as well as
BTF name ("vmlinux" for vmlinux BTF, will equal to module's name for module
BTF). We might want to later allow specifying BTF name for user-provided BTFs
as well, if that makes sense. But currently this is reserved only for
in-kernel BTFs.

Having in-kernel BTFs exposed IDs will allow to extend BPF APIs that require
in-kernel BTF type with ability to specify BTF types from kernel modules, not
just vmlinux BTF. This will be implemented in a follow up patch set for
fentry/fexit/fmod_ret/lsm/etc.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201110011932.3201430-3-andrii@kernel.org


# 3ca1032a 06-Nov-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Implement get_current_task_btf and RET_PTR_TO_BTF_ID

The currently available bpf_get_current_task returns an unsigned integer
which can be used along with BPF_CORE_READ to read data from
the task_struct but still cannot be used as an input argument to a
helper that accepts an ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID of type task_struct.

In order to implement this helper a new return type, RET_PTR_TO_BTF_ID,
is added. This is similar to RET_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_OR_NULL but does not
require checking the nullness of returned pointer.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201106103747.2780972-6-kpsingh@chromium.org


# 4cf1bc1f 06-Nov-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Implement task local storage

Similar to bpf_local_storage for sockets and inodes add local storage
for task_struct.

The life-cycle of storage is managed with the life-cycle of the
task_struct. i.e. the storage is destroyed along with the owning task
with a callback to the bpf_task_storage_free from the task_free LSM
hook.

The BPF LSM allocates an __rcu pointer to the bpf_local_storage in
the security blob which are now stackable and can co-exist with other
LSMs.

The userspace map operations can be done by using a pid fd as a key
passed to the lookup, update and delete operations.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201106103747.2780972-3-kpsingh@chromium.org


# ba452c9e 20-Oct-2020 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

bpf: Fix bpf_redirect_neigh helper api to support supplying nexthop

Based on the discussion in [0], update the bpf_redirect_neigh() helper to
accept an optional parameter specifying the nexthop information. This makes
it possible to combine bpf_fib_lookup() and bpf_redirect_neigh() without
incurring a duplicate FIB lookup - since the FIB lookup helper will return
the nexthop information even if no neighbour is present, this can simply
be passed on to bpf_redirect_neigh() if bpf_fib_lookup() returns
BPF_FIB_LKUP_RET_NO_NEIGH. Thus fix & extend it before helper API is frozen.

[0] https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/393e17fc-d187-3a8d-2f0d-a627c7c63fca@iogearbox.net/

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: David Ahern <dsahern@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/160322915615.32199.1187570224032024535.stgit@toke.dk


# 4a8f87e6 10-Oct-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Allow for map-in-map with dynamic inner array map entries

Recent work in f4d05259213f ("bpf: Add map_meta_equal map ops") and 134fede4eecf
("bpf: Relax max_entries check for most of the inner map types") added support
for dynamic inner max elements for most map-in-map types. Exceptions were maps
like array or prog array where the map_gen_lookup() callback uses the maps'
max_entries field as a constant when emitting instructions.

We recently implemented Maglev consistent hashing into Cilium's load balancer
which uses map-in-map with an outer map being hash and inner being array holding
the Maglev backend table for each service. This has been designed this way in
order to reduce overall memory consumption given the outer hash map allows to
avoid preallocating a large, flat memory area for all services. Also, the
number of service mappings is not always known a-priori.

The use case for dynamic inner array map entries is to further reduce memory
overhead, for example, some services might just have a small number of back
ends while others could have a large number. Right now the Maglev backend table
for small and large number of backends would need to have the same inner array
map entries which adds a lot of unneeded overhead.

Dynamic inner array map entries can be realized by avoiding the inlined code
generation for their lookup. The lookup will still be efficient since it will
be calling into array_map_lookup_elem() directly and thus avoiding retpoline.
The patch adds a BPF_F_INNER_MAP flag to map creation which therefore skips
inline code generation and relaxes array_map_meta_equal() check to ignore both
maps' max_entries. This also still allows to have faster lookups for map-in-map
when BPF_F_INNER_MAP is not specified and hence dynamic max_entries not needed.

Example code generation where inner map is dynamic sized array:

# bpftool p d x i 125
int handle__sys_enter(void * ctx):
; int handle__sys_enter(void *ctx)
0: (b4) w1 = 0
; int key = 0;
1: (63) *(u32 *)(r10 -4) = r1
2: (bf) r2 = r10
;
3: (07) r2 += -4
; inner_map = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&outer_arr_dyn, &key);
4: (18) r1 = map[id:468]
6: (07) r1 += 272
7: (61) r0 = *(u32 *)(r2 +0)
8: (35) if r0 >= 0x3 goto pc+5
9: (67) r0 <<= 3
10: (0f) r0 += r1
11: (79) r0 = *(u64 *)(r0 +0)
12: (15) if r0 == 0x0 goto pc+1
13: (05) goto pc+1
14: (b7) r0 = 0
15: (b4) w6 = -1
; if (!inner_map)
16: (15) if r0 == 0x0 goto pc+6
17: (bf) r2 = r10
;
18: (07) r2 += -4
; val = bpf_map_lookup_elem(inner_map, &key);
19: (bf) r1 = r0 | No inlining but instead
20: (85) call array_map_lookup_elem#149280 | call to array_map_lookup_elem()
; return val ? *val : -1; | for inner array lookup.
21: (15) if r0 == 0x0 goto pc+1
; return val ? *val : -1;
22: (61) r6 = *(u32 *)(r0 +0)
; }
23: (bc) w0 = w6
24: (95) exit

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201010234006.7075-4-daniel@iogearbox.net


# 9aa1206e 10-Oct-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add redirect_peer helper

Add an efficient ingress to ingress netns switch that can be used out of tc BPF
programs in order to redirect traffic from host ns ingress into a container
veth device ingress without having to go via CPU backlog queue [0]. For local
containers this can also be utilized and path via CPU backlog queue only needs
to be taken once, not twice. On a high level this borrows from ipvlan which does
similar switch in __netif_receive_skb_core() and then iterates via another_round.
This helps to reduce latency for mentioned use cases.

Pod to remote pod with redirect(), TCP_RR [1]:

# percpu_netperf 10.217.1.33
RT_LATENCY: 122.450 (per CPU: 122.666 122.401 122.333 122.401 )
MEAN_LATENCY: 121.210 (per CPU: 121.100 121.260 121.320 121.160 )
STDDEV_LATENCY: 120.040 (per CPU: 119.420 119.910 125.460 115.370 )
MIN_LATENCY: 46.500 (per CPU: 47.000 47.000 47.000 45.000 )
P50_LATENCY: 118.500 (per CPU: 118.000 119.000 118.000 119.000 )
P90_LATENCY: 127.500 (per CPU: 127.000 128.000 127.000 128.000 )
P99_LATENCY: 130.750 (per CPU: 131.000 131.000 129.000 132.000 )

TRANSACTION_RATE: 32666.400 (per CPU: 8152.200 8169.842 8174.439 8169.897 )

Pod to remote pod with redirect_peer(), TCP_RR:

# percpu_netperf 10.217.1.33
RT_LATENCY: 44.449 (per CPU: 43.767 43.127 45.279 45.622 )
MEAN_LATENCY: 45.065 (per CPU: 44.030 45.530 45.190 45.510 )
STDDEV_LATENCY: 84.823 (per CPU: 66.770 97.290 84.380 90.850 )
MIN_LATENCY: 33.500 (per CPU: 33.000 33.000 34.000 34.000 )
P50_LATENCY: 43.250 (per CPU: 43.000 43.000 43.000 44.000 )
P90_LATENCY: 46.750 (per CPU: 46.000 47.000 47.000 47.000 )
P99_LATENCY: 52.750 (per CPU: 51.000 54.000 53.000 53.000 )

TRANSACTION_RATE: 90039.500 (per CPU: 22848.186 23187.089 22085.077 21919.130 )

[0] https://linuxplumbersconf.org/event/7/contributions/674/attachments/568/1002/plumbers_2020_cilium_load_balancer.pdf
[1] https://github.com/borkmann/netperf_scripts/blob/master/percpu_netperf

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201010234006.7075-3-daniel@iogearbox.net


# dd2ce6a5 10-Oct-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Improve bpf_redirect_neigh helper description

Follow-up to address David's feedback that we should better describe internals
of the bpf_redirect_neigh() helper.

Suggested-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201010234006.7075-2-daniel@iogearbox.net


# eca43ee6 09-Oct-2020 Nikita V. Shirokov <tehnerd@tehnerd.com>

bpf: Add tcp_notsent_lowat bpf setsockopt

Adding support for TCP_NOTSENT_LOWAT sockoption (https://lwn.net/Articles/560082/)
in tcp bpf programs.

Signed-off-by: Nikita V. Shirokov <tehnerd@tehnerd.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201009070325.226855-1-tehnerd@tehnerd.com


# 49f3d12b 06-Oct-2020 Jakub Wilk <jwilk@jwilk.net>

bpf: Fix typo in uapi/linux/bpf.h

Reported-by: Samanta Navarro <ferivoz@riseup.net>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Wilk <jwilk@jwilk.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201007055717.7319-1-jwilk@jwilk.net


# 63d9b80d 29-Sep-2020 Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>

bpf: Introducte bpf_this_cpu_ptr()

Add bpf_this_cpu_ptr() to help access percpu var on this cpu. This
helper always returns a valid pointer, therefore no need to check
returned value for NULL. Also note that all programs run with
preemption disabled, which means that the returned pointer is stable
during all the execution of the program.

Signed-off-by: Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200929235049.2533242-6-haoluo@google.com


# eaa6bcb7 29-Sep-2020 Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_per_cpu_ptr()

Add bpf_per_cpu_ptr() to help bpf programs access percpu vars.
bpf_per_cpu_ptr() has the same semantic as per_cpu_ptr() in the kernel
except that it may return NULL. This happens when the cpu parameter is
out of range. So the caller must check the returned value.

Signed-off-by: Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200929235049.2533242-5-haoluo@google.com


# 4976b718 29-Sep-2020 Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>

bpf: Introduce pseudo_btf_id

Pseudo_btf_id is a type of ld_imm insn that associates a btf_id to a
ksym so that further dereferences on the ksym can use the BTF info
to validate accesses. Internally, when seeing a pseudo_btf_id ld insn,
the verifier reads the btf_id stored in the insn[0]'s imm field and
marks the dst_reg as PTR_TO_BTF_ID. The btf_id points to a VAR_KIND,
which is encoded in btf_vminux by pahole. If the VAR is not of a struct
type, the dst reg will be marked as PTR_TO_MEM instead of PTR_TO_BTF_ID
and the mem_size is resolved to the size of the VAR's type.

>From the VAR btf_id, the verifier can also read the address of the
ksym's corresponding kernel var from kallsyms and use that to fill
dst_reg.

Therefore, the proper functionality of pseudo_btf_id depends on (1)
kallsyms and (2) the encoding of kernel global VARs in pahole, which
should be available since pahole v1.18.

Signed-off-by: Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200929235049.2533242-2-haoluo@google.com


# 792caccc 30-Sep-2020 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_F_PRESERVE_ELEMS for perf event array

Currently, perf event in perf event array is removed from the array when
the map fd used to add the event is closed. This behavior makes it
difficult to the share perf events with perf event array.

Introduce perf event map that keeps the perf event open with a new flag
BPF_F_PRESERVE_ELEMS. With this flag set, perf events in the array are not
removed when the original map fd is closed. Instead, the perf event will
stay in the map until 1) it is explicitly removed from the array; or 2)
the array is freed.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200930224927.1936644-2-songliubraving@fb.com


# b4ab3141 30-Sep-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add redirect_neigh helper as redirect drop-in

Add a redirect_neigh() helper as redirect() drop-in replacement
for the xmit side. Main idea for the helper is to be very similar
in semantics to the latter just that the skb gets injected into
the neighboring subsystem in order to let the stack do the work
it knows best anyway to populate the L2 addresses of the packet
and then hand over to dev_queue_xmit() as redirect() does.

This solves two bigger items: i) skbs don't need to go up to the
stack on the host facing veth ingress side for traffic egressing
the container to achieve the same for populating L2 which also
has the huge advantage that ii) the skb->sk won't get orphaned in
ip_rcv_core() when entering the IP routing layer on the host stack.

Given that skb->sk neither gets orphaned when crossing the netns
as per 9c4c325252c5 ("skbuff: preserve sock reference when scrubbing
the skb.") the helper can then push the skbs directly to the phys
device where FQ scheduler can do its work and TCP stack gets proper
backpressure given we hold on to skb->sk as long as skb is still
residing in queues.

With the helper used in BPF data path to then push the skb to the
phys device, I observed a stable/consistent TCP_STREAM improvement
on veth devices for traffic going container -> host -> host ->
container from ~10Gbps to ~15Gbps for a single stream in my test
environment.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: David Ahern <dsahern@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/f207de81629e1724899b73b8112e0013be782d35.1601477936.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# b426ce83 30-Sep-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add classid helper only based on skb->sk

Similarly to 5a52ae4e32a6 ("bpf: Allow to retrieve cgroup v1 classid
from v2 hooks"), add a helper to retrieve cgroup v1 classid solely
based on the skb->sk, so it can be used as key as part of BPF map
lookups out of tc from host ns, in particular given the skb->sk is
retained these days when crossing net ns thanks to 9c4c325252c5
("skbuff: preserve sock reference when scrubbing the skb."). This
is similar to bpf_skb_cgroup_id() which implements the same for v2.
Kubernetes ecosystem is still operating on v1 however, hence net_cls
needs to be used there until this can be dropped in with the v2
helper of bpf_skb_cgroup_id().

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/ed633cf27a1c620e901c5aa99ebdefb028dce600.1601477936.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# 4a1e7c0c 29-Sep-2020 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

bpf: Support attaching freplace programs to multiple attach points

This enables support for attaching freplace programs to multiple attach
points. It does this by amending the UAPI for bpf_link_Create with a target
btf ID that can be used to supply the new attachment point along with the
target program fd. The target must be compatible with the target that was
supplied at program load time.

The implementation reuses the checks that were factored out of
check_attach_btf_id() to ensure compatibility between the BTF types of the
old and new attachment. If these match, a new bpf_tracing_link will be
created for the new attach target, allowing multiple attachments to
co-exist simultaneously.

The code could theoretically support multiple-attach of other types of
tracing programs as well, but since I don't have a use case for any of
those, there is no API support for doing so.

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/160138355169.48470.17165680973640685368.stgit@toke.dk


# eb411377 27-Sep-2020 Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>

bpf: Add bpf_seq_printf_btf helper

A helper is added to allow seq file writing of kernel data
structures using vmlinux BTF. Its signature is

long bpf_seq_printf_btf(struct seq_file *m, struct btf_ptr *ptr,
u32 btf_ptr_size, u64 flags);

Flags and struct btf_ptr definitions/use are identical to the
bpf_snprintf_btf helper, and the helper returns 0 on success
or a negative error value.

Suggested-by: Alexei Starovoitov <alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/1601292670-1616-8-git-send-email-alan.maguire@oracle.com


# c4d0bfb4 27-Sep-2020 Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>

bpf: Add bpf_snprintf_btf helper

A helper is added to support tracing kernel type information in BPF
using the BPF Type Format (BTF). Its signature is

long bpf_snprintf_btf(char *str, u32 str_size, struct btf_ptr *ptr,
u32 btf_ptr_size, u64 flags);

struct btf_ptr * specifies

- a pointer to the data to be traced
- the BTF id of the type of data pointed to
- a flags field is provided for future use; these flags
are not to be confused with the BTF_F_* flags
below that control how the btf_ptr is displayed; the
flags member of the struct btf_ptr may be used to
disambiguate types in kernel versus module BTF, etc;
the main distinction is the flags relate to the type
and information needed in identifying it; not how it
is displayed.

For example a BPF program with a struct sk_buff *skb
could do the following:

static struct btf_ptr b = { };

b.ptr = skb;
b.type_id = __builtin_btf_type_id(struct sk_buff, 1);
bpf_snprintf_btf(str, sizeof(str), &b, sizeof(b), 0, 0);

Default output looks like this:

(struct sk_buff){
.transport_header = (__u16)65535,
.mac_header = (__u16)65535,
.end = (sk_buff_data_t)192,
.head = (unsigned char *)0x000000007524fd8b,
.data = (unsigned char *)0x000000007524fd8b,
.truesize = (unsigned int)768,
.users = (refcount_t){
.refs = (atomic_t){
.counter = (int)1,
},
},
}

Flags modifying display are as follows:

- BTF_F_COMPACT: no formatting around type information
- BTF_F_NONAME: no struct/union member names/types
- BTF_F_PTR_RAW: show raw (unobfuscated) pointer values;
equivalent to %px.
- BTF_F_ZERO: show zero-valued struct/union members;
they are not displayed by default

Signed-off-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/1601292670-1616-4-git-send-email-alan.maguire@oracle.com


# 1b4d60ec 25-Sep-2020 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Enable BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN for raw_tracepoint

Add .test_run for raw_tracepoint. Also, introduce a new feature that runs
the target program on a specific CPU. This is achieved by a new flag in
bpf_attr.test, BPF_F_TEST_RUN_ON_CPU. When this flag is set, the program
is triggered on cpu with id bpf_attr.test.cpu. This feature is needed for
BPF programs that handle perf_event and other percpu resources, as the
program can access these resource locally.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200925205432.1777-2-songliubraving@fb.com


# 27e5203b 24-Sep-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Change bpf_sk_assign to accept ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON

This patch changes the bpf_sk_assign() to take
ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON such that they will work with the pointer
returned by the bpf_skc_to_*() helpers also.

The bpf_sk_lookup_assign() is taking ARG_PTR_TO_SOCKET_"OR_NULL". Meaning
it specifically takes a literal NULL. ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON
does not allow a literal NULL, so another ARG type is required
for this purpose and another follow-up patch can be used if
there is such need.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200925000415.3857374-1-kafai@fb.com


# c0df236e 24-Sep-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Change bpf_tcp_*_syncookie to accept ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON

This patch changes the bpf_tcp_*_syncookie() to take
ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON such that they will work with the pointer
returned by the bpf_skc_to_*() helpers also.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200925000409.3856725-1-kafai@fb.com


# 592a3498 24-Sep-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Change bpf_sk_storage_*() to accept ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON

This patch changes the bpf_sk_storage_*() to take
ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON such that they will work with the pointer
returned by the bpf_skc_to_*() helpers also.

A micro benchmark has been done on a "cgroup_skb/egress" bpf program
which does a bpf_sk_storage_get(). It was driven by netperf doing
a 4096 connected UDP_STREAM test with 64bytes packet.
The stats from "kernel.bpf_stats_enabled" shows no meaningful difference.

The sk_storage_get_btf_proto, sk_storage_delete_btf_proto,
btf_sk_storage_get_proto, and btf_sk_storage_delete_proto are
no longer needed, so they are removed.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200925000402.3856307-1-kafai@fb.com


# a5fa25ad 24-Sep-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Change bpf_sk_release and bpf_sk_*cgroup_id to accept ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON

The previous patch allows the networking bpf prog to use the
bpf_skc_to_*() helpers to get a PTR_TO_BTF_ID socket pointer,
e.g. "struct tcp_sock *". It allows the bpf prog to read all the
fields of the tcp_sock.

This patch changes the bpf_sk_release() and bpf_sk_*cgroup_id()
to take ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON such that they will
work with the pointer returned by the bpf_skc_to_*() helpers
also. For example, the following will work:

sk = bpf_skc_lookup_tcp(skb, tuple, tuplen, BPF_F_CURRENT_NETNS, 0);
if (!sk)
return;
tp = bpf_skc_to_tcp_sock(sk);
if (!tp) {
bpf_sk_release(sk);
return;
}
lsndtime = tp->lsndtime;
/* Pass tp to bpf_sk_release() will also work */
bpf_sk_release(tp);

Since PTR_TO_BTF_ID could be NULL, the helper taking
ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_SOCK_COMMON has to check for NULL at runtime.

A btf_id of "struct sock" may not always mean a fullsock. Regardless
the helper's running context may get a non-fullsock or not,
considering fullsock check/handling is pretty cheap, it is better to
keep the same verifier expectation on helper that takes ARG_PTR_TO_BTF_ID*
will be able to handle the minisock situation. In the bpf_sk_*cgroup_id()
case, it will try to get a fullsock by using sk_to_full_sk() as its
skb variant bpf_sk"b"_*cgroup_id() has already been doing.

bpf_sk_release can already handle minisock, so nothing special has to
be done.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200925000356.3856047-1-kafai@fb.com


# ef15314a 15-Sep-2020 YiFei Zhu <zhuyifei@google.com>

bpf: Add BPF_PROG_BIND_MAP syscall

This syscall binds a map to a program. Returns success if the map is
already bound to the program.

Signed-off-by: YiFei Zhu <zhuyifei@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Cc: YiFei Zhu <zhuyifei1999@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200915234543.3220146-3-sdf@google.com


# 1aef5b43 10-Sep-2020 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Fix comment for helper bpf_current_task_under_cgroup()

This should be "current" not "skb".

Fixes: c6b5fb8690fa ("bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (42-50)")
Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200910203314.70018-1-songliubraving@fb.com


# 938c3efd 04-Sep-2020 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: Fix formatting in documentation for BPF helpers

Fix a formatting error in the description of bpf_load_hdr_opt() (rst2man
complains about a wrong indentation, but what is missing is actually a
blank line before the bullet list).

Fix and harmonise the formatting for other helpers.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200904161454.31135-3-quentin@isovalent.com


# 07be4c4a 27-Aug-2020 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Add bpf_copy_from_user() helper.

Sleepable BPF programs can now use copy_from_user() to access user memory.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200827220114.69225-4-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# 1e6c62a8 27-Aug-2020 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Introduce sleepable BPF programs

Introduce sleepable BPF programs that can request such property for themselves
via BPF_F_SLEEPABLE flag at program load time. In such case they will be able
to use helpers like bpf_copy_from_user() that might sleep. At present only
fentry/fexit/fmod_ret and lsm programs can request to be sleepable and only
when they are attached to kernel functions that are known to allow sleeping.

The non-sleepable programs are relying on implicit rcu_read_lock() and
migrate_disable() to protect life time of programs, maps that they use and
per-cpu kernel structures used to pass info between bpf programs and the
kernel. The sleepable programs cannot be enclosed into rcu_read_lock().
migrate_disable() maps to preempt_disable() in non-RT kernels, so the progs
should not be enclosed in migrate_disable() as well. Therefore
rcu_read_lock_trace is used to protect the life time of sleepable progs.

There are many networking and tracing program types. In many cases the
'struct bpf_prog *' pointer itself is rcu protected within some other kernel
data structure and the kernel code is using rcu_dereference() to load that
program pointer and call BPF_PROG_RUN() on it. All these cases are not touched.
Instead sleepable bpf programs are allowed with bpf trampoline only. The
program pointers are hard-coded into generated assembly of bpf trampoline and
synchronize_rcu_tasks_trace() is used to protect the life time of the program.
The same trampoline can hold both sleepable and non-sleepable progs.

When rcu_read_lock_trace is held it means that some sleepable bpf program is
running from bpf trampoline. Those programs can use bpf arrays and preallocated
hash/lru maps. These map types are waiting on programs to complete via
synchronize_rcu_tasks_trace();

Updates to trampoline now has to do synchronize_rcu_tasks_trace() and
synchronize_rcu_tasks() to wait for sleepable progs to finish and for
trampoline assembly to finish.

This is the first step of introducing sleepable progs. Eventually dynamically
allocated hash maps can be allowed and networking program types can become
sleepable too.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: Josef Bacik <josef@toxicpanda.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200827220114.69225-3-alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com


# b0c9eb37 27-Aug-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Make bpf_link_info.iter similar to bpf_iter_link_info

bpf_link_info.iter is used by link_query to return bpf_iter_link_info
to user space. Fields may be different, e.g., map_fd vs. map_id, so
we cannot reuse the exact structure. But make them similar, e.g.,

struct bpf_link_info {
/* common fields */
union {
struct { ... } raw_tracepoint;
struct { ... } tracing;
...
struct {
/* common fields for iter */
union {
struct {
__u32 map_id;
} map;
/* other structs for other targets */
};
};
};
};

so the structure is extensible the same way as bpf_iter_link_info.

Fixes: 6b0a249a301e ("bpf: Implement link_query for bpf iterators")
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200828051922.758950-1-yhs@fb.com


# 6e22ab9d 25-Aug-2020 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>

bpf: Add d_path helper

Adding d_path helper function that returns full path for
given 'struct path' object, which needs to be the kernel
BTF 'path' object. The path is returned in buffer provided
'buf' of size 'sz' and is zero terminated.

bpf_d_path(&file->f_path, buf, size);

The helper calls directly d_path function, so there's only
limited set of function it can be called from. Adding just
very modest set for the start.

Updating also bpf.h tools uapi header and adding 'path' to
bpf_helpers_doc.py script.

Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200825192124.710397-11-jolsa@kernel.org


# 30897832 25-Aug-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Allow local storage to be used from LSM programs

Adds support for both bpf_{sk, inode}_storage_{get, delete} to be used
in LSM programs. These helpers are not used for tracing programs
(currently) as their usage is tied to the life-cycle of the object and
should only be used where the owning object won't be freed (when the
owning object is passed as an argument to the LSM hook). Thus, they
are safer to use in LSM hooks than tracing. Usage of local storage in
tracing programs will probably follow a per function based whitelist
approach.

Since the UAPI helper signature for bpf_sk_storage expect a bpf_sock,
it, leads to a compilation warning for LSM programs, it's also updated
to accept a void * pointer instead.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200825182919.1118197-7-kpsingh@chromium.org


# 8ea63684 25-Aug-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Implement bpf_local_storage for inodes

Similar to bpf_local_storage for sockets, add local storage for inodes.
The life-cycle of storage is managed with the life-cycle of the inode.
i.e. the storage is destroyed along with the owning inode.

The BPF LSM allocates an __rcu pointer to the bpf_local_storage in the
security blob which are now stackable and can co-exist with other LSMs.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200825182919.1118197-6-kpsingh@chromium.org


# f836a56e 25-Aug-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Generalize bpf_sk_storage

Refactor the functionality in bpf_sk_storage.c so that concept of
storage linked to kernel objects can be extended to other objects like
inode, task_struct etc.

Each new local storage will still be a separate map and provide its own
set of helpers. This allows for future object specific extensions and
still share a lot of the underlying implementation.

This includes the changes suggested by Martin in:

https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200725013047.4006241-1-kafai@fb.com/

adding new map operations to support bpf_local_storage maps:

* storages for different kernel objects to optionally have different
memory charging strategy (map_local_storage_charge,
map_local_storage_uncharge)
* Functionality to extract the storage pointer from a pointer to the
owning object (map_owner_storage_ptr)

Co-developed-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200825182919.1118197-4-kpsingh@chromium.org


# 267cf9fa 20-Aug-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

tcp: bpf: Optionally store mac header in TCP_SAVE_SYN

This patch is adapted from Eric's patch in an earlier discussion [1].

The TCP_SAVE_SYN currently only stores the network header and
tcp header. This patch allows it to optionally store
the mac header also if the setsockopt's optval is 2.

It requires one more bit for the "save_syn" bit field in tcp_sock.
This patch achieves this by moving the syn_smc bit next to the is_mptcp.
The syn_smc is currently used with the TCP experimental option. Since
syn_smc is only used when CONFIG_SMC is enabled, this patch also puts
the "IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SMC)" around it like the is_mptcp did
with "IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_MPTCP)".

The mac_hdrlen is also stored in the "struct saved_syn"
to allow a quick offset from the bpf prog if it chooses to start
getting from the network header or the tcp header.

[1]: https://lore.kernel.org/netdev/CANn89iLJNWh6bkH7DNhy_kmcAexuUCccqERqe7z2QsvPhGrYPQ@mail.gmail.com/

Suggested-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820190123.2886935-1-kafai@fb.com


# 0813a841 20-Aug-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: tcp: Allow bpf prog to write and parse TCP header option

[ Note: The TCP changes here is mainly to implement the bpf
pieces into the bpf_skops_*() functions introduced
in the earlier patches. ]

The earlier effort in BPF-TCP-CC allows the TCP Congestion Control
algorithm to be written in BPF. It opens up opportunities to allow
a faster turnaround time in testing/releasing new congestion control
ideas to production environment.

The same flexibility can be extended to writing TCP header option.
It is not uncommon that people want to test new TCP header option
to improve the TCP performance. Another use case is for data-center
that has a more controlled environment and has more flexibility in
putting header options for internal only use.

For example, we want to test the idea in putting maximum delay
ACK in TCP header option which is similar to a draft RFC proposal [1].

This patch introduces the necessary BPF API and use them in the
TCP stack to allow BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS program to parse
and write TCP header options. It currently supports most of
the TCP packet except RST.

Supported TCP header option:
───────────────────────────
This patch allows the bpf-prog to write any option kind.
Different bpf-progs can write its own option by calling the new helper
bpf_store_hdr_opt(). The helper will ensure there is no duplicated
option in the header.

By allowing bpf-prog to write any option kind, this gives a lot of
flexibility to the bpf-prog. Different bpf-prog can write its
own option kind. It could also allow the bpf-prog to support a
recently standardized option on an older kernel.

Sockops Callback Flags:
──────────────────────
The bpf program will only be called to parse/write tcp header option
if the following newly added callback flags are enabled
in tp->bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags:
BPF_SOCK_OPS_PARSE_UNKNOWN_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG
BPF_SOCK_OPS_PARSE_ALL_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG
BPF_SOCK_OPS_WRITE_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG

A few words on the PARSE CB flags. When the above PARSE CB flags are
turned on, the bpf-prog will be called on packets received
at a sk that has at least reached the ESTABLISHED state.
The parsing of the SYN-SYNACK-ACK will be discussed in the
"3 Way HandShake" section.

The default is off for all of the above new CB flags, i.e. the bpf prog
will not be called to parse or write bpf hdr option. There are
details comment on these new cb flags in the UAPI bpf.h.

sock_ops->skb_data and bpf_load_hdr_opt()
─────────────────────────────────────────
sock_ops->skb_data and sock_ops->skb_data_end covers the whole
TCP header and its options. They are read only.

The new bpf_load_hdr_opt() helps to read a particular option "kind"
from the skb_data.

Please refer to the comment in UAPI bpf.h. It has details
on what skb_data contains under different sock_ops->op.

3 Way HandShake
───────────────
The bpf-prog can learn if it is sending SYN or SYNACK by reading the
sock_ops->skb_tcp_flags.

* Passive side

When writing SYNACK (i.e. sock_ops->op == BPF_SOCK_OPS_WRITE_HDR_OPT_CB),
the received SYN skb will be available to the bpf prog. The bpf prog can
use the SYN skb (which may carry the header option sent from the remote bpf
prog) to decide what bpf header option should be written to the outgoing
SYNACK skb. The SYN packet can be obtained by getsockopt(TCP_BPF_SYN*).
More on this later. Also, the bpf prog can learn if it is in syncookie
mode (by checking sock_ops->args[0] == BPF_WRITE_HDR_TCP_SYNACK_COOKIE).

The bpf prog can store the received SYN pkt by using the existing
bpf_setsockopt(TCP_SAVE_SYN). The example in a later patch does it.
[ Note that the fullsock here is a listen sk, bpf_sk_storage
is not very useful here since the listen sk will be shared
by many concurrent connection requests.

Extending bpf_sk_storage support to request_sock will add weight
to the minisock and it is not necessary better than storing the
whole ~100 bytes SYN pkt. ]

When the connection is established, the bpf prog will be called
in the existing PASSIVE_ESTABLISHED_CB callback. At that time,
the bpf prog can get the header option from the saved syn and
then apply the needed operation to the newly established socket.
The later patch will use the max delay ack specified in the SYN
header and set the RTO of this newly established connection
as an example.

The received ACK (that concludes the 3WHS) will also be available to
the bpf prog during PASSIVE_ESTABLISHED_CB through the sock_ops->skb_data.
It could be useful in syncookie scenario. More on this later.

There is an existing getsockopt "TCP_SAVED_SYN" to return the whole
saved syn pkt which includes the IP[46] header and the TCP header.
A few "TCP_BPF_SYN*" getsockopt has been added to allow specifying where to
start getting from, e.g. starting from TCP header, or from IP[46] header.

The new getsockopt(TCP_BPF_SYN*) will also know where it can get
the SYN's packet from:
- (a) the just received syn (available when the bpf prog is writing SYNACK)
and it is the only way to get SYN during syncookie mode.
or
- (b) the saved syn (available in PASSIVE_ESTABLISHED_CB and also other
existing CB).

The bpf prog does not need to know where the SYN pkt is coming from.
The getsockopt(TCP_BPF_SYN*) will hide this details.

Similarly, a flags "BPF_LOAD_HDR_OPT_TCP_SYN" is also added to
bpf_load_hdr_opt() to read a particular header option from the SYN packet.

* Fastopen

Fastopen should work the same as the regular non fastopen case.
This is a test in a later patch.

* Syncookie

For syncookie, the later example patch asks the active
side's bpf prog to resend the header options in ACK. The server
can use bpf_load_hdr_opt() to look at the options in this
received ACK during PASSIVE_ESTABLISHED_CB.

* Active side

The bpf prog will get a chance to write the bpf header option
in the SYN packet during WRITE_HDR_OPT_CB. The received SYNACK
pkt will also be available to the bpf prog during the existing
ACTIVE_ESTABLISHED_CB callback through the sock_ops->skb_data
and bpf_load_hdr_opt().

* Turn off header CB flags after 3WHS

If the bpf prog does not need to write/parse header options
beyond the 3WHS, the bpf prog can clear the bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags
to avoid being called for header options.
Or the bpf-prog can select to leave the UNKNOWN_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG on
so that the kernel will only call it when there is option that
the kernel cannot handle.

[1]: draft-wang-tcpm-low-latency-opt-00
https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-wang-tcpm-low-latency-opt-00

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820190104.2885895-1-kafai@fb.com


# 331fca43 20-Aug-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: tcp: Add bpf_skops_hdr_opt_len() and bpf_skops_write_hdr_opt()

The bpf prog needs to parse the SYN header to learn what options have
been sent by the peer's bpf-prog before writing its options into SYNACK.
This patch adds a "syn_skb" arg to tcp_make_synack() and send_synack().
This syn_skb will eventually be made available (as read-only) to the
bpf prog. This will be the only SYN packet available to the bpf
prog during syncookie. For other regular cases, the bpf prog can
also use the saved_syn.

When writing options, the bpf prog will first be called to tell the
kernel its required number of bytes. It is done by the new
bpf_skops_hdr_opt_len(). The bpf prog will only be called when the new
BPF_SOCK_OPS_WRITE_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG is set in tp->bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags.
When the bpf prog returns, the kernel will know how many bytes are needed
and then update the "*remaining" arg accordingly. 4 byte alignment will
be included in the "*remaining" before this function returns. The 4 byte
aligned number of bytes will also be stored into the opts->bpf_opt_len.
"bpf_opt_len" is a newly added member to the struct tcp_out_options.

Then the new bpf_skops_write_hdr_opt() will call the bpf prog to write the
header options. The bpf prog is only called if it has reserved spaces
before (opts->bpf_opt_len > 0).

The bpf prog is the last one getting a chance to reserve header space
and writing the header option.

These two functions are half implemented to highlight the changes in
TCP stack. The actual codes preparing the bpf running context and
invoking the bpf prog will be added in the later patch with other
necessary bpf pieces.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820190052.2885316-1-kafai@fb.com


# 00d211a4 20-Aug-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: tcp: Add bpf_skops_parse_hdr()

The patch adds a function bpf_skops_parse_hdr().
It will call the bpf prog to parse the TCP header received at
a tcp_sock that has at least reached the ESTABLISHED state.

For the packets received during the 3WHS (SYN, SYNACK and ACK),
the received skb will be available to the bpf prog during the callback
in bpf_skops_established() introduced in the previous patch and
in the bpf_skops_write_hdr_opt() that will be added in the
next patch.

Calling bpf prog to parse header is controlled by two new flags in
tp->bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags:
BPF_SOCK_OPS_PARSE_UNKNOWN_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG and
BPF_SOCK_OPS_PARSE_ALL_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG.

When BPF_SOCK_OPS_PARSE_UNKNOWN_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG is set,
the bpf prog will only be called when there is unknown
option in the TCP header.

When BPF_SOCK_OPS_PARSE_ALL_HDR_OPT_CB_FLAG is set,
the bpf prog will be called on all received TCP header.

This function is half implemented to highlight the changes in
TCP stack. The actual codes preparing the bpf running context and
invoking the bpf prog will be added in the later patch with other
necessary bpf pieces.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820190046.2885054-1-kafai@fb.com


# ca584ba0 20-Aug-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

tcp: bpf: Add TCP_BPF_RTO_MIN for bpf_setsockopt

This patch adds bpf_setsockopt(TCP_BPF_RTO_MIN) to allow bpf prog
to set the min rto of a connection. It could be used together
with the earlier patch which has added bpf_setsockopt(TCP_BPF_DELACK_MAX).

A later selftest patch will communicate the max delay ack in a
bpf tcp header option and then the receiving side can use
bpf_setsockopt(TCP_BPF_RTO_MIN) to set a shorter rto.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820190027.2884170-1-kafai@fb.com


# 2b8ee4f0 20-Aug-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

tcp: bpf: Add TCP_BPF_DELACK_MAX setsockopt

This change is mostly from an internal patch and adapts it from sysctl
config to the bpf_setsockopt setup.

The bpf_prog can set the max delay ack by using
bpf_setsockopt(TCP_BPF_DELACK_MAX). This max delay ack can be communicated
to its peer through bpf header option. The receiving peer can then use
this max delay ack and set a potentially lower rto by using
bpf_setsockopt(TCP_BPF_RTO_MIN) which will be introduced
in the next patch.

Another later selftest patch will also use it like the above to show
how to write and parse bpf tcp header option.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200820190021.2884000-1-kafai@fb.com


# 6b0a249a 21-Aug-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Implement link_query for bpf iterators

This patch implemented bpf_link callback functions
show_fdinfo and fill_link_info to support link_query
interface.

The general interface for show_fdinfo and fill_link_info
will print/fill the target_name. Each targets can
register show_fdinfo and fill_link_info callbacks
to print/fill more target specific information.

For example, the below is a fdinfo result for a bpf
task iterator.
$ cat /proc/1749/fdinfo/7
pos: 0
flags: 02000000
mnt_id: 14
link_type: iter
link_id: 11
prog_tag: 990e1f8152f7e54f
prog_id: 59
target_name: task

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200821184418.574122-1-yhs@fb.com


# b16fc097 21-Aug-2020 Tobias Klauser <tklauser@distanz.ch>

bpf: Fix two typos in uapi/linux/bpf.h

Also remove trailing whitespaces in bpf_skb_get_tunnel_key example code.

Signed-off-by: Tobias Klauser <tklauser@distanz.ch>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200821133642.18870-1-tklauser@distanz.ch


# 5e7b3020 04-Aug-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Change uapi for bpf iterator map elements

Commit a5cbe05a6673 ("bpf: Implement bpf iterator for
map elements") added bpf iterator support for
map elements. The map element bpf iterator requires
info to identify a particular map. In the above
commit, the attr->link_create.target_fd is used
to carry map_fd and an enum bpf_iter_link_info
is added to uapi to specify the target_fd actually
representing a map_fd:
enum bpf_iter_link_info {
BPF_ITER_LINK_UNSPEC = 0,
BPF_ITER_LINK_MAP_FD = 1,

MAX_BPF_ITER_LINK_INFO,
};

This is an extensible approach as we can grow
enumerator for pid, cgroup_id, etc. and we can
unionize target_fd for pid, cgroup_id, etc.
But in the future, there are chances that
more complex customization may happen, e.g.,
for tasks, it could be filtered based on
both cgroup_id and user_id.

This patch changed the uapi to have fields
__aligned_u64 iter_info;
__u32 iter_info_len;
for additional iter_info for link_create.
The iter_info is defined as
union bpf_iter_link_info {
struct {
__u32 map_fd;
} map;
};

So future extension for additional customization
will be easier. The bpf_iter_link_info will be
passed to target callback to validate and generic
bpf_iter framework does not need to deal it any
more.

Note that map_fd = 0 will be considered invalid
and -EBADF will be returned to user space.

Fixes: a5cbe05a6673 ("bpf: Implement bpf iterator for map elements")
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200805055056.1457463-1-yhs@fb.com


# 73b11c2a 31-Jul-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Add support for forced LINK_DETACH command

Add LINK_DETACH command to force-detach bpf_link without destroying it. It has
the same behavior as auto-detaching of bpf_link due to cgroup dying for
bpf_cgroup_link or net_device being destroyed for bpf_xdp_link. In such case,
bpf_link is still a valid kernel object, but is defuncts and doesn't hold BPF
program attached to corresponding BPF hook. This functionality allows users
with enough access rights to manually force-detach attached bpf_link without
killing respective owner process.

This patch implements LINK_DETACH for cgroup, xdp, and netns links, mostly
re-using existing link release handling code.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200731182830.286260-2-andriin@fb.com


# e1613b57 27-Jul-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Fix bpf_ringbuf_output() signature to return long

Due to bpf tree fix merge, bpf_ringbuf_output() signature ended up with int as
a return type, while all other helpers got converted to returning long. So fix
it in bpf-next now.

Fixes: b0659d8a950d ("bpf: Fix definition of bpf_ringbuf_output() helper in UAPI comments")
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200727224715.652037-1-andriin@fb.com


# c1931c97 22-Jul-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Implement BPF XDP link-specific introspection APIs

Implement XDP link-specific show_fdinfo and link_info to emit ifindex.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200722064603.3350758-7-andriin@fb.com


# aa8d3a71 22-Jul-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf, xdp: Add bpf_link-based XDP attachment API

Add bpf_link-based API (bpf_xdp_link) to attach BPF XDP program through
BPF_LINK_CREATE command.

bpf_xdp_link is mutually exclusive with direct BPF program attachment,
previous BPF program should be detached prior to attempting to create a new
bpf_xdp_link attachment (for a given XDP mode). Once BPF link is attached, it
can't be replaced by other BPF program attachment or link attachment. It will
be detached only when the last BPF link FD is closed.

bpf_xdp_link will be auto-detached when net_device is shutdown, similarly to
how other BPF links behave (cgroup, flow_dissector). At that point bpf_link
will become defunct, but won't be destroyed until last FD is closed.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200722064603.3350758-5-andriin@fb.com


# a5cbe05a 23-Jul-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Implement bpf iterator for map elements

The bpf iterator for map elements are implemented.
The bpf program will receive four parameters:
bpf_iter_meta *meta: the meta data
bpf_map *map: the bpf_map whose elements are traversed
void *key: the key of one element
void *value: the value of the same element

Here, meta and map pointers are always valid, and
key has register type PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF_OR_NULL and
value has register type PTR_TO_RDWR_BUF_OR_NULL.
The kernel will track the access range of key and value
during verification time. Later, these values will be compared
against the values in the actual map to ensure all accesses
are within range.

A new field iter_seq_info is added to bpf_map_ops which
is used to add map type specific information, i.e., seq_ops,
init/fini seq_file func and seq_file private data size.
Subsequent patches will have actual implementation
for bpf_map_ops->iter_seq_info.

In user space, BPF_ITER_LINK_MAP_FD needs to be
specified in prog attr->link_create.flags, which indicates
that attr->link_create.target_fd is a map_fd.
The reason for such an explicit flag is for possible
future cases where one bpf iterator may allow more than
one possible customization, e.g., pid and cgroup id for
task_file.

Current kernel internal implementation only allows
the target to register at most one required bpf_iter_link_info.
To support the above case, optional bpf_iter_link_info's
are needed, the target can be extended to register such link
infos, and user provided link_info needs to match one of
target supported ones.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200723184112.590360-1-yhs@fb.com


# e9ddbb77 16-Jul-2020 Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>

bpf: Introduce SK_LOOKUP program type with a dedicated attach point

Add a new program type BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_LOOKUP with a dedicated attach type
BPF_SK_LOOKUP. The new program kind is to be invoked by the transport layer
when looking up a listening socket for a new connection request for
connection oriented protocols, or when looking up an unconnected socket for
a packet for connection-less protocols.

When called, SK_LOOKUP BPF program can select a socket that will receive
the packet. This serves as a mechanism to overcome the limits of what
bind() API allows to express. Two use-cases driving this work are:

(1) steer packets destined to an IP range, on fixed port to a socket

192.0.2.0/24, port 80 -> NGINX socket

(2) steer packets destined to an IP address, on any port to a socket

198.51.100.1, any port -> L7 proxy socket

In its run-time context program receives information about the packet that
triggered the socket lookup. Namely IP version, L4 protocol identifier, and
address 4-tuple. Context can be further extended to include ingress
interface identifier.

To select a socket BPF program fetches it from a map holding socket
references, like SOCKMAP or SOCKHASH, and calls bpf_sk_assign(ctx, sk, ...)
helper to record the selection. Transport layer then uses the selected
socket as a result of socket lookup.

In its basic form, SK_LOOKUP acts as a filter and hence must return either
SK_PASS or SK_DROP. If the program returns with SK_PASS, transport should
look for a socket to receive the packet, or use the one selected by the
program if available, while SK_DROP informs the transport layer that the
lookup should fail.

This patch only enables the user to attach an SK_LOOKUP program to a
network namespace. Subsequent patches hook it up to run on local delivery
path in ipv4 and ipv6 stacks.

Suggested-by: Marek Majkowski <marek@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200717103536.397595-3-jakub@cloudflare.com


# bfdfa517 15-Jul-2020 Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>

bpf: Drop duplicated words in uapi helper comments

Drop doubled words "will" and "attach".

Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/6b9f71ae-4f8e-0259-2c5d-187ddaefe6eb@infradead.org


# 92164774 14-Jul-2020 Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>

bpf: cpumap: Add the possibility to attach an eBPF program to cpumap

Introduce the capability to attach an eBPF program to cpumap entries.
The idea behind this feature is to add the possibility to define on
which CPU run the eBPF program if the underlying hw does not support
RSS. Current supported verdicts are XDP_DROP and XDP_PASS.

This patch has been tested on Marvell ESPRESSObin using xdp_redirect_cpu
sample available in the kernel tree to identify possible performance
regressions. Results show there are no observable differences in
packet-per-second:

$./xdp_redirect_cpu --progname xdp_cpu_map0 --dev eth0 --cpu 1
rx: 354.8 Kpps
rx: 356.0 Kpps
rx: 356.8 Kpps
rx: 356.3 Kpps
rx: 356.6 Kpps
rx: 356.6 Kpps
rx: 356.7 Kpps
rx: 355.8 Kpps
rx: 356.8 Kpps
rx: 356.8 Kpps

Co-developed-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/5c9febdf903d810b3415732e5cd98491d7d9067a.1594734381.git.lorenzo@kernel.org


# 644bfe51 14-Jul-2020 Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>

cpumap: Formalize map value as a named struct

As it has been already done for devmap, introduce 'struct bpf_cpumap_val'
to formalize the expected values that can be passed in for a CPUMAP.
Update cpumap code to use the struct.

Signed-off-by: Lorenzo Bianconi <lorenzo@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/754f950674665dae6139c061d28c1d982aaf4170.1594734381.git.lorenzo@kernel.org


# f5836749 06-Jul-2020 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: Add BPF_CGROUP_INET_SOCK_RELEASE hook

Sometimes it's handy to know when the socket gets freed. In
particular, we'd like to try to use a smarter allocation of
ports for bpf_bind and explore the possibility of limiting
the number of SOCK_DGRAM sockets the process can have.

Implement BPF_CGROUP_INET_SOCK_RELEASE hook that triggers on
inet socket release. It triggers only for userspace sockets
(not in-kernel ones) and therefore has the same semantics as
the existing BPF_CGROUP_INET_SOCK_CREATE.

Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200706230128.4073544-2-sdf@google.com


# fa28dcb8 30-Jun-2020 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce helper bpf_get_task_stack()

Introduce helper bpf_get_task_stack(), which dumps stack trace of given
task. This is different to bpf_get_stack(), which gets stack track of
current task. One potential use case of bpf_get_task_stack() is to call
it from bpf_iter__task and dump all /proc/<pid>/stack to a seq_file.

bpf_get_task_stack() uses stack_trace_save_tsk() instead of
get_perf_callchain() for kernel stack. The benefit of this choice is that
stack_trace_save_tsk() doesn't require changes in arch/. The downside of
using stack_trace_save_tsk() is that stack_trace_save_tsk() dumps the
stack trace to unsigned long array. For 32-bit systems, we need to
translate it to u64 array.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200630062846.664389-3-songliubraving@fb.com


# 0d4fad3e 23-Jun-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_skc_to_udp6_sock() helper

The helper is used in tracing programs to cast a socket
pointer to a udp6_sock pointer.
The return value could be NULL if the casting is illegal.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200623230815.3988481-1-yhs@fb.com


# 478cfbdf 23-Jun-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_skc_to_{tcp, tcp_timewait, tcp_request}_sock() helpers

Three more helpers are added to cast a sock_common pointer to
an tcp_sock, tcp_timewait_sock or a tcp_request_sock for
tracing programs.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200623230811.3988277-1-yhs@fb.com


# af7ec138 23-Jun-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_skc_to_tcp6_sock() helper

The helper is used in tracing programs to cast a socket
pointer to a tcp6_sock pointer.
The return value could be NULL if the casting is illegal.

A new helper return type RET_PTR_TO_BTF_ID_OR_NULL is added
so the verifier is able to deduce proper return types for the helper.

Different from the previous BTF_ID based helpers,
the bpf_skc_to_tcp6_sock() argument can be several possible
btf_ids. More specifically, all possible socket data structures
with sock_common appearing in the first in the memory layout.
This patch only added socket types related to tcp and udp.

All possible argument btf_id and return value btf_id
for helper bpf_skc_to_tcp6_sock() are pre-calculcated and
cached. In the future, it is even possible to precompute
these btf_id's at kernel build time.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200623230809.3988195-1-yhs@fb.com


# f9bcf968 20-Jun-2020 Dmitry Yakunin <zeil@yandex-team.ru>

bpf: Add SO_KEEPALIVE and related options to bpf_setsockopt

This patch adds support of SO_KEEPALIVE flag and TCP related options
to bpf_setsockopt() routine. This is helpful if we want to enable or tune
TCP keepalive for applications which don't do it in the userspace code.

v3:
- update kernel-doc in uapi (Nikita Vetoshkin <nekto0n@yandex-team.ru>)

v4:
- update kernel-doc in tools too (Alexei Starovoitov)
- add test to selftests (Alexei Starovoitov)

Signed-off-by: Dmitry Yakunin <zeil@yandex-team.ru>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200620153052.9439-3-zeil@yandex-team.ru


# bcc7f554 23-Jun-2020 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: Fix formatting in documentation for BPF helpers

When producing the bpf-helpers.7 man page from the documentation from
the BPF user space header file, rst2man complains:

<stdin>:2636: (ERROR/3) Unexpected indentation.
<stdin>:2640: (WARNING/2) Block quote ends without a blank line; unexpected unindent.

Let's fix formatting for the relevant chunk (item list in
bpf_ringbuf_query()'s description), and for a couple other functions.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200623153935.6215-1-quentin@isovalent.com


# bdb7b79b 22-Jun-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Switch most helper return values from 32-bit int to 64-bit long

Switch most of BPF helper definitions from returning int to long. These
definitions are coming from comments in BPF UAPI header and are used to
generate bpf_helper_defs.h (under libbpf) to be later included and used from
BPF programs.

In actual in-kernel implementation, all the helpers are defined as returning
u64, but due to some historical reasons, most of them are actually defined as
returning int in UAPI (usually, to return 0 on success, and negative value on
error).

This actually causes Clang to quite often generate sub-optimal code, because
compiler believes that return value is 32-bit, and in a lot of cases has to be
up-converted (usually with a pair of 32-bit bit shifts) to 64-bit values,
before they can be used further in BPF code.

Besides just "polluting" the code, these 32-bit shifts quite often cause
problems for cases in which return value matters. This is especially the case
for the family of bpf_probe_read_str() functions. There are few other similar
helpers (e.g., bpf_read_branch_records()), in which return value is used by
BPF program logic to record variable-length data and process it. For such
cases, BPF program logic carefully manages offsets within some array or map to
read variable-length data. For such uses, it's crucial for BPF verifier to
track possible range of register values to prove that all the accesses happen
within given memory bounds. Those extraneous zero-extending bit shifts,
inserted by Clang (and quite often interleaved with other code, which makes
the issues even more challenging and sometimes requires employing extra
per-variable compiler barriers), throws off verifier logic and makes it mark
registers as having unknown variable offset. We'll study this pattern a bit
later below.

Another common pattern is to check return of BPF helper for non-zero state to
detect error conditions and attempt alternative actions in such case. Even in
this simple and straightforward case, this 32-bit vs BPF's native 64-bit mode
quite often leads to sub-optimal and unnecessary extra code. We'll look at
this pattern as well.

Clang's BPF target supports two modes of code generation: ALU32, in which it
is capable of using lower 32-bit parts of registers, and no-ALU32, in which
only full 64-bit registers are being used. ALU32 mode somewhat mitigates the
above described problems, but not in all cases.

This patch switches all the cases in which BPF helpers return 0 or negative
error from returning int to returning long. It is shown below that such change
in definition leads to equivalent or better code. No-ALU32 mode benefits more,
but ALU32 mode doesn't degrade or still gets improved code generation.

Another class of cases switched from int to long are bpf_probe_read_str()-like
helpers, which encode successful case as non-negative values, while still
returning negative value for errors.

In all of such cases, correctness is preserved due to two's complement
encoding of negative values and the fact that all helpers return values with
32-bit absolute value. Two's complement ensures that for negative values
higher 32 bits are all ones and when truncated, leave valid negative 32-bit
value with the same value. Non-negative values have upper 32 bits set to zero
and similarly preserve value when high 32 bits are truncated. This means that
just casting to int/u32 is correct and efficient (and in ALU32 mode doesn't
require any extra shifts).

To minimize the chances of regressions, two code patterns were investigated,
as mentioned above. For both patterns, BPF assembly was analyzed in
ALU32/NO-ALU32 compiler modes, both with current 32-bit int return type and
new 64-bit long return type.

Case 1. Variable-length data reading and concatenation. This is quite
ubiquitous pattern in tracing/monitoring applications, reading data like
process's environment variables, file path, etc. In such case, many pieces of
string-like variable-length data are read into a single big buffer, and at the
end of the process, only a part of array containing actual data is sent to
user-space for further processing. This case is tested in test_varlen.c
selftest (in the next patch). Code flow is roughly as follows:

void *payload = &sample->payload;
u64 len;

len = bpf_probe_read_kernel_str(payload, MAX_SZ1, &source_data1);
if (len <= MAX_SZ1) {
payload += len;
sample->len1 = len;
}
len = bpf_probe_read_kernel_str(payload, MAX_SZ2, &source_data2);
if (len <= MAX_SZ2) {
payload += len;
sample->len2 = len;
}
/* and so on */
sample->total_len = payload - &sample->payload;
/* send over, e.g., perf buffer */

There could be two variations with slightly different code generated: when len
is 64-bit integer and when it is 32-bit integer. Both variations were analysed.
BPF assembly instructions between two successive invocations of
bpf_probe_read_kernel_str() were used to check code regressions. Results are
below, followed by short analysis. Left side is using helpers with int return
type, the right one is after the switch to long.

ALU32 + INT ALU32 + LONG
=========== ============

64-BIT (13 insns): 64-BIT (10 insns):
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
17: call 115 17: call 115
18: if w0 > 256 goto +9 <LBB0_4> 18: if r0 > 256 goto +6 <LBB0_4>
19: w1 = w0 19: r1 = 0 ll
20: r1 <<= 32 21: *(u64 *)(r1 + 0) = r0
21: r1 s>>= 32 22: r6 = 0 ll
22: r2 = 0 ll 24: r6 += r0
24: *(u64 *)(r2 + 0) = r1 00000000000000c8 <LBB0_4>:
25: r6 = 0 ll 25: r1 = r6
27: r6 += r1 26: w2 = 256
00000000000000e0 <LBB0_4>: 27: r3 = 0 ll
28: r1 = r6 29: call 115
29: w2 = 256
30: r3 = 0 ll
32: call 115

32-BIT (11 insns): 32-BIT (12 insns):
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
17: call 115 17: call 115
18: if w0 > 256 goto +7 <LBB1_4> 18: if w0 > 256 goto +8 <LBB1_4>
19: r1 = 0 ll 19: r1 = 0 ll
21: *(u32 *)(r1 + 0) = r0 21: *(u32 *)(r1 + 0) = r0
22: w1 = w0 22: r0 <<= 32
23: r6 = 0 ll 23: r0 >>= 32
25: r6 += r1 24: r6 = 0 ll
00000000000000d0 <LBB1_4>: 26: r6 += r0
26: r1 = r6 00000000000000d8 <LBB1_4>:
27: w2 = 256 27: r1 = r6
28: r3 = 0 ll 28: w2 = 256
30: call 115 29: r3 = 0 ll
31: call 115

In ALU32 mode, the variant using 64-bit length variable clearly wins and
avoids unnecessary zero-extension bit shifts. In practice, this is even more
important and good, because BPF code won't need to do extra checks to "prove"
that payload/len are within good bounds.

32-bit len is one instruction longer. Clang decided to do 64-to-32 casting
with two bit shifts, instead of equivalent `w1 = w0` assignment. The former
uses extra register. The latter might potentially lose some range information,
but not for 32-bit value. So in this case, verifier infers that r0 is [0, 256]
after check at 18:, and shifting 32 bits left/right keeps that range intact.
We should probably look into Clang's logic and see why it chooses bitshifts
over sub-register assignments for this.

NO-ALU32 + INT NO-ALU32 + LONG
============== ===============

64-BIT (14 insns): 64-BIT (10 insns):
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
17: call 115 17: call 115
18: r0 <<= 32 18: if r0 > 256 goto +6 <LBB0_4>
19: r1 = r0 19: r1 = 0 ll
20: r1 >>= 32 21: *(u64 *)(r1 + 0) = r0
21: if r1 > 256 goto +7 <LBB0_4> 22: r6 = 0 ll
22: r0 s>>= 32 24: r6 += r0
23: r1 = 0 ll 00000000000000c8 <LBB0_4>:
25: *(u64 *)(r1 + 0) = r0 25: r1 = r6
26: r6 = 0 ll 26: r2 = 256
28: r6 += r0 27: r3 = 0 ll
00000000000000e8 <LBB0_4>: 29: call 115
29: r1 = r6
30: r2 = 256
31: r3 = 0 ll
33: call 115

32-BIT (13 insns): 32-BIT (13 insns):
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
17: call 115 17: call 115
18: r1 = r0 18: r1 = r0
19: r1 <<= 32 19: r1 <<= 32
20: r1 >>= 32 20: r1 >>= 32
21: if r1 > 256 goto +6 <LBB1_4> 21: if r1 > 256 goto +6 <LBB1_4>
22: r2 = 0 ll 22: r2 = 0 ll
24: *(u32 *)(r2 + 0) = r0 24: *(u32 *)(r2 + 0) = r0
25: r6 = 0 ll 25: r6 = 0 ll
27: r6 += r1 27: r6 += r1
00000000000000e0 <LBB1_4>: 00000000000000e0 <LBB1_4>:
28: r1 = r6 28: r1 = r6
29: r2 = 256 29: r2 = 256
30: r3 = 0 ll 30: r3 = 0 ll
32: call 115 32: call 115

In NO-ALU32 mode, for the case of 64-bit len variable, Clang generates much
superior code, as expected, eliminating unnecessary bit shifts. For 32-bit
len, code is identical.

So overall, only ALU-32 32-bit len case is more-or-less equivalent and the
difference stems from internal Clang decision, rather than compiler lacking
enough information about types.

Case 2. Let's look at the simpler case of checking return result of BPF helper
for errors. The code is very simple:

long bla;
if (bpf_probe_read_kenerl(&bla, sizeof(bla), 0))
return 1;
else
return 0;

ALU32 + CHECK (9 insns) ALU32 + CHECK (9 insns)
==================================== ====================================
0: r1 = r10 0: r1 = r10
1: r1 += -8 1: r1 += -8
2: w2 = 8 2: w2 = 8
3: r3 = 0 3: r3 = 0
4: call 113 4: call 113
5: w1 = w0 5: r1 = r0
6: w0 = 1 6: w0 = 1
7: if w1 != 0 goto +1 <LBB2_2> 7: if r1 != 0 goto +1 <LBB2_2>
8: w0 = 0 8: w0 = 0
0000000000000048 <LBB2_2>: 0000000000000048 <LBB2_2>:
9: exit 9: exit

Almost identical code, the only difference is the use of full register
assignment (r1 = r0) vs half-registers (w1 = w0) in instruction #5. On 32-bit
architectures, new BPF assembly might be slightly less optimal, in theory. But
one can argue that's not a big issue, given that use of full registers is
still prevalent (e.g., for parameter passing).

NO-ALU32 + CHECK (11 insns) NO-ALU32 + CHECK (9 insns)
==================================== ====================================
0: r1 = r10 0: r1 = r10
1: r1 += -8 1: r1 += -8
2: r2 = 8 2: r2 = 8
3: r3 = 0 3: r3 = 0
4: call 113 4: call 113
5: r1 = r0 5: r1 = r0
6: r1 <<= 32 6: r0 = 1
7: r1 >>= 32 7: if r1 != 0 goto +1 <LBB2_2>
8: r0 = 1 8: r0 = 0
9: if r1 != 0 goto +1 <LBB2_2> 0000000000000048 <LBB2_2>:
10: r0 = 0 9: exit
0000000000000058 <LBB2_2>:
11: exit

NO-ALU32 is a clear improvement, getting rid of unnecessary zero-extension bit
shifts.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200623032224.4020118-1-andriin@fb.com


# b0659d8a 15-Jun-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Fix definition of bpf_ringbuf_output() helper in UAPI comments

Fix definition of bpf_ringbuf_output() in UAPI header comments, which is used
to generate libbpf's bpf_helper_defs.h header. Return value is a number (error
code), not a pointer.

Fixes: 457f44363a88 ("bpf: Implement BPF ring buffer and verifier support for it")
Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200615214926.3638836-1-andriin@fb.com


# 281920b7 09-Jun-2020 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: Devmap adjust uapi for attach bpf program

V2:
- Defer changing BPF-syscall to start at file-descriptor 1
- Use {} to zero initialise struct.

The recent commit fbee97feed9b ("bpf: Add support to attach bpf program to a
devmap entry"), introduced ability to attach (and run) a separate XDP
bpf_prog for each devmap entry. A bpf_prog is added via a file-descriptor.
As zero were a valid FD, not using the feature requires using value minus-1.
The UAPI is extended via tail-extending struct bpf_devmap_val and using
map->value_size to determine the feature set.

This will break older userspace applications not using the bpf_prog feature.
Consider an old userspace app that is compiled against newer kernel
uapi/bpf.h, it will not know that it need to initialise the member
bpf_prog.fd to minus-1. Thus, users will be forced to update source code to
get program running on newer kernels.

This patch remove the minus-1 checks, and have zero mean feature isn't used.

Followup patches either for kernel or libbpf should handle and avoid
returning file-descriptor zero in the first place.

Fixes: fbee97feed9b ("bpf: Add support to attach bpf program to a devmap entry")
Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/159170950687.2102545.7235914718298050113.stgit@firesoul


# 7cdec54f 02-Jun-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add csum_level helper for fixing up csum levels

Add a bpf_csum_level() helper which BPF programs can use in combination
with bpf_skb_adjust_room() when they pass in BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_NO_CSUM_RESET
flag to the latter to avoid falling back to CHECKSUM_NONE.

The bpf_csum_level() allows to adjust CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY skb->csum_levels
via BPF_CSUM_LEVEL_{INC,DEC} which calls __skb_{incr,decr}_checksum_unnecessary()
on the skb. The helper also allows a BPF_CSUM_LEVEL_RESET which sets the skb's
csum to CHECKSUM_NONE as well as a BPF_CSUM_LEVEL_QUERY to just return the
current level. Without this helper, there is no way to otherwise adjust the
skb->csum_level. I did not add an extra dummy flags as there is plenty of free
bitspace in level argument itself iff ever needed in future.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Acked-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/279ae3717cb3d03c0ffeb511493c93c450a01e1a.1591108731.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# 836e66c2 02-Jun-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Fix up bpf_skb_adjust_room helper's skb csum setting

Lorenz recently reported:

In our TC classifier cls_redirect [0], we use the following sequence of
helper calls to decapsulate a GUE (basically IP + UDP + custom header)
encapsulated packet:

bpf_skb_adjust_room(skb, -encap_len, BPF_ADJ_ROOM_MAC, BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_FIXED_GSO)
bpf_redirect(skb->ifindex, BPF_F_INGRESS)

It seems like some checksums of the inner headers are not validated in
this case. For example, a TCP SYN packet with invalid TCP checksum is
still accepted by the network stack and elicits a SYN ACK. [...]

That is, we receive the following packet from the driver:

| ETH | IP | UDP | GUE | IP | TCP |
skb->ip_summed == CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY

ip_summed is CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY because our NICs do rx checksum offloading.
On this packet we run skb_adjust_room_mac(-encap_len), and get the following:

| ETH | IP | TCP |
skb->ip_summed == CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY

Note that ip_summed is still CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY. After bpf_redirect()'ing
into the ingress, we end up in tcp_v4_rcv(). There, skb_checksum_init() is
turned into a no-op due to CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY.

The bpf_skb_adjust_room() helper is not aware of protocol specifics. Internally,
it handles the CHECKSUM_COMPLETE case via skb_postpull_rcsum(), but that does
not cover CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY. In this case skb->csum_level of the original
skb prior to bpf_skb_adjust_room() call was 0, that is, covering UDP. Right now
there is no way to adjust the skb->csum_level. NICs that have checksum offload
disabled (CHECKSUM_NONE) or that support CHECKSUM_COMPLETE are not affected.

Use a safe default for CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY by resetting to CHECKSUM_NONE and
add a flag to the helper called BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_NO_CSUM_RESET that allows users
from opting out. Opting out is useful for the case where we don't remove/add
full protocol headers, or for the case where a user wants to adjust the csum
level manually e.g. through bpf_csum_level() helper that is added in subsequent
patch.

The bpf_skb_proto_{4_to_6,6_to_4}() for NAT64/46 translation from the BPF
bpf_skb_change_proto() helper uses bpf_skb_net_hdr_{push,pop}() pair internally
as well but doesn't change layers, only transitions between v4 to v6 and vice
versa, therefore no adoption is required there.

[0] https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200424185556.7358-1-lmb@cloudflare.com/

Fixes: 2be7e212d541 ("bpf: add bpf_skb_adjust_room helper")
Reported-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Reported-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CACAyw9-uU_52esMd1JjuA80fRPHJv5vsSg8GnfW3t_qDU4aVKQ@mail.gmail.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/11a90472e7cce83e76ddbfce81fdfce7bfc68808.1591108731.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# 7f045a49 31-May-2020 Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>

bpf: Add link-based BPF program attachment to network namespace

Extend bpf() syscall subcommands that operate on bpf_link, that is
LINK_CREATE, LINK_UPDATE, OBJ_GET_INFO, to accept attach types tied to
network namespaces (only flow dissector at the moment).

Link-based and prog-based attachment can be used interchangeably, but only
one can exist at a time. Attempts to attach a link when a prog is already
attached directly, and the other way around, will be met with -EEXIST.
Attempts to detach a program when link exists result in -EINVAL.

Attachment of multiple links of same attach type to one netns is not
supported with the intention to lift the restriction when a use-case
presents itself. Because of that link create returns -E2BIG when trying to
create another netns link, when one already exists.

Link-based attachments to netns don't keep a netns alive by holding a ref
to it. Instead links get auto-detached from netns when the latter is being
destroyed, using a pernet pre_exit callback.

When auto-detached, link lives in defunct state as long there are open FDs
for it. -ENOLINK is returned if a user tries to update a defunct link.

Because bpf_link to netns doesn't hold a ref to struct net, special care is
taken when releasing, updating, or filling link info. The netns might be
getting torn down when any of these link operations are in progress. That
is why auto-detach and update/release/fill_info are synchronized by the
same mutex. Also, link ops have to always check if auto-detach has not
happened yet and if netns is still alive (refcnt > 0).

Signed-off-by: Jakub Sitnicki <jakub@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200531082846.2117903-5-jakub@cloudflare.com


# 64b59025 29-May-2020 David Ahern <dsahern@kernel.org>

xdp: Add xdp_txq_info to xdp_buff

Add xdp_txq_info as the Tx counterpart to xdp_rxq_info. At the
moment only the device is added. Other fields (queue_index)
can be added as use cases arise.

>From a UAPI perspective, add egress_ifindex to xdp context for
bpf programs to see the Tx device.

Update the verifier to only allow accesses to egress_ifindex by
XDP programs with BPF_XDP_DEVMAP expected attach type.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200529220716.75383-4-dsahern@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# fbee97fe 29-May-2020 David Ahern <dsahern@kernel.org>

bpf: Add support to attach bpf program to a devmap entry

Add BPF_XDP_DEVMAP attach type for use with programs associated with a
DEVMAP entry.

Allow DEVMAPs to associate a program with a device entry by adding
a bpf_prog.fd to 'struct bpf_devmap_val'. Values read show the program
id, so the fd and id are a union. bpf programs can get access to the
struct via vmlinux.h.

The program associated with the fd must have type XDP with expected
attach type BPF_XDP_DEVMAP. When a program is associated with a device
index, the program is run on an XDP_REDIRECT and before the buffer is
added to the per-cpu queue. At this point rxq data is still valid; the
next patch adds tx device information allowing the prorgam to see both
ingress and egress device indices.

XDP generic is skb based and XDP programs do not work with skb's. Block
the use case by walking maps used by a program that is to be attached
via xdpgeneric and fail if any of them are DEVMAP / DEVMAP_HASH with

Block attach of BPF_XDP_DEVMAP programs to devices.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200529220716.75383-3-dsahern@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c3c16f2e 26-May-2020 Amritha Nambiar <amritha.nambiar@intel.com>

bpf: Add rx_queue_mapping to bpf_sock

Add "rx_queue_mapping" to bpf_sock. This gives read access for the
existing field (sk_rx_queue_mapping) of struct sock from bpf_sock.
Semantics for the bpf_sock rx_queue_mapping access are similar to
sk_rx_queue_get(), i.e the value NO_QUEUE_MAPPING is not allowed
and -1 is returned in that case. This is useful for transmit queue
selection based on the received queue index which is cached in the
socket in the receive path.

v3: Addressed review comments to add usecase in patch description,
and fixed default value for rx_queue_mapping.
v2: fixed build error for CONFIG_XPS wrapping, reported by
kbuild test robot <lkp@intel.com>

Signed-off-by: Amritha Nambiar <amritha.nambiar@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 457f4436 29-May-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Implement BPF ring buffer and verifier support for it

This commit adds a new MPSC ring buffer implementation into BPF ecosystem,
which allows multiple CPUs to submit data to a single shared ring buffer. On
the consumption side, only single consumer is assumed.

Motivation
----------
There are two distinctive motivators for this work, which are not satisfied by
existing perf buffer, which prompted creation of a new ring buffer
implementation.
- more efficient memory utilization by sharing ring buffer across CPUs;
- preserving ordering of events that happen sequentially in time, even
across multiple CPUs (e.g., fork/exec/exit events for a task).

These two problems are independent, but perf buffer fails to satisfy both.
Both are a result of a choice to have per-CPU perf ring buffer. Both can be
also solved by having an MPSC implementation of ring buffer. The ordering
problem could technically be solved for perf buffer with some in-kernel
counting, but given the first one requires an MPSC buffer, the same solution
would solve the second problem automatically.

Semantics and APIs
------------------
Single ring buffer is presented to BPF programs as an instance of BPF map of
type BPF_MAP_TYPE_RINGBUF. Two other alternatives considered, but ultimately
rejected.

One way would be to, similar to BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERF_EVENT_ARRAY, make
BPF_MAP_TYPE_RINGBUF could represent an array of ring buffers, but not enforce
"same CPU only" rule. This would be more familiar interface compatible with
existing perf buffer use in BPF, but would fail if application needed more
advanced logic to lookup ring buffer by arbitrary key. HASH_OF_MAPS addresses
this with current approach. Additionally, given the performance of BPF
ringbuf, many use cases would just opt into a simple single ring buffer shared
among all CPUs, for which current approach would be an overkill.

Another approach could introduce a new concept, alongside BPF map, to
represent generic "container" object, which doesn't necessarily have key/value
interface with lookup/update/delete operations. This approach would add a lot
of extra infrastructure that has to be built for observability and verifier
support. It would also add another concept that BPF developers would have to
familiarize themselves with, new syntax in libbpf, etc. But then would really
provide no additional benefits over the approach of using a map.
BPF_MAP_TYPE_RINGBUF doesn't support lookup/update/delete operations, but so
doesn't few other map types (e.g., queue and stack; array doesn't support
delete, etc).

The approach chosen has an advantage of re-using existing BPF map
infrastructure (introspection APIs in kernel, libbpf support, etc), being
familiar concept (no need to teach users a new type of object in BPF program),
and utilizing existing tooling (bpftool). For common scenario of using
a single ring buffer for all CPUs, it's as simple and straightforward, as
would be with a dedicated "container" object. On the other hand, by being
a map, it can be combined with ARRAY_OF_MAPS and HASH_OF_MAPS map-in-maps to
implement a wide variety of topologies, from one ring buffer for each CPU
(e.g., as a replacement for perf buffer use cases), to a complicated
application hashing/sharding of ring buffers (e.g., having a small pool of
ring buffers with hashed task's tgid being a look up key to preserve order,
but reduce contention).

Key and value sizes are enforced to be zero. max_entries is used to specify
the size of ring buffer and has to be a power of 2 value.

There are a bunch of similarities between perf buffer
(BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERF_EVENT_ARRAY) and new BPF ring buffer semantics:
- variable-length records;
- if there is no more space left in ring buffer, reservation fails, no
blocking;
- memory-mappable data area for user-space applications for ease of
consumption and high performance;
- epoll notifications for new incoming data;
- but still the ability to do busy polling for new data to achieve the
lowest latency, if necessary.

BPF ringbuf provides two sets of APIs to BPF programs:
- bpf_ringbuf_output() allows to *copy* data from one place to a ring
buffer, similarly to bpf_perf_event_output();
- bpf_ringbuf_reserve()/bpf_ringbuf_commit()/bpf_ringbuf_discard() APIs
split the whole process into two steps. First, a fixed amount of space is
reserved. If successful, a pointer to a data inside ring buffer data area
is returned, which BPF programs can use similarly to a data inside
array/hash maps. Once ready, this piece of memory is either committed or
discarded. Discard is similar to commit, but makes consumer ignore the
record.

bpf_ringbuf_output() has disadvantage of incurring extra memory copy, because
record has to be prepared in some other place first. But it allows to submit
records of the length that's not known to verifier beforehand. It also closely
matches bpf_perf_event_output(), so will simplify migration significantly.

bpf_ringbuf_reserve() avoids the extra copy of memory by providing a memory
pointer directly to ring buffer memory. In a lot of cases records are larger
than BPF stack space allows, so many programs have use extra per-CPU array as
a temporary heap for preparing sample. bpf_ringbuf_reserve() avoid this needs
completely. But in exchange, it only allows a known constant size of memory to
be reserved, such that verifier can verify that BPF program can't access
memory outside its reserved record space. bpf_ringbuf_output(), while slightly
slower due to extra memory copy, covers some use cases that are not suitable
for bpf_ringbuf_reserve().

The difference between commit and discard is very small. Discard just marks
a record as discarded, and such records are supposed to be ignored by consumer
code. Discard is useful for some advanced use-cases, such as ensuring
all-or-nothing multi-record submission, or emulating temporary malloc()/free()
within single BPF program invocation.

Each reserved record is tracked by verifier through existing
reference-tracking logic, similar to socket ref-tracking. It is thus
impossible to reserve a record, but forget to submit (or discard) it.

bpf_ringbuf_query() helper allows to query various properties of ring buffer.
Currently 4 are supported:
- BPF_RB_AVAIL_DATA returns amount of unconsumed data in ring buffer;
- BPF_RB_RING_SIZE returns the size of ring buffer;
- BPF_RB_CONS_POS/BPF_RB_PROD_POS returns current logical possition of
consumer/producer, respectively.
Returned values are momentarily snapshots of ring buffer state and could be
off by the time helper returns, so this should be used only for
debugging/reporting reasons or for implementing various heuristics, that take
into account highly-changeable nature of some of those characteristics.

One such heuristic might involve more fine-grained control over poll/epoll
notifications about new data availability in ring buffer. Together with
BPF_RB_NO_WAKEUP/BPF_RB_FORCE_WAKEUP flags for output/commit/discard helpers,
it allows BPF program a high degree of control and, e.g., more efficient
batched notifications. Default self-balancing strategy, though, should be
adequate for most applications and will work reliable and efficiently already.

Design and implementation
-------------------------
This reserve/commit schema allows a natural way for multiple producers, either
on different CPUs or even on the same CPU/in the same BPF program, to reserve
independent records and work with them without blocking other producers. This
means that if BPF program was interruped by another BPF program sharing the
same ring buffer, they will both get a record reserved (provided there is
enough space left) and can work with it and submit it independently. This
applies to NMI context as well, except that due to using a spinlock during
reservation, in NMI context, bpf_ringbuf_reserve() might fail to get a lock,
in which case reservation will fail even if ring buffer is not full.

The ring buffer itself internally is implemented as a power-of-2 sized
circular buffer, with two logical and ever-increasing counters (which might
wrap around on 32-bit architectures, that's not a problem):
- consumer counter shows up to which logical position consumer consumed the
data;
- producer counter denotes amount of data reserved by all producers.

Each time a record is reserved, producer that "owns" the record will
successfully advance producer counter. At that point, data is still not yet
ready to be consumed, though. Each record has 8 byte header, which contains
the length of reserved record, as well as two extra bits: busy bit to denote
that record is still being worked on, and discard bit, which might be set at
commit time if record is discarded. In the latter case, consumer is supposed
to skip the record and move on to the next one. Record header also encodes
record's relative offset from the beginning of ring buffer data area (in
pages). This allows bpf_ringbuf_commit()/bpf_ringbuf_discard() to accept only
the pointer to the record itself, without requiring also the pointer to ring
buffer itself. Ring buffer memory location will be restored from record
metadata header. This significantly simplifies verifier, as well as improving
API usability.

Producer counter increments are serialized under spinlock, so there is
a strict ordering between reservations. Commits, on the other hand, are
completely lockless and independent. All records become available to consumer
in the order of reservations, but only after all previous records where
already committed. It is thus possible for slow producers to temporarily hold
off submitted records, that were reserved later.

Reservation/commit/consumer protocol is verified by litmus tests in
Documentation/litmus-test/bpf-rb.

One interesting implementation bit, that significantly simplifies (and thus
speeds up as well) implementation of both producers and consumers is how data
area is mapped twice contiguously back-to-back in the virtual memory. This
allows to not take any special measures for samples that have to wrap around
at the end of the circular buffer data area, because the next page after the
last data page would be first data page again, and thus the sample will still
appear completely contiguous in virtual memory. See comment and a simple ASCII
diagram showing this visually in bpf_ringbuf_area_alloc().

Another feature that distinguishes BPF ringbuf from perf ring buffer is
a self-pacing notifications of new data being availability.
bpf_ringbuf_commit() implementation will send a notification of new record
being available after commit only if consumer has already caught up right up
to the record being committed. If not, consumer still has to catch up and thus
will see new data anyways without needing an extra poll notification.
Benchmarks (see tools/testing/selftests/bpf/benchs/bench_ringbuf.c) show that
this allows to achieve a very high throughput without having to resort to
tricks like "notify only every Nth sample", which are necessary with perf
buffer. For extreme cases, when BPF program wants more manual control of
notifications, commit/discard/output helpers accept BPF_RB_NO_WAKEUP and
BPF_RB_FORCE_WAKEUP flags, which give full control over notifications of data
availability, but require extra caution and diligence in using this API.

Comparison to alternatives
--------------------------
Before considering implementing BPF ring buffer from scratch existing
alternatives in kernel were evaluated, but didn't seem to meet the needs. They
largely fell into few categores:
- per-CPU buffers (perf, ftrace, etc), which don't satisfy two motivations
outlined above (ordering and memory consumption);
- linked list-based implementations; while some were multi-producer designs,
consuming these from user-space would be very complicated and most
probably not performant; memory-mapping contiguous piece of memory is
simpler and more performant for user-space consumers;
- io_uring is SPSC, but also requires fixed-sized elements. Naively turning
SPSC queue into MPSC w/ lock would have subpar performance compared to
locked reserve + lockless commit, as with BPF ring buffer. Fixed sized
elements would be too limiting for BPF programs, given existing BPF
programs heavily rely on variable-sized perf buffer already;
- specialized implementations (like a new printk ring buffer, [0]) with lots
of printk-specific limitations and implications, that didn't seem to fit
well for intended use with BPF programs.

[0] https://lwn.net/Articles/779550/

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200529075424.3139988-2-andriin@fb.com
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 13d70f5a 24-May-2020 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf, sk_msg: Add get socket storage helpers

Add helpers to use local socket storage.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/159033907577.12355.14740125020572756560.stgit@john-Precision-5820-Tower
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 1b66d253 18-May-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add get{peer, sock}name attach types for sock_addr

As stated in 983695fa6765 ("bpf: fix unconnected udp hooks"), the objective
for the existing cgroup connect/sendmsg/recvmsg/bind BPF hooks is to be
transparent to applications. In Cilium we make use of these hooks [0] in
order to enable E-W load balancing for existing Kubernetes service types
for all Cilium managed nodes in the cluster. Those backends can be local
or remote. The main advantage of this approach is that it operates as close
as possible to the socket, and therefore allows to avoid packet-based NAT
given in connect/sendmsg/recvmsg hooks we only need to xlate sock addresses.

This also allows to expose NodePort services on loopback addresses in the
host namespace, for example. As another advantage, this also efficiently
blocks bind requests for applications in the host namespace for exposed
ports. However, one missing item is that we also need to perform reverse
xlation for inet{,6}_getname() hooks such that we can return the service
IP/port tuple back to the application instead of the remote peer address.

The vast majority of applications does not bother about getpeername(), but
in a few occasions we've seen breakage when validating the peer's address
since it returns unexpectedly the backend tuple instead of the service one.
Therefore, this trivial patch allows to customise and adds a getpeername()
as well as getsockname() BPF cgroup hook for both IPv4 and IPv6 in order
to address this situation.

Simple example:

# ./cilium/cilium service list
ID Frontend Service Type Backend
1 1.2.3.4:80 ClusterIP 1 => 10.0.0.10:80

Before; curl's verbose output example, no getpeername() reverse xlation:

# curl --verbose 1.2.3.4
* Rebuilt URL to: 1.2.3.4/
* Trying 1.2.3.4...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to 1.2.3.4 (10.0.0.10) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: 1.2.3.4
> User-Agent: curl/7.58.0
> Accept: */*
[...]

After; with getpeername() reverse xlation:

# curl --verbose 1.2.3.4
* Rebuilt URL to: 1.2.3.4/
* Trying 1.2.3.4...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to 1.2.3.4 (1.2.3.4) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: 1.2.3.4
> User-Agent: curl/7.58.0
> Accept: */*
[...]

Originally, I had both under a BPF_CGROUP_INET{4,6}_GETNAME type and exposed
peer to the context similar as in inet{,6}_getname() fashion, but API-wise
this is suboptimal as it always enforces programs having to test for ctx->peer
which can easily be missed, hence BPF_CGROUP_INET{4,6}_GET{PEER,SOCK}NAME split.
Similarly, the checked return code is on tnum_range(1, 1), but if a use case
comes up in future, it can easily be changed to return an error code instead.
Helper and ctx member access is the same as with connect/sendmsg/etc hooks.

[0] https://github.com/cilium/cilium/blob/master/bpf/bpf_sock.c

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/61a479d759b2482ae3efb45546490bacd796a220.1589841594.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# c8741e2b 13-May-2020 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

xdp: Allow bpf_xdp_adjust_tail() to grow packet size

Finally, after all drivers have a frame size, allow BPF-helper
bpf_xdp_adjust_tail() to grow or extend packet size at frame tail.

Remember that helper/macro xdp_data_hard_end have reserved some
tailroom. Thus, this helper makes sure that the BPF-prog don't have
access to this tailroom area.

V2: Remove one chicken check and use WARN_ONCE for other

Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/158945348530.97035.12577148209134239291.stgit@firesoul


# f307fa2c 14-May-2020 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_sk_{, ancestor_}cgroup_id helpers

With having ability to lookup sockets in cgroup skb programs it becomes
useful to access cgroup id of retrieved sockets so that policies can be
implemented based on origin cgroup of such socket.

For example, a container running in a cgroup can have cgroup skb ingress
program that can lookup peer socket that is sending packets to a process
inside the container and decide whether those packets should be allowed
or denied based on cgroup id of the peer.

More specifically such ingress program can implement intra-host policy
"allow incoming packets only from this same container and not from any
other container on same host" w/o relying on source IP addresses since
quite often it can be the case that containers share same IP address on
the host.

Introduce two new helpers for this use-case: bpf_sk_cgroup_id() and
bpf_sk_ancestor_cgroup_id().

These helpers are similar to existing bpf_skb_{,ancestor_}cgroup_id
helpers with the only difference that sk is used to get cgroup id
instead of skb, and share code with them.

See documentation in UAPI for more details.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/f5884981249ce911f63e9b57ecd5d7d19154ff39.1589486450.git.rdna@fb.com


# 7aebfa1b 13-May-2020 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Support narrow loads from bpf_sock_addr.user_port

bpf_sock_addr.user_port supports only 4-byte load and it leads to ugly
code in BPF programs, like:

volatile __u32 user_port = ctx->user_port;
__u16 port = bpf_ntohs(user_port);

Since otherwise clang may optimize the load to be 2-byte and it's
rejected by verifier.

Add support for 1- and 2-byte loads same way as it's supported for other
fields in bpf_sock_addr like user_ip4, msg_src_ip4, etc.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/c1e983f4c17573032601d0b2b1f9d1274f24bc16.1589420814.git.rdna@fb.com


# ab8d7809 11-May-2020 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: Minor fixes to BPF helpers documentation

Minor improvements to the documentation for BPF helpers:

* Fix formatting for the description of "bpf_socket" for
bpf_getsockopt() and bpf_setsockopt(), thus suppressing two warnings
from rst2man about "Unexpected indentation".
* Fix formatting for return values for bpf_sk_assign() and seq_file
helpers.
* Fix and harmonise formatting, in particular for function/struct names.
* Remove blank lines before "Return:" sections.
* Replace tabs found in the middle of text lines.
* Fix typos.
* Add a note to the footer (in Python script) about "bpftool feature
probe", including for listing features available to unprivileged
users, and add a reference to bpftool man page.

Thanks to Florian for reporting two typos (duplicated words).

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200511161536.29853-4-quentin@isovalent.com


# 492e639f 09-May-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_seq_printf and bpf_seq_write helpers

Two helpers bpf_seq_printf and bpf_seq_write, are added for
writing data to the seq_file buffer.

bpf_seq_printf supports common format string flag/width/type
fields so at least I can get identical results for
netlink and ipv6_route targets.

For bpf_seq_printf and bpf_seq_write, return value -EOVERFLOW
specifically indicates a write failure due to overflow, which
means the object will be repeated in the next bpf invocation
if object collection stays the same. Note that if the object
collection is changed, depending how collection traversal is
done, even if the object still in the collection, it may not
be visited.

For bpf_seq_printf, format %s, %p{i,I}{4,6} needs to
read kernel memory. Reading kernel memory may fail in
the following two cases:
- invalid kernel address, or
- valid kernel address but requiring a major fault
If reading kernel memory failed, the %s string will be
an empty string and %p{i,I}{4,6} will be all 0.
Not returning error to bpf program is consistent with
what bpf_trace_printk() does for now.

bpf_seq_printf may return -EBUSY meaning that internal percpu
buffer for memory copy of strings or other pointees is
not available. Bpf program can return 1 to indicate it
wants the same object to be repeated. Right now, this should not
happen on no-RT kernels since migrate_disable(), which guards
bpf prog call, calls preempt_disable().

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200509175914.2476661-1-yhs@fb.com


# ac51d99b 09-May-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Create anonymous bpf iterator

A new bpf command BPF_ITER_CREATE is added.

The anonymous bpf iterator is seq_file based.
The seq_file private data are referenced by targets.
The bpf_iter infrastructure allocated additional space
at seq_file->private before the space used by targets
to store some meta data, e.g.,
prog: prog to run
session_id: an unique id for each opened seq_file
seq_num: how many times bpf programs are queried in this session
done_stop: an internal state to decide whether bpf program
should be called in seq_ops->stop() or not

The seq_num will start from 0 for valid objects.
The bpf program may see the same seq_num more than once if
- seq_file buffer overflow happens and the same object
is retried by bpf_seq_read(), or
- the bpf program explicitly requests a retry of the
same object

Since module is not supported for bpf_iter, all target
registeration happens at __init time, so there is no
need to change bpf_iter_unreg_target() as it is used
mostly in error path of the init function at which time
no bpf iterators have been created yet.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200509175905.2475770-1-yhs@fb.com


# de4e05ca 09-May-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Support bpf tracing/iter programs for BPF_LINK_CREATE

Given a bpf program, the step to create an anonymous bpf iterator is:
- create a bpf_iter_link, which combines bpf program and the target.
In the future, there could be more information recorded in the link.
A link_fd will be returned to the user space.
- create an anonymous bpf iterator with the given link_fd.

The bpf_iter_link can be pinned to bpffs mount file system to
create a file based bpf iterator as well.

The benefit to use of bpf_iter_link:
- using bpf link simplifies design and implementation as bpf link
is used for other tracing bpf programs.
- for file based bpf iterator, bpf_iter_link provides a standard
way to replace underlying bpf programs.
- for both anonymous and free based iterators, bpf link query
capability can be leveraged.

The patch added support of tracing/iter programs for BPF_LINK_CREATE.
A new link type BPF_LINK_TYPE_ITER is added to facilitate link
querying. Currently, only prog_id is needed, so there is no
additional in-kernel show_fdinfo() and fill_link_info() hook
is needed for BPF_LINK_TYPE_ITER link.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200509175901.2475084-1-yhs@fb.com


# 15d83c4d 09-May-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Allow loading of a bpf_iter program

A bpf_iter program is a tracing program with attach type
BPF_TRACE_ITER. The load attribute
attach_btf_id
is used by the verifier against a particular kernel function,
which represents a target, e.g., __bpf_iter__bpf_map
for target bpf_map which is implemented later.

The program return value must be 0 or 1 for now.
0 : successful, except potential seq_file buffer overflow
which is handled by seq_file reader.
1 : request to restart the same object

In the future, other return values may be used for filtering or
teminating the iterator.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200509175900.2474947-1-yhs@fb.com


# 8086fbaf 08-May-2020 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: Allow any port in bpf_bind helper

We want to have a tighter control on what ports we bind to in
the BPF_CGROUP_INET{4,6}_CONNECT hooks even if it means
connect() becomes slightly more expensive. The expensive part
comes from the fact that we now need to call inet_csk_get_port()
that verifies that the port is not used and allocates an entry
in the hash table for it.

Since we can't rely on "snum || !bind_address_no_port" to prevent
us from calling POST_BIND hook anymore, let's add another bind flag
to indicate that the call site is BPF program.

v5:
* fix wrong AF_INET (should be AF_INET6) in the bpf program for v6

v3:
* More bpf_bind documentation refinements (Martin KaFai Lau)
* Add UDP tests as well (Martin KaFai Lau)
* Don't start the thread, just do socket+bind+listen (Martin KaFai Lau)

v2:
* Update documentation (Andrey Ignatov)
* Pass BIND_FORCE_ADDRESS_NO_PORT conditionally (Andrey Ignatov)

Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200508174611.228805-5-sdf@google.com


# 1e6e9d0f 24-Apr-2020 Gustavo A. R. Silva <gustavo@embeddedor.com>

uapi: revert flexible-array conversions

These structures can get embedded in other structures in user-space
and cause all sorts of warnings and problems. So, we better don't take
any chances and keep the zero-length arrays in place for now.

Signed-off-by: Gustavo A. R. Silva <gustavo@embeddedor.com>


# beecf11b 30-Apr-2020 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: Bpf_{g,s}etsockopt for struct bpf_sock_addr

Currently, bpf_getsockopt and bpf_setsockopt helpers operate on the
'struct bpf_sock_ops' context in BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS program.
Let's generalize them and make them available for 'struct bpf_sock_addr'.
That way, in the future, we can allow those helpers in more places.

As an example, let's expose those 'struct bpf_sock_addr' based helpers to
BPF_CGROUP_INET{4,6}_CONNECT hooks. That way we can override CC before the
connection is made.

v3:
* Expose custom helpers for bpf_sock_addr context instead of doing
generic bpf_sock argument (as suggested by Daniel). Even with
try_socket_lock that doesn't sleep we have a problem where context sk
is already locked and socket lock is non-nestable.

v2:
* s/BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCKOPT/BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS/

Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200430233152.199403-1-sdf@google.com


# d46edd67 30-Apr-2020 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: Sharing bpf runtime stats with BPF_ENABLE_STATS

Currently, sysctl kernel.bpf_stats_enabled controls BPF runtime stats.
Typical userspace tools use kernel.bpf_stats_enabled as follows:

1. Enable kernel.bpf_stats_enabled;
2. Check program run_time_ns;
3. Sleep for the monitoring period;
4. Check program run_time_ns again, calculate the difference;
5. Disable kernel.bpf_stats_enabled.

The problem with this approach is that only one userspace tool can toggle
this sysctl. If multiple tools toggle the sysctl at the same time, the
measurement may be inaccurate.

To fix this problem while keep backward compatibility, introduce a new
bpf command BPF_ENABLE_STATS. On success, this command enables stats and
returns a valid fd. BPF_ENABLE_STATS takes argument "type". Currently,
only one type, BPF_STATS_RUN_TIME, is supported. We can extend the
command to support other types of stats in the future.

With BPF_ENABLE_STATS, user space tool would have the following flow:

1. Get a fd with BPF_ENABLE_STATS, and make sure it is valid;
2. Check program run_time_ns;
3. Sleep for the monitoring period;
4. Check program run_time_ns again, calculate the difference;
5. Close the fd.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200430071506.1408910-2-songliubraving@fb.com


# f2e10bff 28-Apr-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Add support for BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD for bpf_link

Add ability to fetch bpf_link details through BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD command.
Also enhance show_fdinfo to potentially include bpf_link type-specific
information (similarly to obj_info).

Also introduce enum bpf_link_type stored in bpf_link itself and expose it in
UAPI. bpf_link_tracing also now will store and return bpf_attach_type.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200429001614.1544-5-andriin@fb.com


# 2d602c8c 28-Apr-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Support GET_FD_BY_ID and GET_NEXT_ID for bpf_link

Add support to look up bpf_link by ID and iterate over all existing bpf_links
in the system. GET_FD_BY_ID code handles not-yet-ready bpf_link by checking
that its ID hasn't been set to non-zero value yet. Setting bpf_link's ID is
done as the very last step in finalizing bpf_link, together with installing
FD. This approach allows users of bpf_link in kernel code to not worry about
races between user-space and kernel code that hasn't finished attaching and
initializing bpf_link.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200429001614.1544-4-andriin@fb.com


# a3b80e10 28-Apr-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Allocate ID for bpf_link

Generate ID for each bpf_link using IDR, similarly to bpf_map and bpf_prog.
bpf_link creation, initialization, attachment, and exposing to user-space
through FD and ID is a complicated multi-step process, abstract it away
through bpf_link_primer and bpf_link_prime(), bpf_link_settle(), and
bpf_link_cleanup() internal API. They guarantee that until bpf_link is
properly attached, user-space won't be able to access partially-initialized
bpf_link either from FD or ID. All this allows to simplify bpf_link attachment
and error handling code.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200429001614.1544-3-andriin@fb.com


# 71d19214 26-Apr-2020 Maciej Żenczykowski <maze@google.com>

bpf: add bpf_ktime_get_boot_ns()

On a device like a cellphone which is constantly suspending
and resuming CLOCK_MONOTONIC is not particularly useful for
keeping track of or reacting to external network events.
Instead you want to use CLOCK_BOOTTIME.

Hence add bpf_ktime_get_boot_ns() as a mirror of bpf_ktime_get_ns()
based around CLOCK_BOOTTIME instead of CLOCK_MONOTONIC.

Signed-off-by: Maciej Żenczykowski <maze@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# a33d3147 22-Apr-2020 Jakub Wilk <jwilk@jwilk.net>

bpf: Fix reStructuredText markup

The patch fixes:
$ scripts/bpf_helpers_doc.py > bpf-helpers.rst
$ rst2man bpf-helpers.rst > bpf-helpers.7
bpf-helpers.rst:1105: (WARNING/2) Inline strong start-string without end-string.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Wilk <jwilk@jwilk.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200422082324.2030-1-jwilk@jwilk.net


# 0c991ebc 29-Mar-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Implement bpf_prog replacement for an active bpf_cgroup_link

Add new operation (LINK_UPDATE), which allows to replace active bpf_prog from
under given bpf_link. Currently this is only supported for bpf_cgroup_link,
but will be extended to other kinds of bpf_links in follow-up patches.

For bpf_cgroup_link, implemented functionality matches existing semantics for
direct bpf_prog attachment (including BPF_F_REPLACE flag). User can either
unconditionally set new bpf_prog regardless of which bpf_prog is currently
active under given bpf_link, or, optionally, can specify expected active
bpf_prog. If active bpf_prog doesn't match expected one, no changes are
performed, old bpf_link stays intact and attached, operation returns
a failure.

cgroup_bpf_replace() operation is resolving race between auto-detachment and
bpf_prog update in the same fashion as it's done for bpf_link detachment,
except in this case update has no way of succeeding because of target cgroup
marked as dying. So in this case error is returned.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200330030001.2312810-3-andriin@fb.com


# af6eea57 29-Mar-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Implement bpf_link-based cgroup BPF program attachment

Implement new sub-command to attach cgroup BPF programs and return FD-based
bpf_link back on success. bpf_link, once attached to cgroup, cannot be
replaced, except by owner having its FD. Cgroup bpf_link supports only
BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI semantics. Both link-based and prog-based BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI
attachments can be freely intermixed.

To prevent bpf_cgroup_link from keeping cgroup alive past the point when no
BPF program can be executed, implement auto-detachment of link. When
cgroup_bpf_release() is called, all attached bpf_links are forced to release
cgroup refcounts, but they leave bpf_link otherwise active and allocated, as
well as still owning underlying bpf_prog. This is because user-space might
still have FDs open and active, so bpf_link as a user-referenced object can't
be freed yet. Once last active FD is closed, bpf_link will be freed and
underlying bpf_prog refcount will be dropped. But cgroup refcount won't be
touched, because cgroup is released already.

The inherent race between bpf_cgroup_link release (from closing last FD) and
cgroup_bpf_release() is resolved by both operations taking cgroup_mutex. So
the only additional check required is when bpf_cgroup_link attempts to detach
itself from cgroup. At that time we need to check whether there is still
cgroup associated with that link. And if not, exit with success, because
bpf_cgroup_link was already successfully detached.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200330030001.2312810-2-andriin@fb.com


# cf7fbe66 29-Mar-2020 Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>

bpf: Add socket assign support

Add support for TPROXY via a new bpf helper, bpf_sk_assign().

This helper requires the BPF program to discover the socket via a call
to bpf_sk*_lookup_*(), then pass this socket to the new helper. The
helper takes its own reference to the socket in addition to any existing
reference that may or may not currently be obtained for the duration of
BPF processing. For the destination socket to receive the traffic, the
traffic must be routed towards that socket via local route. The
simplest example route is below, but in practice you may want to route
traffic more narrowly (eg by CIDR):

$ ip route add local default dev lo

This patch avoids trying to introduce an extra bit into the skb->sk, as
that would require more invasive changes to all code interacting with
the socket to ensure that the bit is handled correctly, such as all
error-handling cases along the path from the helper in BPF through to
the orphan path in the input. Instead, we opt to use the destructor
variable to switch on the prefetch of the socket.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200329225342.16317-2-joe@wand.net.nz


# fc611f47 28-Mar-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_LSM

Introduce types and configs for bpf programs that can be attached to
LSM hooks. The programs can be enabled by the config option
CONFIG_BPF_LSM.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: Brendan Jackman <jackmanb@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Florent Revest <revest@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Garnier <thgarnie@google.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: James Morris <jamorris@linux.microsoft.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200329004356.27286-2-kpsingh@chromium.org


# 0f09abd1 27-Mar-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Enable bpf cgroup hooks to retrieve cgroup v2 and ancestor id

Enable the bpf_get_current_cgroup_id() helper for connect(), sendmsg(),
recvmsg() and bind-related hooks in order to retrieve the cgroup v2
context which can then be used as part of the key for BPF map lookups,
for example. Given these hooks operate in process context 'current' is
always valid and pointing to the app that is performing mentioned
syscalls if it's subject to a v2 cgroup. Also with same motivation of
commit 7723628101aa ("bpf: Introduce bpf_skb_ancestor_cgroup_id helper")
enable retrieval of ancestor from current so the cgroup id can be used
for policy lookups which can then forbid connect() / bind(), for example.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/d2a7ef42530ad299e3cbb245e6c12374b72145ef.1585323121.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# f318903c 27-Mar-2020 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add netns cookie and enable it for bpf cgroup hooks

In Cilium we're mainly using BPF cgroup hooks today in order to implement
kube-proxy free Kubernetes service translation for ClusterIP, NodePort (*),
ExternalIP, and LoadBalancer as well as HostPort mapping [0] for all traffic
between Cilium managed nodes. While this works in its current shape and avoids
packet-level NAT for inter Cilium managed node traffic, there is one major
limitation we're facing today, that is, lack of netns awareness.

In Kubernetes, the concept of Pods (which hold one or multiple containers)
has been built around network namespaces, so while we can use the global scope
of attaching to root BPF cgroup hooks also to our advantage (e.g. for exposing
NodePort ports on loopback addresses), we also have the need to differentiate
between initial network namespaces and non-initial one. For example, ExternalIP
services mandate that non-local service IPs are not to be translated from the
host (initial) network namespace as one example. Right now, we have an ugly
work-around in place where non-local service IPs for ExternalIP services are
not xlated from connect() and friends BPF hooks but instead via less efficient
packet-level NAT on the veth tc ingress hook for Pod traffic.

On top of determining whether we're in initial or non-initial network namespace
we also have a need for a socket-cookie like mechanism for network namespaces
scope. Socket cookies have the nice property that they can be combined as part
of the key structure e.g. for BPF LRU maps without having to worry that the
cookie could be recycled. We are planning to use this for our sessionAffinity
implementation for services. Therefore, add a new bpf_get_netns_cookie() helper
which would resolve both use cases at once: bpf_get_netns_cookie(NULL) would
provide the cookie for the initial network namespace while passing the context
instead of NULL would provide the cookie from the application's network namespace.
We're using a hole, so no size increase; the assignment happens only once.
Therefore this allows for a comparison on initial namespace as well as regular
cookie usage as we have today with socket cookies. We could later on enable
this helper for other program types as well as we would see need.

(*) Both externalTrafficPolicy={Local|Cluster} types
[0] https://github.com/cilium/cilium/blob/master/bpf/bpf_sock.c

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/c47d2346982693a9cf9da0e12690453aded4c788.1585323121.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# d831ee84 06-Mar-2020 Eelco Chaudron <echaudro@redhat.com>

bpf: Add bpf_xdp_output() helper

Introduce new helper that reuses existing xdp perf_event output
implementation, but can be called from raw_tracepoint programs
that receive 'struct xdp_buff *' as a tracepoint argument.

Signed-off-by: Eelco Chaudron <echaudro@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/158348514556.2239.11050972434793741444.stgit@xdp-tutorial


# b4490c5c 04-Mar-2020 Carlos Neira <cneirabustos@gmail.com>

bpf: Added new helper bpf_get_ns_current_pid_tgid

New bpf helper bpf_get_ns_current_pid_tgid,
This helper will return pid and tgid from current task
which namespace matches dev_t and inode number provided,
this will allows us to instrument a process inside a container.

Signed-off-by: Carlos Neira <cneirabustos@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200304204157.58695-3-cneirabustos@gmail.com


# ae240823 04-Mar-2020 KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_MODIFY_RETURN

When multiple programs are attached, each program receives the return
value from the previous program on the stack and the last program
provides the return value to the attached function.

The fmod_ret bpf programs are run after the fentry programs and before
the fexit programs. The original function is only called if all the
fmod_ret programs return 0 to avoid any unintended side-effects. The
success value, i.e. 0 is not currently configurable but can be made so
where user-space can specify it at load time.

For example:

int func_to_be_attached(int a, int b)
{ <--- do_fentry

do_fmod_ret:
<update ret by calling fmod_ret>
if (ret != 0)
goto do_fexit;

original_function:

<side_effects_happen_here>

} <--- do_fexit

The fmod_ret program attached to this function can be defined as:

SEC("fmod_ret/func_to_be_attached")
int BPF_PROG(func_name, int a, int b, int ret)
{
// This will skip the original function logic.
return 1;
}

The first fmod_ret program is passed 0 in its return argument.

Signed-off-by: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200304191853.1529-4-kpsingh@chromium.org


# 1aae4bdd 02-Mar-2020 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Switch BPF UAPI #define constants used from BPF program side to enums

Switch BPF UAPI constants, previously defined as #define macro, to anonymous
enum values. This preserves constants values and behavior in expressions, but
has added advantaged of being captured as part of DWARF and, subsequently, BTF
type info. Which, in turn, greatly improves usefulness of generated vmlinux.h
for BPF applications, as it will not require BPF users to copy/paste various
flags and constants, which are frequently used with BPF helpers. Only those
constants that are used/useful from BPF program side are converted.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200303003233.3496043-2-andriin@fb.com


# cf62089b 03-Mar-2020 Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>

bpf: Add gso_size to __sk_buff

BPF programs may want to know whether an skb is gso. The canonical
answer is skb_is_gso(skb), which tests that gso_size != 0.

Expose this field in the same manner as gso_segs. That field itself
is not a sufficient signal, as the comment in skb_shared_info makes
clear: gso_segs may be zero, e.g., from dodgy sources.

Also prepare net/bpf/test_run for upcoming BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN tests
of the feature.

Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200303200503.226217-2-willemdebruijn.kernel@gmail.com


# d7f10df8 26-Feb-2020 Gustavo A. R. Silva <gustavo@embeddedor.com>

bpf: Replace zero-length array with flexible-array member

The current codebase makes use of the zero-length array language
extension to the C90 standard, but the preferred mechanism to declare
variable-length types such as these ones is a flexible array member[1][2],
introduced in C99:

struct foo {
int stuff;
struct boo array[];
};

By making use of the mechanism above, we will get a compiler warning
in case the flexible array does not occur last in the structure, which
will help us prevent some kind of undefined behavior bugs from being
inadvertently introduced[3] to the codebase from now on.

Also, notice that, dynamic memory allocations won't be affected by
this change:

"Flexible array members have incomplete type, and so the sizeof operator
may not be applied. As a quirk of the original implementation of
zero-length arrays, sizeof evaluates to zero."[1]

This issue was found with the help of Coccinelle.

[1] https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Zero-Length.html
[2] https://github.com/KSPP/linux/issues/21
[3] commit 76497732932f ("cxgb3/l2t: Fix undefined behaviour")

Signed-off-by: Gustavo A. R. Silva <gustavo@embeddedor.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200227001744.GA3317@embeddedor


# fff7b643 17-Feb-2020 Daniel Xu <dxu@dxuuu.xyz>

bpf: Add bpf_read_branch_records() helper

Branch records are a CPU feature that can be configured to record
certain branches that are taken during code execution. This data is
particularly interesting for profile guided optimizations. perf has had
branch record support for a while but the data collection can be a bit
coarse grained.

We (Facebook) have seen in experiments that associating metadata with
branch records can improve results (after postprocessing). We generally
use bpf_probe_read_*() to get metadata out of userspace. That's why bpf
support for branch records is useful.

Aside from this particular use case, having branch data available to bpf
progs can be useful to get stack traces out of userspace applications
that omit frame pointers.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Xu <dxu@dxuuu.xyz>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200218030432.4600-2-dxu@dxuuu.xyz


# f25975f4 18-Feb-2020 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

bpf, uapi: Remove text about bpf_redirect_map() giving higher performance

The performance of bpf_redirect() is now roughly the same as that of
bpf_redirect_map(). However, David Ahern pointed out that the header file
has not been updated to reflect this, and still says that a significant
performance increase is possible when using bpf_redirect_map(). Remove this
text from the bpf_redirect_map() description, and reword the description in
bpf_redirect() slightly. Also fix the 'Return' section of the
bpf_redirect_map() documentation.

Fixes: 1d233886dd90 ("xdp: Use bulking for non-map XDP_REDIRECT and consolidate code paths")
Reported-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200218130334.29889-1-toke@redhat.com


# 5576b991 22-Jan-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_FUNC_jiffies64

This patch adds a helper to read the 64bit jiffies. It will be used
in a later patch to implement the bpf_cubic.c.

The helper is inlined for jit_requested and 64 BITS_PER_LONG
as the map_gen_lookup(). Other cases could be considered together
with map_gen_lookup() if needed.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200122233646.903260-1-kafai@fb.com


# be8704ff 20-Jan-2020 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Introduce dynamic program extensions

Introduce dynamic program extensions. The users can load additional BPF
functions and replace global functions in previously loaded BPF programs while
these programs are executing.

Global functions are verified individually by the verifier based on their types only.
Hence the global function in the new program which types match older function can
safely replace that corresponding function.

This new function/program is called 'an extension' of old program. At load time
the verifier uses (attach_prog_fd, attach_btf_id) pair to identify the function
to be replaced. The BPF program type is derived from the target program into
extension program. Technically bpf_verifier_ops is copied from target program.
The BPF_PROG_TYPE_EXT program type is a placeholder. It has empty verifier_ops.
The extension program can call the same bpf helper functions as target program.
Single BPF_PROG_TYPE_EXT type is used to extend XDP, SKB and all other program
types. The verifier allows only one level of replacement. Meaning that the
extension program cannot recursively extend an extension. That also means that
the maximum stack size is increasing from 512 to 1024 bytes and maximum
function nesting level from 8 to 16. The programs don't always consume that
much. The stack usage is determined by the number of on-stack variables used by
the program. The verifier could have enforced 512 limit for combined original
plus extension program, but it makes for difficult user experience. The main
use case for extensions is to provide generic mechanism to plug external
programs into policy program or function call chaining.

BPF trampoline is used to track both fentry/fexit and program extensions
because both are using the same nop slot at the beginning of every BPF
function. Attaching fentry/fexit to a function that was replaced is not
allowed. The opposite is true as well. Replacing a function that currently
being analyzed with fentry/fexit is not allowed. The executable page allocated
by BPF trampoline is not used by program extensions. This inefficiency will be
optimized in future patches.

Function by function verification of global function supports scalars and
pointer to context only. Hence program extensions are supported for such class
of global functions only. In the future the verifier will be extended with
support to pointers to structures, arrays with sizes, etc.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200121005348.2769920-2-ast@kernel.org


# 05799638 15-Jan-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add batch ops to all htab bpf map

htab can't use generic batch support due some problematic behaviours
inherent to the data structre, i.e. while iterating the bpf map a
concurrent program might delete the next entry that batch was about to
use, in that case there's no easy solution to retrieve the next entry,
the issue has been discussed multiple times (see [1] and [2]).

The only way hmap can be traversed without the problem previously
exposed is by making sure that the map is traversing entire buckets.
This commit implements those strict requirements for hmap, the
implementation follows the same interaction that generic support with
some exceptions:

- If keys/values buffer are not big enough to traverse a bucket,
ENOSPC will be returned.
- out_batch contains the value of the next bucket in the iteration, not
the next key, but this is transparent for the user since the user
should never use out_batch for other than bpf batch syscalls.

This commits implements BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_BATCH and adds support for new
command BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_AND_DELETE_BATCH. Note that for update/delete
batch ops it is possible to use the generic implementations.

[1] https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20190724165803.87470-1-brianvv@google.com/
[2] https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20190906225434.3635421-1-yhs@fb.com/

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Brian Vazquez <brianvv@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200115184308.162644-6-brianvv@google.com


# aa2e93b8 15-Jan-2020 Brian Vazquez <brianvv@google.com>

bpf: Add generic support for update and delete batch ops

This commit adds generic support for update and delete batch ops that
can be used for almost all the bpf maps. These commands share the same
UAPI attr that lookup and lookup_and_delete batch ops use and the
syscall commands are:

BPF_MAP_UPDATE_BATCH
BPF_MAP_DELETE_BATCH

The main difference between update/delete and lookup batch ops is that
for update/delete keys/values must be specified for userspace and
because of that, neither in_batch nor out_batch are used.

Suggested-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Brian Vazquez <brianvv@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200115184308.162644-4-brianvv@google.com


# cb4d03ab 15-Jan-2020 Brian Vazquez <brianvv@google.com>

bpf: Add generic support for lookup batch op

This commit introduces generic support for the bpf_map_lookup_batch.
This implementation can be used by almost all the bpf maps since its core
implementation is relying on the existing map_get_next_key and
map_lookup_elem. The bpf syscall subcommand introduced is:

BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_BATCH

The UAPI attribute is:

struct { /* struct used by BPF_MAP_*_BATCH commands */
__aligned_u64 in_batch; /* start batch,
* NULL to start from beginning
*/
__aligned_u64 out_batch; /* output: next start batch */
__aligned_u64 keys;
__aligned_u64 values;
__u32 count; /* input/output:
* input: # of key/value
* elements
* output: # of filled elements
*/
__u32 map_fd;
__u64 elem_flags;
__u64 flags;
} batch;

in_batch/out_batch are opaque values use to communicate between
user/kernel space, in_batch/out_batch must be of key_size length.

To start iterating from the beginning in_batch must be null,
count is the # of key/value elements to retrieve. Note that the 'keys'
buffer must be a buffer of key_size * count size and the 'values' buffer
must be value_size * count, where value_size must be aligned to 8 bytes
by userspace if it's dealing with percpu maps. 'count' will contain the
number of keys/values successfully retrieved. Note that 'count' is an
input/output variable and it can contain a lower value after a call.

If there's no more entries to retrieve, ENOENT will be returned. If error
is ENOENT, count might be > 0 in case it copied some values but there were
no more entries to retrieve.

Note that if the return code is an error and not -EFAULT,
count indicates the number of elements successfully processed.

Suggested-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Brian Vazquez <brianvv@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200115184308.162644-3-brianvv@google.com


# 8482941f 14-Jan-2020 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_send_signal_thread() helper

Commit 8b401f9ed244 ("bpf: implement bpf_send_signal() helper")
added helper bpf_send_signal() which permits bpf program to
send a signal to the current process. The signal may be
delivered to any threads in the process.

We found a use case where sending the signal to the current
thread is more preferable.
- A bpf program will collect the stack trace and then
send signal to the user application.
- The user application will add some thread specific
information to the just collected stack trace for
later analysis.

If bpf_send_signal() is used, user application will need
to check whether the thread receiving the signal matches
the thread collecting the stack by checking thread id.
If not, it will need to send signal to another thread
through pthread_kill().

This patch proposed a new helper bpf_send_signal_thread(),
which sends the signal to the thread corresponding to
the current kernel task. This way, user space is guaranteed that
bpf_program execution context and user space signal handling
context are the same thread.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200115035002.602336-1-yhs@fb.com


# f5bfcd95 07-Jan-2020 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Document BPF_F_QUERY_EFFECTIVE flag

Document BPF_F_QUERY_EFFECTIVE flag, mostly to clarify how it affects
attach_flags what may not be obvious and what may lead to confision.

Specifically attach_flags is returned only for target_fd but if programs
are inherited from an ancestor cgroup then returned attach_flags for
current cgroup may be confusing. For example, two effective programs of
same attach_type can be returned but w/o BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI in
attach_flags.

Simple repro:
# bpftool c s /sys/fs/cgroup/path/to/task
ID AttachType AttachFlags Name
# bpftool c s /sys/fs/cgroup/path/to/task effective
ID AttachType AttachFlags Name
95043 ingress tw_ipt_ingress
95048 ingress tw_ingress

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200108014006.938363-1-rdna@fb.com


# 206057fe 08-Jan-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_FUNC_tcp_send_ack helper

Add a helper to send out a tcp-ack. It will be used in the later
bpf_dctcp implementation that requires to send out an ack
when the CE state changed.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200109004551.3900448-1-kafai@fb.com


# 85d33df3 08-Jan-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_MAP_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS

The patch introduces BPF_MAP_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS. The map value
is a kernel struct with its func ptr implemented in bpf prog.
This new map is the interface to register/unregister/introspect
a bpf implemented kernel struct.

The kernel struct is actually embedded inside another new struct
(or called the "value" struct in the code). For example,
"struct tcp_congestion_ops" is embbeded in:
struct bpf_struct_ops_tcp_congestion_ops {
refcount_t refcnt;
enum bpf_struct_ops_state state;
struct tcp_congestion_ops data; /* <-- kernel subsystem struct here */
}
The map value is "struct bpf_struct_ops_tcp_congestion_ops".
The "bpftool map dump" will then be able to show the
state ("inuse"/"tobefree") and the number of subsystem's refcnt (e.g.
number of tcp_sock in the tcp_congestion_ops case). This "value" struct
is created automatically by a macro. Having a separate "value" struct
will also make extending "struct bpf_struct_ops_XYZ" easier (e.g. adding
"void (*init)(void)" to "struct bpf_struct_ops_XYZ" to do some
initialization works before registering the struct_ops to the kernel
subsystem). The libbpf will take care of finding and populating the
"struct bpf_struct_ops_XYZ" from "struct XYZ".

Register a struct_ops to a kernel subsystem:
1. Load all needed BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS prog(s)
2. Create a BPF_MAP_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS with attr->btf_vmlinux_value_type_id
set to the btf id "struct bpf_struct_ops_tcp_congestion_ops" of the
running kernel.
Instead of reusing the attr->btf_value_type_id,
btf_vmlinux_value_type_id s added such that attr->btf_fd can still be
used as the "user" btf which could store other useful sysadmin/debug
info that may be introduced in the furture,
e.g. creation-date/compiler-details/map-creator...etc.
3. Create a "struct bpf_struct_ops_tcp_congestion_ops" object as described
in the running kernel btf. Populate the value of this object.
The function ptr should be populated with the prog fds.
4. Call BPF_MAP_UPDATE with the object created in (3) as
the map value. The key is always "0".

During BPF_MAP_UPDATE, the code that saves the kernel-func-ptr's
args as an array of u64 is generated. BPF_MAP_UPDATE also allows
the specific struct_ops to do some final checks in "st_ops->init_member()"
(e.g. ensure all mandatory func ptrs are implemented).
If everything looks good, it will register this kernel struct
to the kernel subsystem. The map will not allow further update
from this point.

Unregister a struct_ops from the kernel subsystem:
BPF_MAP_DELETE with key "0".

Introspect a struct_ops:
BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM with key "0". The map value returned will
have the prog _id_ populated as the func ptr.

The map value state (enum bpf_struct_ops_state) will transit from:
INIT (map created) =>
INUSE (map updated, i.e. reg) =>
TOBEFREE (map value deleted, i.e. unreg)

The kernel subsystem needs to call bpf_struct_ops_get() and
bpf_struct_ops_put() to manage the "refcnt" in the
"struct bpf_struct_ops_XYZ". This patch uses a separate refcnt
for the purose of tracking the subsystem usage. Another approach
is to reuse the map->refcnt and then "show" (i.e. during map_lookup)
the subsystem's usage by doing map->refcnt - map->usercnt to filter out
the map-fd/pinned-map usage. However, that will also tie down the
future semantics of map->refcnt and map->usercnt.

The very first subsystem's refcnt (during reg()) holds one
count to map->refcnt. When the very last subsystem's refcnt
is gone, it will also release the map->refcnt. All bpf_prog will be
freed when the map->refcnt reaches 0 (i.e. during map_free()).

Here is how the bpftool map command will look like:
[root@arch-fb-vm1 bpf]# bpftool map show
6: struct_ops name dctcp flags 0x0
key 4B value 256B max_entries 1 memlock 4096B
btf_id 6
[root@arch-fb-vm1 bpf]# bpftool map dump id 6
[{
"value": {
"refcnt": {
"refs": {
"counter": 1
}
},
"state": 1,
"data": {
"list": {
"next": 0,
"prev": 0
},
"key": 0,
"flags": 2,
"init": 24,
"release": 0,
"ssthresh": 25,
"cong_avoid": 30,
"set_state": 27,
"cwnd_event": 28,
"in_ack_event": 26,
"undo_cwnd": 29,
"pkts_acked": 0,
"min_tso_segs": 0,
"sndbuf_expand": 0,
"cong_control": 0,
"get_info": 0,
"name": [98,112,102,95,100,99,116,99,112,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
],
"owner": 0
}
}
}
]

Misc Notes:
* bpf_struct_ops_map_sys_lookup_elem() is added for syscall lookup.
It does an inplace update on "*value" instead returning a pointer
to syscall.c. Otherwise, it needs a separate copy of "zero" value
for the BPF_STRUCT_OPS_STATE_INIT to avoid races.

* The bpf_struct_ops_map_delete_elem() is also called without
preempt_disable() from map_delete_elem(). It is because
the "->unreg()" may requires sleepable context, e.g.
the "tcp_unregister_congestion_control()".

* "const" is added to some of the existing "struct btf_func_model *"
function arg to avoid a compiler warning caused by this patch.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200109003505.3855919-1-kafai@fb.com


# 27ae7997 08-Jan-2020 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS

This patch allows the kernel's struct ops (i.e. func ptr) to be
implemented in BPF. The first use case in this series is the
"struct tcp_congestion_ops" which will be introduced in a
latter patch.

This patch introduces a new prog type BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS.
The BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS prog is verified against a particular
func ptr of a kernel struct. The attr->attach_btf_id is the btf id
of a kernel struct. The attr->expected_attach_type is the member
"index" of that kernel struct. The first member of a struct starts
with member index 0. That will avoid ambiguity when a kernel struct
has multiple func ptrs with the same func signature.

For example, a BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS prog is written
to implement the "init" func ptr of the "struct tcp_congestion_ops".
The attr->attach_btf_id is the btf id of the "struct tcp_congestion_ops"
of the _running_ kernel. The attr->expected_attach_type is 3.

The ctx of BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS is an array of u64 args saved
by arch_prepare_bpf_trampoline that will be done in the next
patch when introducing BPF_MAP_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS.

"struct bpf_struct_ops" is introduced as a common interface for the kernel
struct that supports BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS prog. The supporting kernel
struct will need to implement an instance of the "struct bpf_struct_ops".

The supporting kernel struct also needs to implement a bpf_verifier_ops.
During BPF_PROG_LOAD, bpf_struct_ops_find() will find the right
bpf_verifier_ops by searching the attr->attach_btf_id.

A new "btf_struct_access" is also added to the bpf_verifier_ops such
that the supporting kernel struct can optionally provide its own specific
check on accessing the func arg (e.g. provide limited write access).

After btf_vmlinux is parsed, the new bpf_struct_ops_init() is called
to initialize some values (e.g. the btf id of the supporting kernel
struct) and it can only be done once the btf_vmlinux is available.

The R0 checks at BPF_EXIT is excluded for the BPF_PROG_TYPE_STRUCT_OPS prog
if the return type of the prog->aux->attach_func_proto is "void".

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20200109003503.3855825-1-kafai@fb.com


# 7dd68b32 19-Dec-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Support replacing cgroup-bpf program in MULTI mode

The common use-case in production is to have multiple cgroup-bpf
programs per attach type that cover multiple use-cases. Such programs
are attached with BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI and can be maintained by different
people.

Order of programs usually matters, for example imagine two egress
programs: the first one drops packets and the second one counts packets.
If they're swapped the result of counting program will be different.

It brings operational challenges with updating cgroup-bpf program(s)
attached with BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI since there is no way to replace a
program:

* One way to update is to detach all programs first and then attach the
new version(s) again in the right order. This introduces an
interruption in the work a program is doing and may not be acceptable
(e.g. if it's egress firewall);

* Another way is attach the new version of a program first and only then
detach the old version. This introduces the time interval when two
versions of same program are working, what may not be acceptable if a
program is not idempotent. It also imposes additional burden on
program developers to make sure that two versions of their program can
co-exist.

Solve the problem by introducing a "replace" mode in BPF_PROG_ATTACH
command for cgroup-bpf programs being attached with BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI
flag. This mode is enabled by newly introduced BPF_F_REPLACE attach flag
and bpf_attr.replace_bpf_fd attribute to pass fd of the old program to
replace

That way user can replace any program among those attached with
BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI flag without the problems described above.

Details of the new API:

* If BPF_F_REPLACE is set but replace_bpf_fd doesn't have valid
descriptor of BPF program, BPF_PROG_ATTACH will return corresponding
error (EINVAL or EBADF).

* If replace_bpf_fd has valid descriptor of BPF program but such a
program is not attached to specified cgroup, BPF_PROG_ATTACH will
return ENOENT.

BPF_F_REPLACE is introduced to make the user intent clear, since
replace_bpf_fd alone can't be used for this (its default value, 0, is a
valid fd). BPF_F_REPLACE also makes it possible to extend the API in the
future (e.g. add BPF_F_BEFORE and BPF_F_AFTER if needed).

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Narkyiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/30cd850044a0057bdfcaaf154b7d2f39850ba813.1576741281.git.rdna@fb.com


# fc970227 17-Nov-2019 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

bpf: Add mmap() support for BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY

Add ability to memory-map contents of BPF array map. This is extremely useful
for working with BPF global data from userspace programs. It allows to avoid
typical bpf_map_{lookup,update}_elem operations, improving both performance
and usability.

There had to be special considerations for map freezing, to avoid having
writable memory view into a frozen map. To solve this issue, map freezing and
mmap-ing is happening under mutex now:
- if map is already frozen, no writable mapping is allowed;
- if map has writable memory mappings active (accounted in map->writecnt),
map freezing will keep failing with -EBUSY;
- once number of writable memory mappings drops to zero, map freezing can be
performed again.

Only non-per-CPU plain arrays are supported right now. Maps with spinlocks
can't be memory mapped either.

For BPF_F_MMAPABLE array, memory allocation has to be done through vmalloc()
to be mmap()'able. We also need to make sure that array data memory is
page-sized and page-aligned, so we over-allocate memory in such a way that
struct bpf_array is at the end of a single page of memory with array->value
being aligned with the start of the second page. On deallocation we need to
accomodate this memory arrangement to free vmalloc()'ed memory correctly.

One important consideration regarding how memory-mapping subsystem functions.
Memory-mapping subsystem provides few optional callbacks, among them open()
and close(). close() is called for each memory region that is unmapped, so
that users can decrease their reference counters and free up resources, if
necessary. open() is *almost* symmetrical: it's called for each memory region
that is being mapped, **except** the very first one. So bpf_map_mmap does
initial refcnt bump, while open() will do any extra ones after that. Thus
number of close() calls is equal to number of open() calls plus one more.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191117172806.2195367-4-andriin@fb.com


# 5b92a28a 14-Nov-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Support attaching tracing BPF program to other BPF programs

Allow FENTRY/FEXIT BPF programs to attach to other BPF programs of any type
including their subprograms. This feature allows snooping on input and output
packets in XDP, TC programs including their return values. In order to do that
the verifier needs to track types not only of vmlinux, but types of other BPF
programs as well. The verifier also needs to translate uapi/linux/bpf.h types
used by networking programs into kernel internal BTF types used by FENTRY/FEXIT
BPF programs. In some cases LLVM optimizations can remove arguments from BPF
subprograms without adjusting BTF info that LLVM backend knows. When BTF info
disagrees with actual types that the verifiers sees the BPF trampoline has to
fallback to conservative and treat all arguments as u64. The FENTRY/FEXIT
program can still attach to such subprograms, but it won't be able to recognize
pointer types like 'struct sk_buff *' and it won't be able to pass them to
bpf_skb_output() for dumping packets to user space. The FENTRY/FEXIT program
would need to use bpf_probe_read_kernel() instead.

The BPF_PROG_LOAD command is extended with attach_prog_fd field. When it's set
to zero the attach_btf_id is one vmlinux BTF type ids. When attach_prog_fd
points to previously loaded BPF program the attach_btf_id is BTF type id of
main function or one of its subprograms.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191114185720.1641606-18-ast@kernel.org


# fec56f58 14-Nov-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Introduce BPF trampoline

Introduce BPF trampoline concept to allow kernel code to call into BPF programs
with practically zero overhead. The trampoline generation logic is
architecture dependent. It's converting native calling convention into BPF
calling convention. BPF ISA is 64-bit (even on 32-bit architectures). The
registers R1 to R5 are used to pass arguments into BPF functions. The main BPF
program accepts only single argument "ctx" in R1. Whereas CPU native calling
convention is different. x86-64 is passing first 6 arguments in registers
and the rest on the stack. x86-32 is passing first 3 arguments in registers.
sparc64 is passing first 6 in registers. And so on.

The trampolines between BPF and kernel already exist. BPF_CALL_x macros in
include/linux/filter.h statically compile trampolines from BPF into kernel
helpers. They convert up to five u64 arguments into kernel C pointers and
integers. On 64-bit architectures this BPF_to_kernel trampolines are nops. On
32-bit architecture they're meaningful.

The opposite job kernel_to_BPF trampolines is done by CAST_TO_U64 macros and
__bpf_trace_##call() shim functions in include/trace/bpf_probe.h. They convert
kernel function arguments into array of u64s that BPF program consumes via
R1=ctx pointer.

This patch set is doing the same job as __bpf_trace_##call() static
trampolines, but dynamically for any kernel function. There are ~22k global
kernel functions that are attachable via nop at function entry. The function
arguments and types are described in BTF. The job of btf_distill_func_proto()
function is to extract useful information from BTF into "function model" that
architecture dependent trampoline generators will use to generate assembly code
to cast kernel function arguments into array of u64s. For example the kernel
function eth_type_trans has two pointers. They will be casted to u64 and stored
into stack of generated trampoline. The pointer to that stack space will be
passed into BPF program in R1. On x86-64 such generated trampoline will consume
16 bytes of stack and two stores of %rdi and %rsi into stack. The verifier will
make sure that only two u64 are accessed read-only by BPF program. The verifier
will also recognize the precise type of the pointers being accessed and will
not allow typecasting of the pointer to a different type within BPF program.

The tracing use case in the datacenter demonstrated that certain key kernel
functions have (like tcp_retransmit_skb) have 2 or more kprobes that are always
active. Other functions have both kprobe and kretprobe. So it is essential to
keep both kernel code and BPF programs executing at maximum speed. Hence
generated BPF trampoline is re-generated every time new program is attached or
detached to maintain maximum performance.

To avoid the high cost of retpoline the attached BPF programs are called
directly. __bpf_prog_enter/exit() are used to support per-program execution
stats. In the future this logic will be optimized further by adding support
for bpf_stats_enabled_key inside generated assembly code. Introduction of
preemptible and sleepable BPF programs will completely remove the need to call
to __bpf_prog_enter/exit().

Detach of a BPF program from the trampoline should not fail. To avoid memory
allocation in detach path the half of the page is used as a reserve and flipped
after each attach/detach. 2k bytes is enough to call 40+ BPF programs directly
which is enough for BPF tracing use cases. This limit can be increased in the
future.

BPF_TRACE_FENTRY programs have access to raw kernel function arguments while
BPF_TRACE_FEXIT programs have access to kernel return value as well. Often
kprobe BPF program remembers function arguments in a map while kretprobe
fetches arguments from a map and analyzes them together with return value.
BPF_TRACE_FEXIT accelerates this typical use case.

Recursion prevention for kprobe BPF programs is done via per-cpu
bpf_prog_active counter. In practice that turned out to be a mistake. It
caused programs to randomly skip execution. The tracing tools missed results
they were looking for. Hence BPF trampoline doesn't provide builtin recursion
prevention. It's a job of BPF program itself and will be addressed in the
follow up patches.

BPF trampoline is intended to be used beyond tracing and fentry/fexit use cases
in the future. For example to remove retpoline cost from XDP programs.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191114185720.1641606-5-ast@kernel.org


# 6ae08ae3 01-Nov-2019 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: Add probe_read_{user, kernel} and probe_read_{user, kernel}_str helpers

The current bpf_probe_read() and bpf_probe_read_str() helpers are broken
in that they assume they can be used for probing memory access for kernel
space addresses /as well as/ user space addresses.

However, plain use of probe_kernel_read() for both cases will attempt to
always access kernel space address space given access is performed under
KERNEL_DS and some archs in-fact have overlapping address spaces where a
kernel pointer and user pointer would have the /same/ address value and
therefore accessing application memory via bpf_probe_read{,_str}() would
read garbage values.

Lets fix BPF side by making use of recently added 3d7081822f7f ("uaccess:
Add non-pagefault user-space read functions"). Unfortunately, the only way
to fix this status quo is to add dedicated bpf_probe_read_{user,kernel}()
and bpf_probe_read_{user,kernel}_str() helpers. The bpf_probe_read{,_str}()
helpers are kept as-is to retain their current behavior.

The two *_user() variants attempt the access always under USER_DS set, the
two *_kernel() variants will -EFAULT when accessing user memory if the
underlying architecture has non-overlapping address ranges, also avoiding
throwing the kernel warning via 00c42373d397 ("x86-64: add warning for
non-canonical user access address dereferences").

Fixes: a5e8c07059d0 ("bpf: add bpf_probe_read_str helper")
Fixes: 2541517c32be ("tracing, perf: Implement BPF programs attached to kprobes")
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/796ee46e948bc808d54891a1108435f8652c6ca4.1572649915.git.daniel@iogearbox.net


# f1b9509c 30-Oct-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Replace prog_raw_tp+btf_id with prog_tracing

The bpf program type raw_tp together with 'expected_attach_type'
was the most appropriate api to indicate BTF-enabled raw_tp programs.
But during development it became apparent that 'expected_attach_type'
cannot be used and new 'attach_btf_id' field had to be introduced.
Which means that the information is duplicated in two fields where
one of them is ignored.
Clean it up by introducing new program type where both
'expected_attach_type' and 'attach_btf_id' fields have
specific meaning.
In the future 'expected_attach_type' will be extended
with other attach points that have similar semantics to raw_tp.
This patch is replacing BTF-enabled BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT with
prog_type = BPF_RPOG_TYPE_TRACING
expected_attach_type = BPF_TRACE_RAW_TP
attach_btf_id = btf_id of raw tracepoint inside the kernel
Future patches will add
expected_attach_type = BPF_TRACE_FENTRY or BPF_TRACE_FEXIT
where programs have the same input context and the same helpers,
but different attach points.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191030223212.953010-2-ast@kernel.org


# a7658e1a 15-Oct-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Check types of arguments passed into helpers

Introduce new helper that reuses existing skb perf_event output
implementation, but can be called from raw_tracepoint programs
that receive 'struct sk_buff *' as tracepoint argument or
can walk other kernel data structures to skb pointer.

In order to do that teach verifier to resolve true C types
of bpf helpers into in-kernel BTF ids.
The type of kernel pointer passed by raw tracepoint into bpf
program will be tracked by the verifier all the way until
it's passed into helper function.
For example:
kfree_skb() kernel function calls trace_kfree_skb(skb, loc);
bpf programs receives that skb pointer and may eventually
pass it into bpf_skb_output() bpf helper which in-kernel is
implemented via bpf_skb_event_output() kernel function.
Its first argument in the kernel is 'struct sk_buff *'.
The verifier makes sure that types match all the way.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191016032505.2089704-11-ast@kernel.org


# ccfe29eb 15-Oct-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: Add attach_btf_id attribute to program load

Add attach_btf_id attribute to prog_load command.
It's similar to existing expected_attach_type attribute which is
used in several cgroup based program types.
Unfortunately expected_attach_type is ignored for
tracing programs and cannot be reused for new purpose.
Hence introduce attach_btf_id to verify bpf programs against
given in-kernel BTF type id at load time.
It is strictly checked to be valid for raw_tp programs only.
In a later patches it will become:
btf_id == 0 semantics of existing raw_tp progs.
btd_id > 0 raw_tp with BTF and additional type safety.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20191016032505.2089704-5-ast@kernel.org


# 5f0e5412 06-Oct-2019 Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>

uapi/bpf: fix helper docs

Various small fixes to BPF helper documentation comments, enabling
automatic header generation with a list of BPF helpers.

Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 10d274e8 22-Aug-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce verifier internal test flag

Introduce BPF_F_TEST_STATE_FREQ flag to stress test parentage chain
and state pruning.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 55c33dfb 20-Aug-2019 Peter Wu <peter@lekensteyn.nl>

bpf: clarify when bpf_trace_printk discards lines

I opened /sys/kernel/tracing/trace once and kept reading from it.
bpf_trace_printk somehow did not seem to work, no entries were appended
to that trace file. It turns out that tracing is disabled when that file
is open. Save the next person some time and document this.

The trace file is described in Documentation/trace/ftrace.rst, however
the implication "tracing is disabled" did not immediate translate to
"bpf_trace_printk silently discards entries".

Signed-off-by: Peter Wu <peter@lekensteyn.nl>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 8050a395 20-Aug-2019 Peter Wu <peter@lekensteyn.nl>

bpf: fix 'struct pt_reg' typo in documentation

There is no 'struct pt_reg'.

Signed-off-by: Peter Wu <peter@lekensteyn.nl>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 1b9ed84e 20-Aug-2019 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add new BPF_BTF_GET_NEXT_ID syscall command

Add a new command for the bpf() system call: BPF_BTF_GET_NEXT_ID is used
to cycle through all BTF objects loaded on the system.

The motivation is to be able to inspect (list) all BTF objects presents
on the system.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 8f51dfc7 14-Aug-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: support cloning sk storage on accept()

Add new helper bpf_sk_storage_clone which optionally clones sk storage
and call it from sk_clone_lock.

Cc: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# cd48bdda 08-Aug-2019 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

sock: make cookie generation global instead of per netns

Generating and retrieving socket cookies are a useful feature that is
exposed to BPF for various program types through bpf_get_socket_cookie()
helper.

The fact that the cookie counter is per netns is quite a limitation
for BPF in practice in particular for programs in host namespace that
use socket cookies as part of a map lookup key since they will be
causing socket cookie collisions e.g. when attached to BPF cgroup hooks
or cls_bpf on tc egress in host namespace handling container traffic
from veth or ipvlan devices with peer in different netns. Change the
counter to be global instead.

Socket cookie consumers must assume the value as opqaue in any case.
Not every socket must have a cookie generated and knowledge of the
counter value itself does not provide much value either way hence
conversion to global is fine.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Cc: Martynas Pumputis <m@lambda.lt>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 70d66244 29-Jul-2019 Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>

bpf: add bpf_tcp_gen_syncookie helper

This helper function allows BPF programs to try to generate SYN
cookies, given a reference to a listener socket. The function works
from XDP and with an skb context since bpf_skc_lookup_tcp can lookup a
socket in both cases.

Signed-off-by: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Suggested-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 6f9d451a 26-Jul-2019 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

xdp: Add devmap_hash map type for looking up devices by hashed index

A common pattern when using xdp_redirect_map() is to create a device map
where the lookup key is simply ifindex. Because device maps are arrays,
this leaves holes in the map, and the map has to be sized to fit the
largest ifindex, regardless of how many devices actually are actually
needed in the map.

This patch adds a second type of device map where the key is looked up
using a hashmap, instead of being used as an array index. This allows maps
to be densely packed, so they can be smaller.

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 71c99e32 25-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf/flow_dissector: support ipv6 flow_label and BPF_FLOW_DISSECTOR_F_STOP_AT_FLOW_LABEL

Add support for exporting ipv6 flow label via bpf_flow_keys.
Export flow label from bpf_flow.c and also return early when
BPF_FLOW_DISSECTOR_F_STOP_AT_FLOW_LABEL is passed.

Acked-by: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Acked-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Cc: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Cc: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Cc: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 086f9568 25-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf/flow_dissector: pass input flags to BPF flow dissector program

C flow dissector supports input flags that tell it to customize parsing
by either stopping early or trying to parse as deep as possible. Pass
those flags to the BPF flow dissector so it can make the same
decisions. In the next commits I'll add support for those flags to
our reference bpf_flow.c

v3:
* Export copy of flow dissector flags instead of moving (Alexei Starovoitov)

Acked-by: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Acked-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Cc: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Cc: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Cc: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# d4ecfeb1 15-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: allow wide aligned loads for bpf_sock_addr user_ip6 and msg_src_ip6

Add explicit check for u64 loads of user_ip6 and msg_src_ip6 and
update the comment.

Cc: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# da82c92f 27-Jun-2019 Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+samsung@kernel.org>

docs: cgroup-v1: add it to the admin-guide book

Those files belong to the admin guide, so add them.

Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+samsung@kernel.org>


# 600c70ba 01-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: allow wide (u64) aligned stores for some fields of bpf_sock_addr

Since commit cd17d7770578 ("bpf/tools: sync bpf.h") clang decided
that it can do a single u64 store into user_ip6[2] instead of two
separate u32 ones:

# 17: (18) r2 = 0x100000000000000
# ; ctx->user_ip6[2] = bpf_htonl(DST_REWRITE_IP6_2);
# 19: (7b) *(u64 *)(r1 +16) = r2
# invalid bpf_context access off=16 size=8

>From the compiler point of view it does look like a correct thing
to do, so let's support it on the kernel side.

Credit to Andrii Nakryiko for a proper implementation of
bpf_ctx_wide_store_ok.

Cc: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Cc: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Fixes: cd17d7770578 ("bpf/tools: sync bpf.h")
Reported-by: kernel test robot <rong.a.chen@intel.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# c2cb5e82 02-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: add icsk_retransmits to bpf_tcp_sock

Add some inet_connection_sock fields to bpf_tcp_sock that might be useful
for debugging congestion control issues.

Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Priyaranjan Jha <priyarjha@google.com>
Cc: Yuchung Cheng <ycheng@google.com>
Cc: Soheil Hassas Yeganeh <soheil@google.com>
Acked-by: Soheil Hassas Yeganeh <soheil@google.com>
Acked-by: Yuchung Cheng <ycheng@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 0357746d 02-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: add dsack_dups/delivered{, _ce} to bpf_tcp_sock

Add more fields to bpf_tcp_sock that might be useful for debugging
congestion control issues.

Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Priyaranjan Jha <priyarjha@google.com>
Cc: Yuchung Cheng <ycheng@google.com>
Cc: Soheil Hassas Yeganeh <soheil@google.com>
Acked-by: Soheil Hassas Yeganeh <soheil@google.com>
Acked-by: Yuchung Cheng <ycheng@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 23729ff2 02-Jul-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: add BPF_CGROUP_SOCK_OPS callback that is executed on every RTT

Performance impact should be minimal because it's under a new
BPF_SOCK_OPS_RTT_CB_FLAG flag that has to be explicitly enabled.

Suggested-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Priyaranjan Jha <priyarjha@google.com>
Cc: Yuchung Cheng <ycheng@google.com>
Cc: Soheil Hassas Yeganeh <soheil@google.com>
Acked-by: Soheil Hassas Yeganeh <soheil@google.com>
Acked-by: Yuchung Cheng <ycheng@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 0472301a 27-Jun-2019 Baruch Siach <baruch@tkos.co.il>

bpf: fix uapi bpf_prog_info fields alignment

Merge commit 1c8c5a9d38f60 ("Merge
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-next") undid the
fix from commit 36f9814a494 ("bpf: fix uapi hole for 32 bit compat
applications") by taking the gpl_compatible 1-bit field definition from
commit b85fab0e67b162 ("bpf: Add gpl_compatible flag to struct
bpf_prog_info") as is. That breaks architectures with 16-bit alignment
like m68k. Add 31-bit pad after gpl_compatible to restore alignment of
following fields.

Thanks to Dmitry V. Levin his analysis of this bug history.

Signed-off-by: Baruch Siach <baruch@tkos.co.il>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Cc: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 43e74c02 28-Jun-2019 Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>

bpf_xdp_redirect_map: Perform map lookup in eBPF helper

The bpf_redirect_map() helper used by XDP programs doesn't return any
indication of whether it can successfully redirect to the map index it was
given. Instead, BPF programs have to track this themselves, leading to
programs using duplicate maps to track which entries are populated in the
devmap.

This patch fixes this by moving the map lookup into the bpf_redirect_map()
helper, which makes it possible to return failure to the eBPF program. The
lower bits of the flags argument is used as the return code, which means
that existing users who pass a '0' flag argument will get XDP_ABORTED.

With this, a BPF program can check the return code from the helper call and
react by, for instance, substituting a different redirect. This works for
any type of map used for redirect.

Signed-off-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Jonathan Lemon <jonathan.lemon@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 0d01da6a 27-Jun-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: implement getsockopt and setsockopt hooks

Implement new BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCKOPT program type and
BPF_CGROUP_{G,S}ETSOCKOPT cgroup hooks.

BPF_CGROUP_SETSOCKOPT can modify user setsockopt arguments before
passing them down to the kernel or bypass kernel completely.
BPF_CGROUP_GETSOCKOPT can can inspect/modify getsockopt arguments that
kernel returns.
Both hooks reuse existing PTR_TO_PACKET{,_END} infrastructure.

The buffer memory is pre-allocated (because I don't think there is
a precedent for working with __user memory from bpf). This might be
slow to do for each {s,g}etsockopt call, that's why I've added
__cgroup_bpf_prog_array_is_empty that exits early if there is nothing
attached to a cgroup. Note, however, that there is a race between
__cgroup_bpf_prog_array_is_empty and BPF_PROG_RUN_ARRAY where cgroup
program layout might have changed; this should not be a problem
because in general there is a race between multiple calls to
{s,g}etsocktop and user adding/removing bpf progs from a cgroup.

The return code of the BPF program is handled as follows:
* 0: EPERM
* 1: success, continue with next BPF program in the cgroup chain

v9:
* allow overwriting setsockopt arguments (Alexei Starovoitov):
* use set_fs (same as kernel_setsockopt)
* buffer is always kzalloc'd (no small on-stack buffer)

v8:
* use s32 for optlen (Andrii Nakryiko)

v7:
* return only 0 or 1 (Alexei Starovoitov)
* always run all progs (Alexei Starovoitov)
* use optval=0 as kernel bypass in setsockopt (Alexei Starovoitov)
(decided to use optval=-1 instead, optval=0 might be a valid input)
* call getsockopt hook after kernel handlers (Alexei Starovoitov)

v6:
* rework cgroup chaining; stop as soon as bpf program returns
0 or 2; see patch with the documentation for the details
* drop Andrii's and Martin's Acked-by (not sure they are comfortable
with the new state of things)

v5:
* skip copy_to_user() and put_user() when ret == 0 (Martin Lau)

v4:
* don't export bpf_sk_fullsock helper (Martin Lau)
* size != sizeof(__u64) for uapi pointers (Martin Lau)
* offsetof instead of bpf_ctx_range when checking ctx access (Martin Lau)

v3:
* typos in BPF_PROG_CGROUP_SOCKOPT_RUN_ARRAY comments (Andrii Nakryiko)
* reverse christmas tree in BPF_PROG_CGROUP_SOCKOPT_RUN_ARRAY (Andrii
Nakryiko)
* use __bpf_md_ptr instead of __u32 for optval{,_end} (Martin Lau)
* use BPF_FIELD_SIZEOF() for consistency (Martin Lau)
* new CG_SOCKOPT_ACCESS macro to wrap repeated parts

v2:
* moved bpf_sockopt_kern fields around to remove a hole (Martin Lau)
* aligned bpf_sockopt_kern->buf to 8 bytes (Martin Lau)
* bpf_prog_array_is_empty instead of bpf_prog_array_length (Martin Lau)
* added [0,2] return code check to verifier (Martin Lau)
* dropped unused buf[64] from the stack (Martin Lau)
* use PTR_TO_SOCKET for bpf_sockopt->sk (Martin Lau)
* dropped bpf_target_off from ctx rewrites (Martin Lau)
* use return code for kernel bypass (Martin Lau & Andrii Nakryiko)

Cc: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Cc: Martin Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 1314ef56 12-Jun-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: export bpf_sock for BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS prog type

And let it use bpf_sk_storage_{get,delete} helpers to access socket
storage. Kernel context (struct bpf_sock_ops_kern) already has sk
member, so I just expose it to the BPF hooks. I use
PTR_TO_SOCKET_OR_NULL and return NULL in !is_fullsock case.

I also export bpf_tcp_sock to make it possible to access tcp socket stats.

Cc: Martin Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# fb85c4a7 12-Jun-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: export bpf_sock for BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR prog type

And let it use bpf_sk_storage_{get,delete} helpers to access socket
storage. Kernel context (struct bpf_sock_addr_kern) already has sk
member, so I just expose it to the BPF hooks. Using PTR_TO_SOCKET
instead of PTR_TO_SOCK_COMMON should be safe because the hook is
called on bind/connect.

Cc: Martin Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 99c8b231 12-Jun-2019 Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+samsung@kernel.org>

docs: cgroup-v1: convert docs to ReST and rename to *.rst

Convert the cgroup-v1 files to ReST format, in order to
allow a later addition to the admin-guide.

The conversion is actually:
- add blank lines and identation in order to identify paragraphs;
- fix tables markups;
- add some lists markups;
- mark literal blocks;
- adjust title markups.

At its new index.rst, let's add a :orphan: while this is not linked to
the main index.rst file, in order to avoid build warnings.

Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+samsung@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>


# b1d6c15b 12-Jun-2019 Martynas Pumputis <m@lambda.lt>

bpf: simplify definition of BPF_FIB_LOOKUP related flags

Previously, the BPF_FIB_LOOKUP_{DIRECT,OUTPUT} flags in the BPF UAPI
were defined with the help of BIT macro. This had the following issues:

- In order to use any of the flags, a user was required to depend
on <linux/bits.h>.
- No other flag in bpf.h uses the macro, so it seems that an unwritten
convention is to use (1 << (nr)) to define BPF-related flags.

Fixes: 87f5fc7e48dd ("bpf: Provide helper to do forwarding lookups in kernel FIB table")
Signed-off-by: Martynas Pumputis <m@lambda.lt>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# fada7fdc 06-Jun-2019 Jonathan Lemon <jonathan.lemon@gmail.com>

bpf: Allow bpf_map_lookup_elem() on an xskmap

Currently, the AF_XDP code uses a separate map in order to
determine if an xsk is bound to a queue. Instead of doing this,
have bpf_map_lookup_elem() return a xdp_sock.

Rearrange some xdp_sock members to eliminate structure holes.

Remove selftest - will be added back in later patch.

Signed-off-by: Jonathan Lemon <jonathan.lemon@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 983695fa 06-Jun-2019 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: fix unconnected udp hooks

Intention of cgroup bind/connect/sendmsg BPF hooks is to act transparently
to applications as also stated in original motivation in 7828f20e3779 ("Merge
branch 'bpf-cgroup-bind-connect'"). When recently integrating the latter
two hooks into Cilium to enable host based load-balancing with Kubernetes,
I ran into the issue that pods couldn't start up as DNS got broken. Kubernetes
typically sets up DNS as a service and is thus subject to load-balancing.

Upon further debugging, it turns out that the cgroupv2 sendmsg BPF hooks API
is currently insufficient and thus not usable as-is for standard applications
shipped with most distros. To break down the issue we ran into with a simple
example:

# cat /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 147.75.207.207
nameserver 147.75.207.208

For the purpose of a simple test, we set up above IPs as service IPs and
transparently redirect traffic to a different DNS backend server for that
node:

# cilium service list
ID Frontend Backend
1 147.75.207.207:53 1 => 8.8.8.8:53
2 147.75.207.208:53 1 => 8.8.8.8:53

The attached BPF program is basically selecting one of the backends if the
service IP/port matches on the cgroup hook. DNS breaks here, because the
hooks are not transparent enough to applications which have built-in msg_name
address checks:

# nslookup 1.1.1.1
;; reply from unexpected source: 8.8.8.8#53, expected 147.75.207.207#53
;; reply from unexpected source: 8.8.8.8#53, expected 147.75.207.208#53
;; reply from unexpected source: 8.8.8.8#53, expected 147.75.207.207#53
[...]
;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached

# dig 1.1.1.1
;; reply from unexpected source: 8.8.8.8#53, expected 147.75.207.207#53
;; reply from unexpected source: 8.8.8.8#53, expected 147.75.207.208#53
;; reply from unexpected source: 8.8.8.8#53, expected 147.75.207.207#53
[...]

; <<>> DiG 9.11.3-1ubuntu1.7-Ubuntu <<>> 1.1.1.1
;; global options: +cmd
;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached

For comparison, if none of the service IPs is used, and we tell nslookup
to use 8.8.8.8 directly it works just fine, of course:

# nslookup 1.1.1.1 8.8.8.8
1.1.1.1.in-addr.arpa name = one.one.one.one.

In order to fix this and thus act more transparent to the application,
this needs reverse translation on recvmsg() side. A minimal fix for this
API is to add similar recvmsg() hooks behind the BPF cgroups static key
such that the program can track state and replace the current sockaddr_in{,6}
with the original service IP. From BPF side, this basically tracks the
service tuple plus socket cookie in an LRU map where the reverse NAT can
then be retrieved via map value as one example. Side-note: the BPF cgroups
static key should be converted to a per-hook static key in future.

Same example after this fix:

# cilium service list
ID Frontend Backend
1 147.75.207.207:53 1 => 8.8.8.8:53
2 147.75.207.208:53 1 => 8.8.8.8:53

Lookups work fine now:

# nslookup 1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1.in-addr.arpa name = one.one.one.one.

Authoritative answers can be found from:

# dig 1.1.1.1

; <<>> DiG 9.11.3-1ubuntu1.7-Ubuntu <<>> 1.1.1.1
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NXDOMAIN, id: 51550
;; flags: qr rd ra ad; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 0, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 512
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;1.1.1.1. IN A

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
. 23426 IN SOA a.root-servers.net. nstld.verisign-grs.com. 2019052001 1800 900 604800 86400

;; Query time: 17 msec
;; SERVER: 147.75.207.207#53(147.75.207.207)
;; WHEN: Tue May 21 12:59:38 UTC 2019
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 111

And from an actual packet level it shows that we're using the back end
server when talking via 147.75.207.20{7,8} front end:

# tcpdump -i any udp
[...]
12:59:52.698732 IP foo.42011 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: 18803+ PTR? 1.1.1.1.in-addr.arpa. (38)
12:59:52.698735 IP foo.42011 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: 18803+ PTR? 1.1.1.1.in-addr.arpa. (38)
12:59:52.701208 IP google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain > foo.42011: 18803 1/0/0 PTR one.one.one.one. (67)
12:59:52.701208 IP google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain > foo.42011: 18803 1/0/0 PTR one.one.one.one. (67)
[...]

In order to be flexible and to have same semantics as in sendmsg BPF
programs, we only allow return codes in [1,1] range. In the sendmsg case
the program is called if msg->msg_name is present which can be the case
in both, connected and unconnected UDP.

The former only relies on the sockaddr_in{,6} passed via connect(2) if
passed msg->msg_name was NULL. Therefore, on recvmsg side, we act in similar
way to call into the BPF program whenever a non-NULL msg->msg_name was
passed independent of sk->sk_state being TCP_ESTABLISHED or not. Note
that for TCP case, the msg->msg_name is ignored in the regular recvmsg
path and therefore not relevant.

For the case of ip{,v6}_recv_error() paths, picked up via MSG_ERRQUEUE,
the hook is not called. This is intentional as it aligns with the same
semantics as in case of TCP cgroup BPF hooks right now. This might be
better addressed in future through a different bpf_attach_type such
that this case can be distinguished from the regular recvmsg paths,
for example.

Fixes: 1cedee13d25a ("bpf: Hooks for sys_sendmsg")
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martynas Pumputis <m@lambda.lt>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c240eff6 24-May-2019 Jiong Wang <jiong.wang@netronome.com>

bpf: introduce new bpf prog load flags "BPF_F_TEST_RND_HI32"

x86_64 and AArch64 perhaps are two arches that running bpf testsuite
frequently, however the zero extension insertion pass is not enabled for
them because of their hardware support.

It is critical to guarantee the pass correction as it is supposed to be
enabled at default for a couple of other arches, for example PowerPC,
SPARC, arm, NFP etc. Therefore, it would be very useful if there is a way
to test this pass on for example x86_64.

The test methodology employed by this set is "poisoning" useless bits. High
32-bit of a definition is randomized if it is identified as not used by any
later insn. Such randomization is only enabled under testing mode which is
gated by the new bpf prog load flags "BPF_F_TEST_RND_HI32".

Suggested-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Jiong Wang <jiong.wang@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 8b401f9e 23-May-2019 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: implement bpf_send_signal() helper

This patch tries to solve the following specific use case.

Currently, bpf program can already collect stack traces
through kernel function get_perf_callchain()
when certain events happens (e.g., cache miss counter or
cpu clock counter overflows). But such stack traces are
not enough for jitted programs, e.g., hhvm (jited php).
To get real stack trace, jit engine internal data structures
need to be traversed in order to get the real user functions.

bpf program itself may not be the best place to traverse
the jit engine as the traversing logic could be complex and
it is not a stable interface either.

Instead, hhvm implements a signal handler,
e.g. for SIGALARM, and a set of program locations which
it can dump stack traces. When it receives a signal, it will
dump the stack in next such program location.

Such a mechanism can be implemented in the following way:
. a perf ring buffer is created between bpf program
and tracing app.
. once a particular event happens, bpf program writes
to the ring buffer and the tracing app gets notified.
. the tracing app sends a signal SIGALARM to the hhvm.

But this method could have large delays and causing profiling
results skewed.

This patch implements bpf_send_signal() helper to send
a signal to hhvm in real time, resulting in intended stack traces.

Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 80867c5e 10-May-2019 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix minor issues in documentation for BPF helpers.

This commit brings many minor fixes to the documentation for BPF helper
functions. Mostly, this is limited to formatting fixes and improvements.
In particular, fix broken formatting for bpf_skb_adjust_room().

Besides formatting, replace the mention of "bpf_fullsock()" (that is not
associated with any function or type exposed to the user) in the
description of bpf_sk_storage_get() by "full socket".

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 32e7dc28 10-May-2019 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix recurring typo in documentation for BPF helpers

"Underlaying packet buffer" should be an "underlying" one, in the
warning about invalidated data and data_end pointers. Through
copy-and-paste, the typo occurred no fewer than 19 times in the
documentation. Let's fix it.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 6ac99e8f 26-Apr-2019 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf sk local storage

After allowing a bpf prog to
- directly read the skb->sk ptr
- get the fullsock bpf_sock by "bpf_sk_fullsock()"
- get the bpf_tcp_sock by "bpf_tcp_sock()"
- get the listener sock by "bpf_get_listener_sock()"
- avoid duplicating the fields of "(bpf_)sock" and "(bpf_)tcp_sock"
into different bpf running context.

this patch is another effort to make bpf's network programming
more intuitive to do (together with memory and performance benefit).

When bpf prog needs to store data for a sk, the current practice is to
define a map with the usual 4-tuples (src/dst ip/port) as the key.
If multiple bpf progs require to store different sk data, multiple maps
have to be defined. Hence, wasting memory to store the duplicated
keys (i.e. 4 tuples here) in each of the bpf map.
[ The smallest key could be the sk pointer itself which requires
some enhancement in the verifier and it is a separate topic. ]

Also, the bpf prog needs to clean up the elem when sk is freed.
Otherwise, the bpf map will become full and un-usable quickly.
The sk-free tracking currently could be done during sk state
transition (e.g. BPF_SOCK_OPS_STATE_CB).

The size of the map needs to be predefined which then usually ended-up
with an over-provisioned map in production. Even the map was re-sizable,
while the sk naturally come and go away already, this potential re-size
operation is arguably redundant if the data can be directly connected
to the sk itself instead of proxy-ing through a bpf map.

This patch introduces sk->sk_bpf_storage to provide local storage space
at sk for bpf prog to use. The space will be allocated when the first bpf
prog has created data for this particular sk.

The design optimizes the bpf prog's lookup (and then optionally followed by
an inline update). bpf_spin_lock should be used if the inline update needs
to be protected.

BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE:
-----------------------
To define a bpf "sk-local-storage", a BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE map (new in
this patch) needs to be created. Multiple BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE maps can
be created to fit different bpf progs' needs. The map enforces
BTF to allow printing the sk-local-storage during a system-wise
sk dump (e.g. "ss -ta") in the future.

The purpose of a BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE map is not for lookup/update/delete
a "sk-local-storage" data from a particular sk.
Think of the map as a meta-data (or "type") of a "sk-local-storage". This
particular "type" of "sk-local-storage" data can then be stored in any sk.

The main purposes of this map are mostly:
1. Define the size of a "sk-local-storage" type.
2. Provide a similar syscall userspace API as the map (e.g. lookup/update,
map-id, map-btf...etc.)
3. Keep track of all sk's storages of this "type" and clean them up
when the map is freed.

sk->sk_bpf_storage:
------------------
The main lookup/update/delete is done on sk->sk_bpf_storage (which
is a "struct bpf_sk_storage"). When doing a lookup,
the "map" pointer is now used as the "key" to search on the
sk_storage->list. The "map" pointer is actually serving
as the "type" of the "sk-local-storage" that is being
requested.

To allow very fast lookup, it should be as fast as looking up an
array at a stable-offset. At the same time, it is not ideal to
set a hard limit on the number of sk-local-storage "type" that the
system can have. Hence, this patch takes a cache approach.
The last search result from sk_storage->list is cached in
sk_storage->cache[] which is a stable sized array. Each
"sk-local-storage" type has a stable offset to the cache[] array.
In the future, a map's flag could be introduced to do cache
opt-out/enforcement if it became necessary.

The cache size is 16 (i.e. 16 types of "sk-local-storage").
Programs can share map. On the program side, having a few bpf_progs
running in the networking hotpath is already a lot. The bpf_prog
should have already consolidated the existing sock-key-ed map usage
to minimize the map lookup penalty. 16 has enough runway to grow.

All sk-local-storage data will be removed from sk->sk_bpf_storage
during sk destruction.

bpf_sk_storage_get() and bpf_sk_storage_delete():
------------------------------------------------
Instead of using bpf_map_(lookup|update|delete)_elem(),
the bpf prog needs to use the new helper bpf_sk_storage_get() and
bpf_sk_storage_delete(). The verifier can then enforce the
ARG_PTR_TO_SOCKET argument. The bpf_sk_storage_get() also allows to
"create" new elem if one does not exist in the sk. It is done by
the new BPF_SK_STORAGE_GET_F_CREATE flag. An optional value can also be
provided as the initial value during BPF_SK_STORAGE_GET_F_CREATE.
The BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE also supports bpf_spin_lock. Together,
it has eliminated the potential use cases for an equivalent
bpf_map_update_elem() API (for bpf_prog) in this patch.

Misc notes:
----------
1. map_get_next_key is not supported. From the userspace syscall
perspective, the map has the socket fd as the key while the map
can be shared by pinned-file or map-id.

Since btf is enforced, the existing "ss" could be enhanced to pretty
print the local-storage.

Supporting a kernel defined btf with 4 tuples as the return key could
be explored later also.

2. The sk->sk_lock cannot be acquired. Atomic operations is used instead.
e.g. cmpxchg is done on the sk->sk_bpf_storage ptr.
Please refer to the source code comments for the details in
synchronization cases and considerations.

3. The mem is charged to the sk->sk_omem_alloc as the sk filter does.

Benchmark:
---------
Here is the benchmark data collected by turning on
the "kernel.bpf_stats_enabled" sysctl.
Two bpf progs are tested:

One bpf prog with the usual bpf hashmap (max_entries = 8192) with the
sk ptr as the key. (verifier is modified to support sk ptr as the key
That should have shortened the key lookup time.)

Another bpf prog is with the new BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE.

Both are storing a "u32 cnt", do a lookup on "egress_skb/cgroup" for
each egress skb and then bump the cnt. netperf is used to drive
data with 4096 connected UDP sockets.

BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH with a modifier verifier (152ns per bpf run)
27: cgroup_skb name egress_sk_map tag 74f56e832918070b run_time_ns 58280107540 run_cnt 381347633
loaded_at 2019-04-15T13:46:39-0700 uid 0
xlated 344B jited 258B memlock 4096B map_ids 16
btf_id 5

BPF_MAP_TYPE_SK_STORAGE in this patch (66ns per bpf run)
30: cgroup_skb name egress_sk_stora tag d4aa70984cc7bbf6 run_time_ns 25617093319 run_cnt 390989739
loaded_at 2019-04-15T13:47:54-0700 uid 0
xlated 168B jited 156B memlock 4096B map_ids 17
btf_id 6

Here is a high-level picture on how are the objects organized:

sk
┌──────┐
│ │
│ │
│ │
│*sk_bpf_storage─────▶ bpf_sk_storage
└──────┘ ┌───────┐
┌───────────┤ list │
│ │ │
│ │ │
│ │ │
│ └───────┘

│ elem
│ ┌────────┐
├─▶│ snode │
│ ├────────┤
│ │ data │ bpf_map
│ ├────────┤ ┌─────────┐
│ │map_node│◀─┬─────┤ list │
│ └────────┘ │ │ │
│ │ │ │
│ elem │ │ │
│ ┌────────┐ │ └─────────┘
└─▶│ snode │ │
├────────┤ │
bpf_map │ data │ │
┌─────────┐ ├────────┤ │
│ list ├───────▶│map_node│ │
│ │ └────────┘ │
│ │ │
│ │ elem │
└─────────┘ ┌────────┐ │
┌─▶│ snode │ │
│ ├────────┤ │
│ │ data │ │
│ ├────────┤ │
│ │map_node│◀─┘
│ └────────┘


│ ┌───────┐
sk └──────────│ list │
┌──────┐ │ │
│ │ │ │
│ │ │ │
│ │ └───────┘
│*sk_bpf_storage───────▶bpf_sk_storage
└──────┘

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 9df1c28b 26-Apr-2019 Matt Mullins <mmullins@fb.com>

bpf: add writable context for raw tracepoints

This is an opt-in interface that allows a tracepoint to provide a safe
buffer that can be written from a BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT program.
The size of the buffer must be a compile-time constant, and is checked
before allowing a BPF program to attach to a tracepoint that uses this
feature.

The pointer to this buffer will be the first argument of tracepoints
that opt in; the pointer is valid and can be bpf_probe_read() by both
BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT and BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT_WRITABLE
programs that attach to such a tracepoint, but the buffer to which it
points may only be written by the latter.

Signed-off-by: Matt Mullins <mmullins@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 725721a6 15-Apr-2019 Viet Hoang Tran <hoang.tran@uclouvain.be>

bpf: allow clearing all sock_ops callback flags

The helper function bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags_set() can be used to both
set and clear the sock_ops callback flags. However, its current
behavior is not consistent. BPF program may clear a flag if more than
one were set, or replace a flag with another one, but cannot clear all
flags.

This patch also updates the documentation to clarify the ability to
clear flags of this helper function.

Signed-off-by: Hoang Tran <hoang.tran@uclouvain.be>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# bfb35c27 11-Apr-2019 Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>

bpf: fix whitespace for ENCAP_L2 defines in bpf.h

replace tab after #define with space in line with rest of definitions

Signed-off-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# d7a4cb9b 18-Mar-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_strtol and bpf_strtoul helpers

Add bpf_strtol and bpf_strtoul to convert a string to long and unsigned
long correspondingly. It's similar to user space strtol(3) and
strtoul(3) with a few changes to the API:

* instead of NUL-terminated C string the helpers expect buffer and
buffer length;

* resulting long or unsigned long is returned in a separate
result-argument;

* return value is used to indicate success or failure, on success number
of consumed bytes is returned that can be used to identify position to
read next if the buffer is expected to contain multiple integers;

* instead of *base* argument, *flags* is used that provides base in 5
LSB, other bits are reserved for future use;

* number of supported bases is limited.

Documentation for the new helpers is provided in bpf.h UAPI.

The helpers are made available to BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL programs to
be able to convert string input to e.g. "ulongvec" output.

E.g. "net/ipv4/tcp_mem" consists of three ulong integers. They can be
parsed by calling to bpf_strtoul three times.

Implementation notes:

Implementation includes "../../lib/kstrtox.h" to reuse integer parsing
functions. It's done exactly same way as fs/proc/base.c already does.

Unfortunately existing kstrtoX function can't be used directly since
they fail if any invalid character is present right after integer in the
string. Existing simple_strtoX functions can't be used either since
they're obsolete and don't handle overflow properly.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# e1550bfe 07-Mar-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Add file_pos field to bpf_sysctl ctx

Add file_pos field to bpf_sysctl context to read and write sysctl file
position at which sysctl is being accessed (read or written).

The field can be used to e.g. override whole sysctl value on write to
sysctl even when sys_write is called by user space with file_pos > 0. Or
BPF program may reject such accesses.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 4e63acdf 07-Mar-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_sysctl_{get,set}_new_value helpers

Add helpers to work with new value being written to sysctl by user
space.

bpf_sysctl_get_new_value() copies value being written to sysctl into
provided buffer.

bpf_sysctl_set_new_value() overrides new value being written by user
space with a one from provided buffer. Buffer should contain string
representation of the value, similar to what can be seen in /proc/sys/.

Both helpers can be used only on sysctl write.

File position matters and can be managed by an interface that will be
introduced separately. E.g. if user space calls sys_write to a file in
/proc/sys/ at file position = X, where X > 0, then the value set by
bpf_sysctl_set_new_value() will be written starting from X. If program
wants to override whole value with specified buffer, file position has
to be set to zero.

Documentation for the new helpers is provided in bpf.h UAPI.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 1d11b301 28-Feb-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_sysctl_get_current_value helper

Add bpf_sysctl_get_current_value() helper to copy current sysctl value
into provided by BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL program buffer.

It provides same string as user space can see by reading corresponding
file in /proc/sys/, including new line, etc.

Documentation for the new helper is provided in bpf.h UAPI.

Since current value is kept in ctl_table->data in a parsed form,
ctl_table->proc_handler() with write=0 is called to read that data and
convert it to a string. Such a string can later be parsed by a program
using helpers that will be introduced separately.

Unfortunately it's not trivial to provide API to access parsed data due to
variety of data representations (string, intvec, uintvec, ulongvec,
custom structures, even NULL, etc). Instead it's assumed that user know
how to handle specific sysctl they're interested in and appropriate
helpers can be used.

Since ctl_table->proc_handler() expects __user buffer, conversion to
__user happens for kernel allocated one where the value is stored.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 808649fb 27-Feb-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_sysctl_get_name helper

Add bpf_sysctl_get_name() helper to copy sysctl name (/proc/sys/ entry)
into provided by BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL program buffer.

By default full name (w/o /proc/sys/) is copied, e.g. "net/ipv4/tcp_mem".

If BPF_F_SYSCTL_BASE_NAME flag is set, only base name will be copied,
e.g. "tcp_mem".

Documentation for the new helper is provided in bpf.h UAPI.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 7b146ceb 27-Feb-2019 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Sysctl hook

Containerized applications may run as root and it may create problems
for whole host. Specifically such applications may change a sysctl and
affect applications in other containers.

Furthermore in existing infrastructure it may not be possible to just
completely disable writing to sysctl, instead such a process should be
gradual with ability to log what sysctl are being changed by a
container, investigate, limit the set of writable sysctl to currently
used ones (so that new ones can not be changed) and eventually reduce
this set to zero.

The patch introduces new program type BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL and
attach type BPF_CGROUP_SYSCTL to solve these problems on cgroup basis.

New program type has access to following minimal context:
struct bpf_sysctl {
__u32 write;
};

Where @write indicates whether sysctl is being read (= 0) or written (=
1).

Helpers to access sysctl name and value will be introduced separately.

BPF_CGROUP_SYSCTL attach point is added to sysctl code right before
passing control to ctl_table->proc_handler so that BPF program can
either allow or deny access to sysctl.

Suggested-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 58dfc900 09-Apr-2019 Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>

bpf: add layer 2 encap support to bpf_skb_adjust_room

commit 868d523535c2 ("bpf: add bpf_skb_adjust_room encap flags")
introduced support to bpf_skb_adjust_room for GSO-friendly GRE
and UDP encapsulation.

For GSO to work for skbs, the inner headers (mac and network) need to
be marked. For L3 encapsulation using bpf_skb_adjust_room, the mac
and network headers are identical. Here we provide a way of specifying
the inner mac header length for cases where L2 encap is desired. Such
an approach can support encapsulated ethernet headers, MPLS headers etc.
For example to convert from a packet of form [eth][ip][tcp] to
[eth][ip][udp][inner mac][ip][tcp], something like the following could
be done:

headroom = sizeof(iph) + sizeof(struct udphdr) + inner_maclen;

ret = bpf_skb_adjust_room(skb, headroom, BPF_ADJ_ROOM_MAC,
BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_ENCAP_L4_UDP |
BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_ENCAP_L3_IPV4 |
BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_ENCAP_L2(inner_maclen));

Signed-off-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# b0b9395d 09-Apr-2019 Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>

bpf: support input __sk_buff context in BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN

Add new set of arguments to bpf_attr for BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN:
* ctx_in/ctx_size_in - input context
* ctx_out/ctx_size_out - output context

The intended use case is to pass some meta data to the test runs that
operate on skb (this has being brought up on recent LPC).

For programs that use bpf_prog_test_run_skb, support __sk_buff input and
output. Initially, from input __sk_buff, copy _only_ cb and priority into
skb, all other non-zero fields are prohibited (with EINVAL).
If the user has set ctx_out/ctx_size_out, copy the potentially modified
__sk_buff back to the userspace.

We require all fields of input __sk_buff except the ones we explicitly
support to be set to zero. The expectation is that in the future we might
add support for more fields and we want to fail explicitly if the user
runs the program on the kernel where we don't yet support them.

The API is intentionally vague (i.e. we don't explicitly add __sk_buff
to bpf_attr, but ctx_in) to potentially let other test_run types use
this interface in the future (this can be xdp_md for xdp types for
example).

v4:
* don't copy more than allowed in bpf_ctx_init [Martin]

v3:
* handle case where ctx_in is NULL, but ctx_out is not [Martin]
* convert size==0 checks to ptr==NULL checks and add some extra ptr
checks [Martin]

v2:
* Addressed comments from Martin Lau

Signed-off-by: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@google.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 87df15de 09-Apr-2019 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add syscall side map freeze support

This patch adds a new BPF_MAP_FREEZE command which allows to
"freeze" the map globally as read-only / immutable from syscall
side.

Map permission handling has been refactored into map_get_sys_perms()
and drops FMODE_CAN_WRITE in case of locked map. Main use case is
to allow for setting up .rodata sections from the BPF ELF which
are loaded into the kernel, meaning BPF loader first allocates
map, sets up map value by copying .rodata section into it and once
complete, it calls BPF_MAP_FREEZE on the map fd to prevent further
modifications.

Right now BPF_MAP_FREEZE only takes map fd as argument while remaining
bpf_attr members are required to be zero. I didn't add write-only
locking here as counterpart since I don't have a concrete use-case
for it on my side, and I think it makes probably more sense to wait
once there is actually one. In that case bpf_attr can be extended
as usual with a flag field and/or others where flag 0 means that
we lock the map read-only hence this doesn't prevent to add further
extensions to BPF_MAP_FREEZE upon need.

A map creation flag like BPF_F_WRONCE was not considered for couple
of reasons: i) in case of a generic implementation, a map can consist
of more than just one element, thus there could be multiple map
updates needed to set the map into a state where it can then be
made immutable, ii) WRONCE indicates exact one-time write before
it is then set immutable. A generic implementation would set a bit
atomically on map update entry (if unset), indicating that every
subsequent update from then onwards will need to bail out there.
However, map updates can fail, so upon failure that flag would need
to be unset again and the update attempt would need to be repeated
for it to be eventually made immutable. While this can be made
race-free, this approach feels less clean and in combination with
reason i), it's not generic enough. A dedicated BPF_MAP_FREEZE
command directly sets the flag and caller has the guarantee that
map is immutable from syscall side upon successful return for any
future syscall invocations that would alter the map state, which
is also more intuitive from an API point of view. A command name
such as BPF_MAP_LOCK has been avoided as it's too close with BPF
map spin locks (which already has BPF_F_LOCK flag). BPF_MAP_FREEZE
is so far only enabled for privileged users.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 591fe988 09-Apr-2019 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add program side {rd, wr}only support for maps

This work adds two new map creation flags BPF_F_RDONLY_PROG
and BPF_F_WRONLY_PROG in order to allow for read-only or
write-only BPF maps from a BPF program side.

Today we have BPF_F_RDONLY and BPF_F_WRONLY, but this only
applies to system call side, meaning the BPF program has full
read/write access to the map as usual while bpf(2) calls with
map fd can either only read or write into the map depending
on the flags. BPF_F_RDONLY_PROG and BPF_F_WRONLY_PROG allows
for the exact opposite such that verifier is going to reject
program loads if write into a read-only map or a read into a
write-only map is detected. For read-only map case also some
helpers are forbidden for programs that would alter the map
state such as map deletion, update, etc. As opposed to the two
BPF_F_RDONLY / BPF_F_WRONLY flags, BPF_F_RDONLY_PROG as well
as BPF_F_WRONLY_PROG really do correspond to the map lifetime.

We've enabled this generic map extension to various non-special
maps holding normal user data: array, hash, lru, lpm, local
storage, queue and stack. Further generic map types could be
followed up in future depending on use-case. Main use case
here is to forbid writes into .rodata map values from verifier
side.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# d8eca5bb 09-Apr-2019 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: implement lookup-free direct value access for maps

This generic extension to BPF maps allows for directly loading
an address residing inside a BPF map value as a single BPF
ldimm64 instruction!

The idea is similar to what BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD does today, which
is a special src_reg flag for ldimm64 instruction that indicates
that inside the first part of the double insns's imm field is a
file descriptor which the verifier then replaces as a full 64bit
address of the map into both imm parts. For the newly added
BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE src_reg flag, the idea is the following:
the first part of the double insns's imm field is again a file
descriptor corresponding to the map, and the second part of the
imm field is an offset into the value. The verifier will then
replace both imm parts with an address that points into the BPF
map value at the given value offset for maps that support this
operation. Currently supported is array map with single entry.
It is possible to support more than just single map element by
reusing both 16bit off fields of the insns as a map index, so
full array map lookup could be expressed that way. It hasn't
been implemented here due to lack of concrete use case, but
could easily be done so in future in a compatible way, since
both off fields right now have to be 0 and would correctly
denote a map index 0.

The BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE is a distinct flag as otherwise with
BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD we could not differ offset 0 between load of
map pointer versus load of map's value at offset 0, and changing
BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD's encoding into off by one to differ between
regular map pointer and map value pointer would add unnecessary
complexity and increases barrier for debugability thus less
suitable. Using the second part of the imm field as an offset
into the value does /not/ come with limitations since maximum
possible value size is in u32 universe anyway.

This optimization allows for efficiently retrieving an address
to a map value memory area without having to issue a helper call
which needs to prepare registers according to calling convention,
etc, without needing the extra NULL test, and without having to
add the offset in an additional instruction to the value base
pointer. The verifier then treats the destination register as
PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE with constant reg->off from the user passed
offset from the second imm field, and guarantees that this is
within bounds of the map value. Any subsequent operations are
normally treated as typical map value handling without anything
extra needed from verification side.

The two map operations for direct value access have been added to
array map for now. In future other types could be supported as
well depending on the use case. The main use case for this commit
is to allow for BPF loader support for global variables that
reside in .data/.rodata/.bss sections such that we can directly
load the address of them with minimal additional infrastructure
required. Loader support has been added in subsequent commits for
libbpf library.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 868d5235 22-Mar-2019 Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>

bpf: add bpf_skb_adjust_room encap flags

When pushing tunnel headers, annotate skbs in the same way as tunnel
devices.

For GSO packets, the network stack requires certain fields set to
segment packets with tunnel headers. gro_gse_segment depends on
transport and inner mac header, for instance.

Add an option to pass this information.

Remove the restriction on len_diff to network header length, which
is too short, e.g., for GRE protocols.

Changes
v1->v2:
- document new flags
- BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_MASK moved
v2->v3:
- BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_ENCAP_L3_MASK moved

Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 2278f6cc 22-Mar-2019 Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>

bpf: add bpf_skb_adjust_room flag BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_FIXED_GSO

bpf_skb_adjust_room adjusts gso_size of gso packets to account for the
pushed or popped header room.

This is not allowed with UDP, where gso_size delineates datagrams. Add
an option to avoid these updates and allow this call for datagrams.

It can also be used with TCP, when MSS is known to allow headroom,
e.g., through MSS clamping or route MTU.

Changes v1->v2:
- document flag BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_FIXED_GSO
- do not expose BPF_F_ADJ_ROOM_MASK through uapi, as it may change.

Link: https://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/1052497/
Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 14aa3192 22-Mar-2019 Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>

bpf: add bpf_skb_adjust_room mode BPF_ADJ_ROOM_MAC

bpf_skb_adjust_room net allows inserting room in an skb.

Existing mode BPF_ADJ_ROOM_NET inserts room after the network header
by pulling the skb, moving the network header forward and zeroing the
new space.

Add new mode BPF_ADJUST_ROOM_MAC that inserts room after the mac
header. This allows inserting tunnel headers in front of the network
header without having to recreate the network header in the original
space, avoiding two copies.

Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 39904084 21-Mar-2019 Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>

bpf: add helper to check for a valid SYN cookie

Using bpf_skc_lookup_tcp it's possible to ascertain whether a packet
belongs to a known connection. However, there is one corner case: no
sockets are created if SYN cookies are active. This means that the final
ACK in the 3WHS is misclassified.

Using the helper, we can look up the listening socket via
bpf_skc_lookup_tcp and then check whether a packet is a valid SYN
cookie ACK.

Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# edbf8c01 21-Mar-2019 Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>

bpf: add skc_lookup_tcp helper

Allow looking up a sock_common. This gives eBPF programs
access to timewait and request sockets.

Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 0eb09785 13-Mar-2019 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for helpers bpf_spin_lock(), bpf_spin_unlock()

Add documentation for the BPF spinlock-related helpers to the doc in
bpf.h. I added the constraints and restrictions coming with the use of
spinlocks for BPF: not all of it is directly related to the use of the
helper, but I thought it would be nice for users to find them in the man
page.

This list of restrictions is nearly a verbatim copy of the list in
Alexei's commit log for those helpers.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 62369db2 13-Mar-2019 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix documentation for eBPF helpers

Another round of minor fixes for the documentation of the BPF helpers
located in the UAPI bpf.h header file. Changes include:

- Moving around description of some helpers, to keep the descriptions in
the same order as helpers are declared (bpf_map_push_elem(), leftover
from commit 90b1023f68c7 ("bpf: fix documentation for eBPF helpers"),
bpf_rc_keydown(), and bpf_skb_ancestor_cgroup_id()).
- Fixing typos ("contex" -> "context").
- Harmonising return types ("void* " -> "void *", "uint64_t" -> "u64").
- Addition of the "bpf_" prefix to bpf_get_storage().
- Light additions of RST markup on some keywords.
- Empty line deletion between description and return value for
bpf_tcp_sock().
- Edit for the description for bpf_skb_ecn_set_ce() (capital letters,
acronym expansion, no effect if ECT not set, more details on return
value).

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# dbafd7dd 12-Mar-2019 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_get_listener_sock(struct bpf_sock *sk) helper

Add a new helper "struct bpf_sock *bpf_get_listener_sock(struct bpf_sock *sk)"
which returns a bpf_sock in TCP_LISTEN state. It will trace back to
the listener sk from a request_sock if possible. It returns NULL
for all other cases.

No reference is taken because the helper ensures the sk is
in SOCK_RCU_FREE (where the TCP_LISTEN sock should be in).
Hence, bpf_sk_release() is unnecessary and the verifier does not
allow bpf_sk_release(listen_sk) to be called either.

The following is also allowed because the bpf_prog is run under
rcu_read_lock():

sk = bpf_sk_lookup_tcp();
/* if (!sk) { ... } */
listen_sk = bpf_get_listener_sock(sk);
/* if (!listen_sk) { ... } */
bpf_sk_release(sk);
src_port = listen_sk->src_port; /* Allowed */

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# f7c917ba 01-Mar-2019 brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: add bpf helper bpf_skb_ecn_set_ce

This patch adds a new bpf helper BPF_FUNC_skb_ecn_set_ce
"int bpf_skb_ecn_set_ce(struct sk_buff *skb)". It is added to
BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB typed bpf_prog which currently can
be attached to the ingress and egress path. The helper is needed
because his type of bpf_prog cannot modify the skb directly.

This helper is used to set the ECN field of ECN capable IP packets to ce
(congestion encountered) in the IPv6 or IPv4 header of the skb. It can be
used by a bpf_prog to manage egress or ingress network bandwdith limit
per cgroupv2 by inducing an ECN response in the TCP sender.
This works best when using DCTCP.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 5f8f8b93 25-Feb-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: expose program stats via bpf_prog_info

Return bpf program run_time_ns and run_cnt via bpf_prog_info

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Andrii Nakryiko <andriin@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 3e0bd37c 13-Feb-2019 Peter Oskolkov <posk@google.com>

bpf: add plumbing for BPF_LWT_ENCAP_IP in bpf_lwt_push_encap

This patch adds all needed plumbing in preparation to allowing
bpf programs to do IP encapping via bpf_lwt_push_encap. Actual
implementation is added in the next patch in the patchset.

Of note:
- bpf_lwt_push_encap can now be called from BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_XMIT
prog types in addition to BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_IN;
- if the skb being encapped has GSO set, encapsulation is limited
to IPIP/IP+GRE/IP+GUE (both IPv4 and IPv6);
- as route lookups are different for ingress vs egress, the single
external bpf_lwt_push_encap BPF helper is routed internally to
either bpf_lwt_in_push_encap or bpf_lwt_xmit_push_encap BPF_CALLs,
depending on prog type.

v8 changes: fixed a typo.

Signed-off-by: Peter Oskolkov <posk@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 655a51e5 10-Feb-2019 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add struct bpf_tcp_sock and BPF_FUNC_tcp_sock

This patch adds a helper function BPF_FUNC_tcp_sock and it
is currently available for cg_skb and sched_(cls|act):

struct bpf_tcp_sock *bpf_tcp_sock(struct bpf_sock *sk);

int cg_skb_foo(struct __sk_buff *skb) {
struct bpf_tcp_sock *tp;
struct bpf_sock *sk;
__u32 snd_cwnd;

sk = skb->sk;
if (!sk)
return 1;

tp = bpf_tcp_sock(sk);
if (!tp)
return 1;

snd_cwnd = tp->snd_cwnd;
/* ... */

return 1;
}

A 'struct bpf_tcp_sock' is also added to the uapi bpf.h to provide
read-only access. bpf_tcp_sock has all the existing tcp_sock's fields
that has already been exposed by the bpf_sock_ops.
i.e. no new tcp_sock's fields are exposed in bpf.h.

This helper returns a pointer to the tcp_sock. If it is not a tcp_sock
or it cannot be traced back to a tcp_sock by sk_to_full_sk(), it
returns NULL. Hence, the caller needs to check for NULL before
accessing it.

The current use case is to expose members from tcp_sock
to allow a cg_skb_bpf_prog to provide per cgroup traffic
policing/shaping.

Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# aa65d696 10-Feb-2019 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add state, dst_ip4, dst_ip6 and dst_port to bpf_sock

This patch adds "state", "dst_ip4", "dst_ip6" and "dst_port" to the
bpf_sock. The userspace has already been using "state",
e.g. inet_diag (ss -t) and getsockopt(TCP_INFO).

This patch also allows narrow load on the following existing fields:
"family", "type", "protocol" and "src_port". Unlike IP address,
the load offset is resticted to the first byte for them but it
can be relaxed later if there is a use case.

This patch also folds __sock_filter_check_size() into
bpf_sock_is_valid_access() since it is not called
by any where else. All bpf_sock checking is in
one place.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 46f8bc92 10-Feb-2019 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add a bpf_sock pointer to __sk_buff and a bpf_sk_fullsock helper

In kernel, it is common to check "skb->sk && sk_fullsock(skb->sk)"
before accessing the fields in sock. For example, in __netdev_pick_tx:

static u16 __netdev_pick_tx(struct net_device *dev, struct sk_buff *skb,
struct net_device *sb_dev)
{
/* ... */

struct sock *sk = skb->sk;

if (queue_index != new_index && sk &&
sk_fullsock(sk) &&
rcu_access_pointer(sk->sk_dst_cache))
sk_tx_queue_set(sk, new_index);

/* ... */

return queue_index;
}

This patch adds a "struct bpf_sock *sk" pointer to the "struct __sk_buff"
where a few of the convert_ctx_access() in filter.c has already been
accessing the skb->sk sock_common's fields,
e.g. sock_ops_convert_ctx_access().

"__sk_buff->sk" is a PTR_TO_SOCK_COMMON_OR_NULL in the verifier.
Some of the fileds in "bpf_sock" will not be directly
accessible through the "__sk_buff->sk" pointer. It is limited
by the new "bpf_sock_common_is_valid_access()".
e.g. The existing "type", "protocol", "mark" and "priority" in bpf_sock
are not allowed.

The newly added "struct bpf_sock *bpf_sk_fullsock(struct bpf_sock *sk)"
can be used to get a sk with all accessible fields in "bpf_sock".
This helper is added to both cg_skb and sched_(cls|act).

int cg_skb_foo(struct __sk_buff *skb) {
struct bpf_sock *sk;

sk = skb->sk;
if (!sk)
return 1;

sk = bpf_sk_fullsock(sk);
if (!sk)
return 1;

if (sk->family != AF_INET6 || sk->protocol != IPPROTO_TCP)
return 1;

/* some_traffic_shaping(); */

return 1;
}

(1) The sk is read only

(2) There is no new "struct bpf_sock_common" introduced.

(3) Future kernel sock's members could be added to bpf_sock only
instead of repeatedly adding at multiple places like currently
in bpf_sock_ops_md, bpf_sock_addr_md, sk_reuseport_md...etc.

(4) After "sk = skb->sk", the reg holding sk is in type
PTR_TO_SOCK_COMMON_OR_NULL.

(5) After bpf_sk_fullsock(), the return type will be in type
PTR_TO_SOCKET_OR_NULL which is the same as the return type of
bpf_sk_lookup_xxx().

However, bpf_sk_fullsock() does not take refcnt. The
acquire_reference_state() is only depending on the return type now.
To avoid it, a new is_acquire_function() is checked before calling
acquire_reference_state().

(6) The WARN_ON in "release_reference_state()" is no longer an
internal verifier bug.

When reg->id is not found in state->refs[], it means the
bpf_prog does something wrong like
"bpf_sk_release(bpf_sk_fullsock(skb->sk))" where reference has
never been acquired by calling "bpf_sk_fullsock(skb->sk)".

A -EINVAL and a verbose are done instead of WARN_ON. A test is
added to the test_verifier in a later patch.

Since the WARN_ON in "release_reference_state()" is no longer
needed, "__release_reference_state()" is folded into
"release_reference_state()" also.

Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 96049f3a 31-Jan-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_F_LOCK flag

Introduce BPF_F_LOCK flag for map_lookup and map_update syscall commands
and for map_update() helper function.
In all these cases take a lock of existing element (which was provided
in BTF description) before copying (in or out) the rest of map value.

Implementation details that are part of uapi:

Array:
The array map takes the element lock for lookup/update.

Hash:
hash map also takes the lock for lookup/update and tries to avoid the bucket lock.
If old element exists it takes the element lock and updates the element in place.
If element doesn't exist it allocates new one and inserts into hash table
while holding the bucket lock.
In rare case the hashmap has to take both the bucket lock and the element lock
to update old value in place.

Cgroup local storage:
It is similar to array. update in place and lookup are done with lock taken.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# d83525ca 31-Jan-2019 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce bpf_spin_lock

Introduce 'struct bpf_spin_lock' and bpf_spin_lock/unlock() helpers to let
bpf program serialize access to other variables.

Example:
struct hash_elem {
int cnt;
struct bpf_spin_lock lock;
};
struct hash_elem * val = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&hash_map, &key);
if (val) {
bpf_spin_lock(&val->lock);
val->cnt++;
bpf_spin_unlock(&val->lock);
}

Restrictions and safety checks:
- bpf_spin_lock is only allowed inside HASH and ARRAY maps.
- BTF description of the map is mandatory for safety analysis.
- bpf program can take one bpf_spin_lock at a time, since two or more can
cause dead locks.
- only one 'struct bpf_spin_lock' is allowed per map element.
It drastically simplifies implementation yet allows bpf program to use
any number of bpf_spin_locks.
- when bpf_spin_lock is taken the calls (either bpf2bpf or helpers) are not allowed.
- bpf program must bpf_spin_unlock() before return.
- bpf program can access 'struct bpf_spin_lock' only via
bpf_spin_lock()/bpf_spin_unlock() helpers.
- load/store into 'struct bpf_spin_lock lock;' field is not allowed.
- to use bpf_spin_lock() helper the BTF description of map value must be
a struct and have 'struct bpf_spin_lock anyname;' field at the top level.
Nested lock inside another struct is not allowed.
- syscall map_lookup doesn't copy bpf_spin_lock field to user space.
- syscall map_update and program map_update do not update bpf_spin_lock field.
- bpf_spin_lock cannot be on the stack or inside networking packet.
bpf_spin_lock can only be inside HASH or ARRAY map value.
- bpf_spin_lock is available to root only and to all program types.
- bpf_spin_lock is not allowed in inner maps of map-in-map.
- ld_abs is not allowed inside spin_lock-ed region.
- tracing progs and socket filter progs cannot use bpf_spin_lock due to
insufficient preemption checks

Implementation details:
- cgroup-bpf class of programs can nest with xdp/tc programs.
Hence bpf_spin_lock is equivalent to spin_lock_irqsave.
Other solutions to avoid nested bpf_spin_lock are possible.
Like making sure that all networking progs run with softirq disabled.
spin_lock_irqsave is the simplest and doesn't add overhead to the
programs that don't use it.
- arch_spinlock_t is used when its implemented as queued_spin_lock
- archs can force their own arch_spinlock_t
- on architectures where queued_spin_lock is not available and
sizeof(arch_spinlock_t) != sizeof(__u32) trivial lock is used.
- presence of bpf_spin_lock inside map value could have been indicated via
extra flag during map_create, but specifying it via BTF is cleaner.
It provides introspection for map key/value and reduces user mistakes.

Next steps:
- allow bpf_spin_lock in other map types (like cgroup local storage)
- introduce BPF_F_LOCK flag for bpf_map_update() syscall and helper
to request kernel to grab bpf_spin_lock before rewriting the value.
That will serialize access to map elements.

Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# d405c740 25-Jan-2019 Jiong Wang <jiong.wang@netronome.com>

bpf: allocate 0x06 to new eBPF instruction class JMP32

The new eBPF instruction class JMP32 uses the reserved class number 0x6.
Kernel BPF ISA documentation updated accordingly.

Reviewed-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Jiong Wang <jiong.wang@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# d9ff286a 23-Jan-2019 Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>

bpf: allow BPF programs access skb_shared_info->gso_segs field

This adds the ability to read gso_segs from a BPF program.

v3: Use BPF_REG_AX instead of BPF_REG_TMP for the temporary register,
as suggested by Martin.

v2: refined Eddie Hao patch to address Alexei feedback.

Signed-off-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Eddie Hao <eddieh@google.com>
Cc: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 3bdbd022 16-Dec-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sockmap, metadata support for reporting size of msg

This adds metadata to sk_msg_md for BPF programs to read the sk_msg
size.

When the SK_MSG program is running under an application that is using
sendfile the data is not copied into sk_msg buffers by default. Rather
the BPF program uses sk_msg_pull_data to read the bytes in. This
avoids doing the costly memcopy instructions when they are not in
fact needed. However, if we don't know the size of the sk_msg we
have to guess if needed bytes are available by doing a pull request
which may fail. By including the size of the sk_msg BPF programs can
check the size before issuing sk_msg_pull_data requests.

Additionally, the same applies for sendmsg calls when the application
provides multiple iovs. Here the BPF program needs to pull in data
to update data pointers but its not clear where the data ends without
a size parameter. In many cases "guessing" is not easy to do
and results in multiple calls to pull and without bounded loops
everything gets fairly tricky.

Clean this up by including a u32 size field. Note, all writes into
sk_msg_md are rejected already from sk_msg_is_valid_access so nothing
additional is needed there.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 6c4fc209 15-Dec-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: remove useless version check for prog load

Existing libraries and tracing frameworks work around this kernel
version check by automatically deriving the kernel version from
uname(3) or similar such that the user does not need to do it
manually; these workarounds also make the version check useless
at the same time.

Moreover, most other BPF tracing types enabling bpf_probe_read()-like
functionality have /not/ adapted this check, and in general these
days it is well understood anyway that all the tracing programs are
not stable with regards to future kernels as kernel internal data
structures are subject to change from release to release.

Back at last netconf we discussed [0] and agreed to remove this
check from bpf_prog_load() and instead document it here in the uapi
header that there is no such guarantee for stable API for these
programs.

[0] http://vger.kernel.org/netconf2018_files/DanielBorkmann_netconf2018.pdf

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c872bdb3 12-Dec-2018 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: include sub program tags in bpf_prog_info

Changes v2 -> v3:
1. remove check for bpf_dump_raw_ok().

Changes v1 -> v2:
1. Fix error path as Martin suggested.

This patch adds nr_prog_tags and prog_tags to bpf_prog_info. This is a
reliable way for user space to get tags of all sub programs. Before this
patch, user space need to find sub program tags via kallsyms.

This feature will be used in BPF introspection, where user space queries
information about BPF programs via sys_bpf.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 0bd72117 11-Dec-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: fix up uapi helper description and sync bpf header with tools

Minor markup fixup from bpf-next into net-next merge in the BPF helper
description of bpf_sk_lookup_tcp() and bpf_sk_lookup_udp(). Also sync
up the copy of bpf.h from tooling infrastructure.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 11d8b82d 10-Dec-2018 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: rename *_info_cnt to nr_*_info in bpf_prog_info

In uapi bpf.h, currently we have the following fields in
the struct bpf_prog_info:
__u32 func_info_cnt;
__u32 line_info_cnt;
__u32 jited_line_info_cnt;
The above field names "func_info_cnt" and "line_info_cnt"
also appear in union bpf_attr for program loading.

The original intention is to keep the names the same
between bpf_prog_info and bpf_attr
so it will imply what we returned to user space will be
the same as what the user space passed to the kernel.

Such a naming convention in bpf_prog_info is not consistent
with other fields like:
__u32 nr_jited_ksyms;
__u32 nr_jited_func_lens;

This patch made this adjustment so in bpf_prog_info
newly introduced *_info_cnt becomes nr_*_info.

Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 01d3240a 06-Dec-2018 Sean Young <sean@mess.org>

media: bpf: add bpf function to report mouse movement

Some IR remotes have a directional pad or other pointer-like thing that
can be used as a mouse. Make it possible to decode these types of IR
protocols in BPF.

Cc: netdev@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Sean Young <sean@mess.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c454a46b 07-Dec-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add bpf_line_info support

This patch adds bpf_line_info support.

It accepts an array of bpf_line_info objects during BPF_PROG_LOAD.
The "line_info", "line_info_cnt" and "line_info_rec_size" are added
to the "union bpf_attr". The "line_info_rec_size" makes
bpf_line_info extensible in the future.

The new "check_btf_line()" ensures the userspace line_info is valid
for the kernel to use.

When the verifier is translating/patching the bpf_prog (through
"bpf_patch_insn_single()"), the line_infos' insn_off is also
adjusted by the newly added "bpf_adj_linfo()".

If the bpf_prog is jited, this patch also provides the jited addrs (in
aux->jited_linfo) for the corresponding line_info.insn_off.
"bpf_prog_fill_jited_linfo()" is added to fill the aux->jited_linfo.
It is currently called by the x86 jit. Other jits can also use
"bpf_prog_fill_jited_linfo()" and it will be done in the followup patches.
In the future, if it deemed necessary, a particular jit could also provide
its own "bpf_prog_fill_jited_linfo()" implementation.

A few "*line_info*" fields are added to the bpf_prog_info such
that the user can get the xlated line_info back (i.e. the line_info
with its insn_off reflecting the translated prog). The jited_line_info
is available if the prog is jited. It is an array of __u64.
If the prog is not jited, jited_line_info_cnt is 0.

The verifier's verbose log with line_info will be done in
a follow up patch.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# d30d42e0 05-Dec-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Change insn_offset to insn_off in bpf_func_info

The later patch will introduce "struct bpf_line_info" which
has member "line_off" and "file_off" referring back to the
string section in btf. The line_"off" and file_"off"
are more consistent to the naming convention in btf.h that
means "offset" (e.g. name_off in "struct btf_type").

The to-be-added "struct bpf_line_info" also has another
member, "insn_off" which is the same as the "insn_offset"
in "struct bpf_func_info". Hence, this patch renames "insn_offset"
to "insn_off" for "struct bpf_func_info".

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# b5a36b1e 03-Dec-2018 Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>

bpf: respect size hint to BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN if present

Use data_size_out as a size hint when copying test output to user space.
ENOSPC is returned if the output buffer is too small.
Callers which so far did not set data_size_out are not affected.

Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 90b1023f 02-Dec-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix documentation for eBPF helpers

The missing indentation on the "Return" sections for bpf_map_pop_elem()
and bpf_map_peek_elem() helpers break RST and man pages generation. This
patch fixes them, and moves the description of those two helpers towards
the end of the list (even though they are somehow related to the three
first helpers for maps, the man page explicitly states that the helpers
are sorted in chronological order).

While at it, bring other minor formatting edits for eBPF helpers
documentation: mostly blank lines removal, RST formatting, or other
small nits for consistency.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# e3da08d0 02-Dec-2018 Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>

bpf: allow BPF read access to qdisc pkt_len

The pkt_len field in qdisc_skb_cb stores the skb length as it will
appear on the wire after segmentation. For byte accounting, this value
is more accurate than skb->len. It is computed on entry to the TC
layer, so only valid there.

Allow read access to this field from BPF tc classifier and action
programs. The implementation is analogous to tc_classid, aside from
restricting to read access.

To distinguish it from skb->len and self-describe export as wire_len.

Changes v1->v2
- Rename pkt_len to wire_len

Signed-off-by: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Vlad Dumitrescu <vladum@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# e9ee9efc 30-Nov-2018 David Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

bpf: Add BPF_F_ANY_ALIGNMENT.

Often we want to write tests cases that check things like bad context
offset accesses. And one way to do this is to use an odd offset on,
for example, a 32-bit load.

This unfortunately triggers the alignment checks first on platforms
that do not set CONFIG_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS. So the test
case see the alignment failure rather than what it was testing for.

It is often not completely possible to respect the original intention
of the test, or even test the same exact thing, while solving the
alignment issue.

Another option could have been to check the alignment after the
context and other validations are performed by the verifier, but
that is a non-trivial change to the verifier.

Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# d74286d2 30-Nov-2018 Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>

bpf: Improve socket lookup reuseport documentation

Improve the wording around socket lookup for reuseport sockets, and
ensure that both bpf.h headers are in sync.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# f71c6143 30-Nov-2018 Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>

bpf: Support sk lookup in netns with id 0

David Ahern and Nicolas Dichtel report that the handling of the netns id
0 is incorrect for the BPF socket lookup helpers: rather than finding
the netns with id 0, it is resolving to the current netns. This renders
the netns_id 0 inaccessible.

To fix this, adjust the API for the netns to treat all negative s32
values as a lookup in the current netns (including u64 values which when
truncated to s32 become negative), while any values with a positive
value in the signed 32-bit integer space would result in a lookup for a
socket in the netns corresponding to that id. As before, if the netns
with that ID does not exist, no socket will be found. Any netns outside
of these ranges will fail to find a corresponding socket, as those
values are reserved for future usage.

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>
Acked-by: Nicolas Dichtel <nicolas.dichtel@6wind.com>
Acked-by: Joey Pabalinas <joeypabalinas@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# b7df9ada 30-Nov-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: fix pointer offsets in context for 32 bit

Currently, pointer offsets in three BPF context structures are
broken in two scenarios: i) 32 bit compiled applications running
on 64 bit kernels, and ii) LLVM compiled BPF programs running
on 32 bit kernels. The latter is due to BPF target machine being
strictly 64 bit. So in each of the cases the offsets will mismatch
in verifier when checking / rewriting context access. Fix this by
providing a helper macro __bpf_md_ptr() that will enforce padding
up to 64 bit and proper alignment, and for context access a macro
bpf_ctx_range_ptr() which will cover full 64 bit member range on
32 bit archs. For flow_keys, we additionally need to force the
size check to sizeof(__u64) as with other pointer types.

Fixes: d58e468b1112 ("flow_dissector: implements flow dissector BPF hook")
Fixes: 4f738adba30a ("bpf: create tcp_bpf_ulp allowing BPF to monitor socket TX/RX data")
Fixes: 2dbb9b9e6df6 ("bpf: Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT")
Reported-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Tested-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 7246d8ed 26-Nov-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: helper to pop data from messages

This adds a BPF SK_MSG program helper so that we can pop data from a
msg. We use this to pop metadata from a previous push data call.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# f11216b2 22-Nov-2018 Vlad Dumitrescu <vladum@google.com>

bpf: add skb->tstamp r/w access from tc clsact and cg skb progs

This could be used to rate limit egress traffic in concert with a qdisc
which supports Earliest Departure Time, such as FQ.

Write access from cg skb progs only with CAP_SYS_ADMIN, since the value
will be used by downstream qdiscs. It might make sense to relax this.

Changes v1 -> v2:
- allow access from cg skb, write only with CAP_SYS_ADMIN

Signed-off-by: Vlad Dumitrescu <vladum@google.com>
Acked-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Acked-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 838e9690 19-Nov-2018 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_func_info

This patch added interface to load a program with the following
additional information:
. prog_btf_fd
. func_info, func_info_rec_size and func_info_cnt
where func_info will provide function range and type_id
corresponding to each function.

The func_info_rec_size is introduced in the UAPI to specify
struct bpf_func_info size passed from user space. This
intends to make bpf_func_info structure growable in the future.
If the kernel gets a different bpf_func_info size from userspace,
it will try to handle user request with part of bpf_func_info
it can understand. In this patch, kernel can understand
struct bpf_func_info {
__u32 insn_offset;
__u32 type_id;
};
If user passed a bpf func_info record size of 16 bytes, the
kernel can still handle part of records with the above definition.

If verifier agrees with function range provided by the user,
the bpf_prog ksym for each function will use the func name
provided in the type_id, which is supposed to provide better
encoding as it is not limited by 16 bytes program name
limitation and this is better for bpf program which contains
multiple subprograms.

The bpf_prog_info interface is also extended to
return btf_id, func_info, func_info_rec_size and func_info_cnt
to userspace, so userspace can print out the function prototype
for each xlated function. The insn_offset in the returned
func_info corresponds to the insn offset for xlated functions.
With other jit related fields in bpf_prog_info, userspace can also
print out function prototypes for each jited function.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 2f183360 16-Nov-2018 Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>

bpf: move BPF_F_QUERY_EFFECTIVE after map flags

BPF_F_QUERY_EFFECTIVE is in the middle of the flags valid
for BPF_MAP_CREATE. Move it to its own section to reduce confusion.

Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 96b3b6c9 16-Nov-2018 Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>

bpf: allow zero-initializing hash map seed

Add a new flag BPF_F_ZERO_SEED, which forces a hash map
to initialize the seed to zero. This is useful when doing
performance analysis both on individual BPF programs, as
well as the kernel's hash table implementation.

Signed-off-by: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# c8123ead 28-Oct-2018 Nitin Hande <nitin.hande@gmail.com>

bpf: Extend the sk_lookup() helper to XDP hookpoint.

This patch proposes to extend the sk_lookup() BPF API to the
XDP hookpoint. The sk_lookup() helper supports a lookup
on incoming packet to find the corresponding socket that will
receive this packet. Current support for this BPF API is
at the tc hookpoint. This patch will extend this API at XDP
hookpoint. A XDP program can map the incoming packet to the
5-tuple parameter and invoke the API to find the corresponding
socket structure.

Signed-off-by: Nitin Hande <Nitin.Hande@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 6fff607e 19-Oct-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sk_msg program helper bpf_msg_push_data

This allows user to push data into a msg using sk_msg program types.
The format is as follows,

bpf_msg_push_data(msg, offset, len, flags)

this will insert 'len' bytes at offset 'offset'. For example to
prepend 10 bytes at the front of the message the user can,

bpf_msg_push_data(msg, 0, 10, 0);

This will invalidate data bounds so BPF user will have to then recheck
data bounds after calling this. After this the msg size will have been
updated and the user is free to write into the added bytes. We allow
any offset/len as long as it is within the (data, data_end) range.
However, a copy will be required if the ring is full and its possible
for the helper to fail with ENOMEM or EINVAL errors which need to be
handled by the BPF program.

This can be used similar to XDP metadata to pass data between sk_msg
layer and lower layers.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# bd513cd0 18-Oct-2018 Mauricio Vasquez B <mauricio.vasquez@polito.it>

bpf: add MAP_LOOKUP_AND_DELETE_ELEM syscall

The previous patch implemented a bpf queue/stack maps that
provided the peek/pop/push functions. There is not a direct
relationship between those functions and the current maps
syscalls, hence a new MAP_LOOKUP_AND_DELETE_ELEM syscall is added,
this is mapped to the pop operation in the queue/stack maps
and it is still to implement in other kind of maps.

Signed-off-by: Mauricio Vasquez B <mauricio.vasquez@polito.it>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# f1a2e44a 18-Oct-2018 Mauricio Vasquez B <mauricio.vasquez@polito.it>

bpf: add queue and stack maps

Queue/stack maps implement a FIFO/LIFO data storage for ebpf programs.
These maps support peek, pop and push operations that are exposed to eBPF
programs through the new bpf_map[peek/pop/push] helpers. Those operations
are exposed to userspace applications through the already existing
syscalls in the following way:

BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM -> peek
BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_AND_DELETE_ELEM -> pop
BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM -> push

Queue/stack maps are implemented using a buffer, tail and head indexes,
hence BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC is not supported.

As opposite to other maps, queue and stack do not use RCU for protecting
maps values, the bpf_map[peek/pop] have a ARG_PTR_TO_UNINIT_MAP_VALUE
argument that is a pointer to a memory zone where to save the value of a
map. Basically the same as ARG_PTR_TO_UNINIT_MEM, but the size has not
be passed as an extra argument.

Our main motivation for implementing queue/stack maps was to keep track
of a pool of elements, like network ports in a SNAT, however we forsee
other use cases, like for exampling saving last N kernel events in a map
and then analysing from userspace.

Signed-off-by: Mauricio Vasquez B <mauricio.vasquez@polito.it>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# b55cbc8d 17-Oct-2018 Nicolas Dichtel <nicolas.dichtel@6wind.com>

bpf: fix doc of bpf_skb_adjust_room() in uapi

len_diff is signed.

Fixes: fa15601ab31e ("bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (33-41)")
CC: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Nicolas Dichtel <nicolas.dichtel@6wind.com>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 6acc9b43 02-Oct-2018 Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>

bpf: Add helper to retrieve socket in BPF

This patch adds new BPF helper functions, bpf_sk_lookup_tcp() and
bpf_sk_lookup_udp() which allows BPF programs to find out if there is a
socket listening on this host, and returns a socket pointer which the
BPF program can then access to determine, for instance, whether to
forward or drop traffic. bpf_sk_lookup_xxx() may take a reference on the
socket, so when a BPF program makes use of this function, it must
subsequently pass the returned pointer into the newly added sk_release()
to return the reference.

By way of example, the following pseudocode would filter inbound
connections at XDP if there is no corresponding service listening for
the traffic:

struct bpf_sock_tuple tuple;
struct bpf_sock_ops *sk;

populate_tuple(ctx, &tuple); // Extract the 5tuple from the packet
sk = bpf_sk_lookup_tcp(ctx, &tuple, sizeof tuple, netns, 0);
if (!sk) {
// Couldn't find a socket listening for this traffic. Drop.
return TC_ACT_SHOT;
}
bpf_sk_release(sk, 0);
return TC_ACT_OK;

Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <joe@wand.net.nz>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# b741f163 28-Sep-2018 Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>

bpf: introduce per-cpu cgroup local storage

This commit introduced per-cpu cgroup local storage.

Per-cpu cgroup local storage is very similar to simple cgroup storage
(let's call it shared), except all the data is per-cpu.

The main goal of per-cpu variant is to implement super fast
counters (e.g. packet counters), which don't require neither
lookups, neither atomic operations.

>From userspace's point of view, accessing a per-cpu cgroup storage
is similar to other per-cpu map types (e.g. per-cpu hashmaps and
arrays).

Writing to a per-cpu cgroup storage is not atomic, but is performed
by copying longs, so some minimal atomicity is here, exactly
as with other per-cpu maps.

Signed-off-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# d58e468b 14-Sep-2018 Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>

flow_dissector: implements flow dissector BPF hook

Adds a hook for programs of type BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR and
attach type BPF_FLOW_DISSECTOR that is executed in the flow dissector
path. The BPF program is per-network namespace.

Signed-off-by: Petar Penkov <ppenkov@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 77236281 12-Aug-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce bpf_skb_ancestor_cgroup_id helper

== Problem description ==

It's useful to be able to identify cgroup associated with skb in TC so
that a policy can be applied to this skb, and existing bpf_skb_cgroup_id
helper can help with this.

Though in real life cgroup hierarchy and hierarchy to apply a policy to
don't map 1:1.

It's often the case that there is a container and corresponding cgroup,
but there are many more sub-cgroups inside container, e.g. because it's
delegated to containerized application to control resources for its
subsystems, or to separate application inside container from infra that
belongs to containerization system (e.g. sshd).

At the same time it may be useful to apply a policy to container as a
whole.

If multiple containers like this are run on a host (what is often the
case) and many of them have sub-cgroups, it may not be possible to apply
per-container policy in TC with existing helpers such as
bpf_skb_under_cgroup or bpf_skb_cgroup_id:

* bpf_skb_cgroup_id will return id of immediate cgroup associated with
skb, i.e. if it's a sub-cgroup inside container, it can't be used to
identify container's cgroup;

* bpf_skb_under_cgroup can work only with one cgroup and doesn't scale,
i.e. if there are N containers on a host and a policy has to be
applied to M of them (0 <= M <= N), it'd require M calls to
bpf_skb_under_cgroup, and, if M changes, it'd require to rebuild &
load new BPF program.

== Solution ==

The patch introduces new helper bpf_skb_ancestor_cgroup_id that can be
used to get id of cgroup v2 that is an ancestor of cgroup associated
with skb at specified level of cgroup hierarchy.

That way admin can place all containers on one level of cgroup hierarchy
(what is a good practice in general and already used in many
configurations) and identify specific cgroup on this level no matter
what sub-cgroup skb is associated with.

E.g. if there is a cgroup hierarchy:
root/
root/container1/
root/container1/app11/
root/container1/app11/sub-app-a/
root/container1/app12/
root/container2/
root/container2/app21/
root/container2/app22/
root/container2/app22/sub-app-b/

, then having skb associated with root/container1/app11/sub-app-a/ it's
possible to get ancestor at level 1, what is container1 and apply policy
for this container, or apply another policy if it's container2.

Policies can be kept e.g. in a hash map where key is a container cgroup
id and value is an action.

Levels where container cgroups are created are usually known in advance
whether cgroup hierarchy inside container may be hard to predict
especially in case when its creation is delegated to containerized
application.

== Implementation details ==

The helper gets ancestor by walking parents up to specified level.

Another option would be to get different kind of "id" from
cgroup->ancestor_ids[level] and use it with idr_find() to get struct
cgroup for ancestor. But that would require radix lookup what doesn't
seem to be better (at least it's not obviously better).

Format of return value of the new helper is same as that of
bpf_skb_cgroup_id.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 2dbb9b9e 08-Aug-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT

This patch adds a BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT which can select
a SO_REUSEPORT sk from a BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_ARRAY. Like other
non SK_FILTER/CGROUP_SKB program, it requires CAP_SYS_ADMIN.

BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT introduces "struct sk_reuseport_kern"
to store the bpf context instead of using the skb->cb[48].

At the SO_REUSEPORT sk lookup time, it is in the middle of transiting
from a lower layer (ipv4/ipv6) to a upper layer (udp/tcp). At this
point, it is not always clear where the bpf context can be appended
in the skb->cb[48] to avoid saving-and-restoring cb[]. Even putting
aside the difference between ipv4-vs-ipv6 and udp-vs-tcp. It is not
clear if the lower layer is only ipv4 and ipv6 in the future and
will it not touch the cb[] again before transiting to the upper
layer.

For example, in udp_gro_receive(), it uses the 48 byte NAPI_GRO_CB
instead of IP[6]CB and it may still modify the cb[] after calling
the udp[46]_lib_lookup_skb(). Because of the above reason, if
sk->cb is used for the bpf ctx, saving-and-restoring is needed
and likely the whole 48 bytes cb[] has to be saved and restored.

Instead of saving, setting and restoring the cb[], this patch opts
to create a new "struct sk_reuseport_kern" and setting the needed
values in there.

The new BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT and "struct sk_reuseport_(kern|md)"
will serve all ipv4/ipv6 + udp/tcp combinations. There is no protocol
specific usage at this point and it is also inline with the current
sock_reuseport.c implementation (i.e. no protocol specific requirement).

In "struct sk_reuseport_md", this patch exposes data/data_end/len
with semantic similar to other existing usages. Together
with "bpf_skb_load_bytes()" and "bpf_skb_load_bytes_relative()",
the bpf prog can peek anywhere in the skb. The "bind_inany" tells
the bpf prog that the reuseport group is bind-ed to a local
INANY address which cannot be learned from skb.

The new "bind_inany" is added to "struct sock_reuseport" which will be
used when running the new "BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT" bpf prog in order
to avoid repeating the "bind INANY" test on
"sk_v6_rcv_saddr/sk->sk_rcv_saddr" every time a bpf prog is run. It can
only be properly initialized when a "sk->sk_reuseport" enabled sk is
adding to a hashtable (i.e. during "reuseport_alloc()" and
"reuseport_add_sock()").

The new "sk_select_reuseport()" is the main helper that the
bpf prog will use to select a SO_REUSEPORT sk. It is the only function
that can use the new BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_ARRAY. As mentioned in
the earlier patch, the validity of a selected sk is checked in
run time in "sk_select_reuseport()". Doing the check in
verification time is difficult and inflexible (consider the map-in-map
use case). The runtime check is to compare the selected sk's reuseport_id
with the reuseport_id that we want. This helper will return -EXXX if the
selected sk cannot serve the incoming request (e.g. reuseport_id
not match). The bpf prog can decide if it wants to do SK_DROP as its
discretion.

When the bpf prog returns SK_PASS, the kernel will check if a
valid sk has been selected (i.e. "reuse_kern->selected_sk != NULL").
If it does , it will use the selected sk. If not, the kernel
will select one from "reuse->socks[]" (as before this patch).

The SK_DROP and SK_PASS handling logic will be in the next patch.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 5dc4c4b7 08-Aug-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Introduce BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_SOCKARRAY

This patch introduces a new map type BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_SOCKARRAY.

To unleash the full potential of a bpf prog, it is essential for the
userspace to be capable of directly setting up a bpf map which can then
be consumed by the bpf prog to make decision. In this case, decide which
SO_REUSEPORT sk to serve the incoming request.

By adding BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_SOCKARRAY, the userspace has total control
and visibility on where a SO_REUSEPORT sk should be located in a bpf map.
The later patch will introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT such that
the bpf prog can directly select a sk from the bpf map. That will
raise the programmability of the bpf prog attached to a reuseport
group (a group of sk serving the same IP:PORT).

For example, in UDP, the bpf prog can peek into the payload (e.g.
through the "data" pointer introduced in the later patch) to learn
the application level's connection information and then decide which sk
to pick from a bpf map. The userspace can tightly couple the sk's location
in a bpf map with the application logic in generating the UDP payload's
connection information. This connection info contact/API stays within the
userspace.

Also, when used with map-in-map, the userspace can switch the
old-server-process's inner map to a new-server-process's inner map
in one call "bpf_map_update_elem(outer_map, &index, &new_reuseport_array)".
The bpf prog will then direct incoming requests to the new process instead
of the old process. The old process can finish draining the pending
requests (e.g. by "accept()") before closing the old-fds. [Note that
deleting a fd from a bpf map does not necessary mean the fd is closed]

During map_update_elem(),
Only SO_REUSEPORT sk (i.e. which has already been added
to a reuse->socks[]) can be used. That means a SO_REUSEPORT sk that is
"bind()" for UDP or "bind()+listen()" for TCP. These conditions are
ensured in "reuseport_array_update_check()".

A SO_REUSEPORT sk can only be added once to a map (i.e. the
same sk cannot be added twice even to the same map). SO_REUSEPORT
already allows another sk to be created for the same IP:PORT.
There is no need to re-create a similar usage in the BPF side.

When a SO_REUSEPORT is deleted from the "reuse->socks[]" (e.g. "close()"),
it will notify the bpf map to remove it from the map also. It is
done through "bpf_sk_reuseport_detach()" and it will only be called
if >=1 of the "reuse->sock[]" has ever been added to a bpf map.

The map_update()/map_delete() has to be in-sync with the
"reuse->socks[]". Hence, the same "reuseport_lock" used
by "reuse->socks[]" has to be used here also. Care has
been taken to ensure the lock is only acquired when the
adding sk passes some strict tests. and
freeing the map does not require the reuseport_lock.

The reuseport_array will also support lookup from the syscall
side. It will return a sock_gen_cookie(). The sock_gen_cookie()
is on-demand (i.e. a sk's cookie is not generated until the very
first map_lookup_elem()).

The lookup cookie is 64bits but it goes against the logical userspace
expectation on 32bits sizeof(fd) (and as other fd based bpf maps do also).
It may catch user in surprise if we enforce value_size=8 while
userspace still pass a 32bits fd during update. Supporting different
value_size between lookup and update seems unintuitive also.

We also need to consider what if other existing fd based maps want
to return 64bits value from syscall's lookup in the future.
Hence, reuseport_array supports both value_size 4 and 8, and
assuming user will usually use value_size=4. The syscall's lookup
will return ENOSPC on value_size=4. It will will only
return 64bits value from sock_gen_cookie() when user consciously
choose value_size=8 (as a signal that lookup is desired) which then
requires a 64bits value in both lookup and update.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# cd339431 02-Aug-2018 Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>

bpf: introduce the bpf_get_local_storage() helper function

The bpf_get_local_storage() helper function is used
to get a pointer to the bpf local storage from a bpf program.

It takes a pointer to a storage map and flags as arguments.
Right now it accepts only cgroup storage maps, and flags
argument has to be 0. Further it can be extended to support
other types of local storage: e.g. thread local storage etc.

Signed-off-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# de9cbbaa 02-Aug-2018 Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>

bpf: introduce cgroup storage maps

This commit introduces BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_STORAGE maps:
a special type of maps which are implementing the cgroup storage.

>From the userspace point of view it's almost a generic
hash map with the (cgroup inode id, attachment type) pair
used as a key.

The only difference is that some operations are restricted:
1) a user can't create new entries,
2) a user can't remove existing entries.

The lookup from userspace is o(log(n)).

Signed-off-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# d692f113 30-Jul-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Support bpf_get_socket_cookie in more prog types

bpf_get_socket_cookie() helper can be used to identify skb that
correspond to the same socket.

Though socket cookie can be useful in many other use-cases where socket is
available in program context. Specifically BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR
and BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS programs can benefit from it so that one of
them can augment a value in a map prepared earlier by other program for
the same socket.

The patch adds support to call bpf_get_socket_cookie() from
BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR and BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS.

It doesn't introduce new helpers. Instead it reuses same helper name
bpf_get_socket_cookie() but adds support to this helper to accept
`struct bpf_sock_addr` and `struct bpf_sock_ops`.

Documentation in bpf.h is changed in a way that should not break
automatic generation of markdown.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# f333ee0c 11-Jul-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_SOCK_OPS_TCP_LISTEN_CB

Add new TCP-BPF callback that is called on listen(2) right after socket
transition to TCP_LISTEN state.

It fills the gap for listening sockets in TCP-BPF. For example BPF
program can set BPF_SOCK_OPS_STATE_CB_FLAG when socket becomes listening
and track later transition from TCP_LISTEN to TCP_CLOSE with
BPF_SOCK_OPS_STATE_CB callback.

Before there was no way to do it with TCP-BPF and other options were
much harder to work with. E.g. socket state tracking can be done with
tracepoints (either raw or regular) but they can't be attached to cgroup
and their lifetime has to be managed separately.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 2bae79d2 11-Jul-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix documentation for eBPF helpers

Minor formatting edits for eBPF helpers documentation, including blank
lines removal, fix of item list for return values in bpf_fib_lookup(),
and missing prefix on bpf_skb_load_bytes_relative().

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 4c79579b 26-Jun-2018 David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>

bpf: Change bpf_fib_lookup to return lookup status

For ACLs implemented using either FIB rules or FIB entries, the BPF
program needs the FIB lookup status to be able to drop the packet.
Since the bpf_fib_lookup API has not reached a released kernel yet,
change the return code to contain an encoding of the FIB lookup
result and return the nexthop device index in the params struct.

In addition, inform the BPF program of any post FIB lookup reason as
to why the packet needs to go up the stack.

The fib result for unicast routes must have an egress device, so remove
the check that it is non-NULL.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# bd3a08aa 03-Jun-2018 David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>

bpf: flowlabel in bpf_fib_lookup should be flowinfo

As Michal noted the flow struct takes both the flow label and priority.
Update the bpf_fib_lookup API to note that it is flowinfo and not just
the flow label.

Cc: Michal Kubecek <mkubecek@suse.cz>
Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# bf6fa2c8 03-Jun-2018 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: implement bpf_get_current_cgroup_id() helper

bpf has been used extensively for tracing. For example, bcc
contains an almost full set of bpf-based tools to trace kernel
and user functions/events. Most tracing tools are currently
either filtered based on pid or system-wide.

Containers have been used quite extensively in industry and
cgroup is often used together to provide resource isolation
and protection. Several processes may run inside the same
container. It is often desirable to get container-level tracing
results as well, e.g. syscall count, function count, I/O
activity, etc.

This patch implements a new helper, bpf_get_current_cgroup_id(),
which will return cgroup id based on the cgroup within which
the current task is running.

The later patch will provide an example to show that
userspace can get the same cgroup id so it could
configure a filter or policy in the bpf program based on
task cgroup id.

The helper is currently implemented for tracing. It can
be added to other program types as well when needed.

Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 1fbc2e0c 02-Jun-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: make sure to clear unused fields in tunnel/xfrm state fetch

Since the remaining bits are not filled in struct bpf_tunnel_key
resp. struct bpf_xfrm_state and originate from uninitialized stack
space, we should make sure to clear them before handing control
back to the program.

Also add a padding element to struct bpf_xfrm_state for future use
similar as we have in struct bpf_tunnel_key and clear it as well.

struct bpf_xfrm_state {
__u32 reqid; /* 0 4 */
__u32 spi; /* 4 4 */
__u16 family; /* 8 2 */

/* XXX 2 bytes hole, try to pack */

union {
__u32 remote_ipv4; /* 4 */
__u32 remote_ipv6[4]; /* 16 */
}; /* 12 16 */

/* size: 28, cachelines: 1, members: 4 */
/* sum members: 26, holes: 1, sum holes: 2 */
/* last cacheline: 28 bytes */
};

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# cb20b08e 02-Jun-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_skb_cgroup_id helper

Add a new bpf_skb_cgroup_id() helper that allows to retrieve the
cgroup id from the skb's socket. This is useful in particular to
enable bpf_get_cgroup_classid()-like behavior for cgroup v1 in
cgroup v2 by allowing ID based matching on egress. This can in
particular be used in combination with applying policy e.g. from
map lookups, and also complements the older bpf_skb_under_cgroup()
interface. In user space the cgroup id for a given path can be
retrieved through the f_handle as demonstrated in [0] recently.

[0] https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/5/22/1190

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 36f9814a 01-Jun-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: fix uapi hole for 32 bit compat applications

In 64 bit, we have a 4 byte hole between ifindex and netns_dev in the
case of struct bpf_map_info but also struct bpf_prog_info. In net-next
commit b85fab0e67b ("bpf: Add gpl_compatible flag to struct bpf_prog_info")
added a bitfield into it to expose some flags related to programs. Thus,
add an unnamed __u32 bitfield for both so that alignment keeps the same
in both 32 and 64 bit cases, and can be naturally extended from there
as in b85fab0e67b.

Before:

# file test.o
test.o: ELF 32-bit LSB relocatable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), not stripped
# pahole test.o
struct bpf_map_info {
__u32 type; /* 0 4 */
__u32 id; /* 4 4 */
__u32 key_size; /* 8 4 */
__u32 value_size; /* 12 4 */
__u32 max_entries; /* 16 4 */
__u32 map_flags; /* 20 4 */
char name[16]; /* 24 16 */
__u32 ifindex; /* 40 4 */
__u64 netns_dev; /* 44 8 */
__u64 netns_ino; /* 52 8 */

/* size: 64, cachelines: 1, members: 10 */
/* padding: 4 */
};

After (same as on 64 bit):

# file test.o
test.o: ELF 32-bit LSB relocatable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), not stripped
# pahole test.o
struct bpf_map_info {
__u32 type; /* 0 4 */
__u32 id; /* 4 4 */
__u32 key_size; /* 8 4 */
__u32 value_size; /* 12 4 */
__u32 max_entries; /* 16 4 */
__u32 map_flags; /* 20 4 */
char name[16]; /* 24 16 */
__u32 ifindex; /* 40 4 */

/* XXX 4 bytes hole, try to pack */

__u64 netns_dev; /* 48 8 */
__u64 netns_ino; /* 56 8 */
/* --- cacheline 1 boundary (64 bytes) --- */

/* size: 64, cachelines: 1, members: 10 */
/* sum members: 60, holes: 1, sum holes: 4 */
};

Reported-by: Dmitry V. Levin <ldv@altlinux.org>
Reported-by: Eugene Syromiatnikov <esyr@redhat.com>
Fixes: 52775b33bb507 ("bpf: offload: report device information about offloaded maps")
Fixes: 675fc275a3a2d ("bpf: offload: report device information for offloaded programs")
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# f4364dcf 26-May-2018 Sean Young <sean@mess.org>

media: rc: introduce BPF_PROG_LIRC_MODE2

Add support for BPF_PROG_LIRC_MODE2. This type of BPF program can call
rc_keydown() to reported decoded IR scancodes, or rc_repeat() to report
that the last key should be repeated.

The bpf program can be attached to using the bpf(BPF_PROG_ATTACH) syscall;
the target_fd must be the /dev/lircN device.

Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Sean Young <sean@mess.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# fa898d76 29-May-2018 David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>

bpf: Drop mpls from bpf_fib_lookup

MPLS support will not be submitted this dev cycle, but in working on it
I do see a few changes are needed to the API. For now, drop mpls from the
API. Since the fields in question are unions, the mpls fields can be added
back later without affecting the uapi.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 7a279e93 28-May-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: clean up eBPF helpers documentation

These are minor edits for the eBPF helpers documentation in
include/uapi/linux/bpf.h.

The main fix consists in removing "BPF_FIB_LOOKUP_", because it ends
with a non-escaped underscore that gets interpreted by rst2man and
produces the following message in the resulting manual page:

DOCUTILS SYSTEM MESSAGES
System Message: ERROR/3 (/tmp/bpf-helpers.rst:, line 1514)
Unknown target name: "bpf_fib_lookup".

Other edits consist in:

- Improving formatting for flag values for "bpf_fib_lookup()" helper.
- Emphasising a parameter name in description of the return value for
"bpf_get_stack()" helper.
- Removing unnecessary blank lines between "Description" and "Return"
sections for the few helpers that would use it, for consistency.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 1cedee13 25-May-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Hooks for sys_sendmsg

In addition to already existing BPF hooks for sys_bind and sys_connect,
the patch provides new hooks for sys_sendmsg.

It leverages existing BPF program type `BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR`
that provides access to socket itlself (properties like family, type,
protocol) and user-passed `struct sockaddr *` so that BPF program can
override destination IP and port for system calls such as sendto(2) or
sendmsg(2) and/or assign source IP to the socket.

The hooks are implemented as two new attach types:
`BPF_CGROUP_UDP4_SENDMSG` and `BPF_CGROUP_UDP6_SENDMSG` for UDPv4 and
UDPv6 correspondingly.

UDPv4 and UDPv6 separate attach types for same reason as sys_bind and
sys_connect hooks, i.e. to prevent reading from / writing to e.g.
user_ip6 fields when user passes sockaddr_in since it'd be out-of-bound.

The difference with already existing hooks is sys_sendmsg are
implemented only for unconnected UDP.

For TCP it doesn't make sense to change user-provided `struct sockaddr *`
at sendto(2)/sendmsg(2) time since socket either was already connected
and has source/destination set or wasn't connected and call to
sendto(2)/sendmsg(2) would lead to ENOTCONN anyway.

Connected UDP is already handled by sys_connect hooks that can override
source/destination at connect time and use fast-path later, i.e. these
hooks don't affect UDP fast-path.

Rewriting source IP is implemented differently than that in sys_connect
hooks. When sys_sendmsg is used with unconnected UDP it doesn't work to
just bind socket to desired local IP address since source IP can be set
on per-packet basis by using ancillary data (cmsg(3)). So no matter if
socket is bound or not, source IP has to be rewritten on every call to
sys_sendmsg.

To do so two new fields are added to UAPI `struct bpf_sock_addr`;
* `msg_src_ip4` to set source IPv4 for UDPv4;
* `msg_src_ip6` to set source IPv6 for UDPv6.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 41bdc4b4 24-May-2018 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: introduce bpf subcommand BPF_TASK_FD_QUERY

Currently, suppose a userspace application has loaded a bpf program
and attached it to a tracepoint/kprobe/uprobe, and a bpf
introspection tool, e.g., bpftool, wants to show which bpf program
is attached to which tracepoint/kprobe/uprobe. Such attachment
information will be really useful to understand the overall bpf
deployment in the system.

There is a name field (16 bytes) for each program, which could
be used to encode the attachment point. There are some drawbacks
for this approaches. First, bpftool user (e.g., an admin) may not
really understand the association between the name and the
attachment point. Second, if one program is attached to multiple
places, encoding a proper name which can imply all these
attachments becomes difficult.

This patch introduces a new bpf subcommand BPF_TASK_FD_QUERY.
Given a pid and fd, if the <pid, fd> is associated with a
tracepoint/kprobe/uprobe perf event, BPF_TASK_FD_QUERY will return
. prog_id
. tracepoint name, or
. k[ret]probe funcname + offset or kernel addr, or
. u[ret]probe filename + offset
to the userspace.
The user can use "bpftool prog" to find more information about
bpf program itself with prog_id.

Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 004d4b27 20-May-2018 Mathieu Xhonneux <m.xhonneux@gmail.com>

ipv6: sr: Add seg6local action End.BPF

This patch adds the End.BPF action to the LWT seg6local infrastructure.
This action works like any other seg6local End action, meaning that an IPv6
header with SRH is needed, whose DA has to be equal to the SID of the
action. It will also advance the SRH to the next segment, the BPF program
does not have to take care of this.

Since the BPF program may not be a source of instability in the kernel, it
is important to ensure that the integrity of the packet is maintained
before yielding it back to the IPv6 layer. The hook hence keeps track if
the SRH has been altered through the helpers, and re-validates its
content if needed with seg6_validate_srh. The state kept for validation is
stored in a per-CPU buffer. The BPF program is not allowed to directly
write into the packet, and only some fields of the SRH can be altered
through the helper bpf_lwt_seg6_store_bytes.

Performances profiling has shown that the SRH re-validation does not induce
a significant overhead. If the altered SRH is deemed as invalid, the packet
is dropped.

This validation is also done before executing any action through
bpf_lwt_seg6_action, and will not be performed again if the SRH is not
modified after calling the action.

The BPF program may return 3 types of return codes:
- BPF_OK: the End.BPF action will look up the next destination through
seg6_lookup_nexthop.
- BPF_REDIRECT: if an action has been executed through the
bpf_lwt_seg6_action helper, the BPF program should return this
value, as the skb's destination is already set and the default
lookup should not be performed.
- BPF_DROP : the packet will be dropped.

Signed-off-by: Mathieu Xhonneux <m.xhonneux@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David Lebrun <dlebrun@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# fe94cc29 20-May-2018 Mathieu Xhonneux <m.xhonneux@gmail.com>

bpf: Add IPv6 Segment Routing helpers

The BPF seg6local hook should be powerful enough to enable users to
implement most of the use-cases one could think of. After some thinking,
we figured out that the following actions should be possible on a SRv6
packet, requiring 3 specific helpers :
- bpf_lwt_seg6_store_bytes: Modify non-sensitive fields of the SRH
- bpf_lwt_seg6_adjust_srh: Allow to grow or shrink a SRH
(to add/delete TLVs)
- bpf_lwt_seg6_action: Apply some SRv6 network programming actions
(specifically End.X, End.T, End.B6 and
End.B6.Encap)

The specifications of these helpers are provided in the patch (see
include/uapi/linux/bpf.h).

The non-sensitive fields of the SRH are the following : flags, tag and
TLVs. The other fields can not be modified, to maintain the SRH
integrity. Flags, tag and TLVs can easily be modified as their validity
can be checked afterwards via seg6_validate_srh. It is not allowed to
modify the segments directly. If one wants to add segments on the path,
he should stack a new SRH using the End.B6 action via
bpf_lwt_seg6_action.

Growing, shrinking or editing TLVs via the helpers will flag the SRH as
invalid, and it will have to be re-validated before re-entering the IPv6
layer. This flag is stored in a per-CPU buffer, along with the current
header length in bytes.

Storing the SRH len in bytes in the control block is mandatory when using
bpf_lwt_seg6_adjust_srh. The Header Ext. Length field contains the SRH
len rounded to 8 bytes (a padding TLV can be inserted to ensure the 8-bytes
boundary). When adding/deleting TLVs within the BPF program, the SRH may
temporary be in an invalid state where its length cannot be rounded to 8
bytes without remainder, hence the need to store the length in bytes
separately. The caller of the BPF program can then ensure that the SRH's
final length is valid using this value. Again, a final SRH modified by a
BPF program which doesn’t respect the 8-bytes boundary will be discarded
as it will be considered as invalid.

Finally, a fourth helper is provided, bpf_lwt_push_encap, which is
available from the LWT BPF IN hook, but not from the seg6local BPF one.
This helper allows to encapsulate a Segment Routing Header (either with
a new outer IPv6 header, or by inlining it directly in the existing IPv6
header) into a non-SRv6 packet. This helper is required if we want to
offer the possibility to dynamically encapsulate a SRH for non-SRv6 packet,
as the BPF seg6local hook only works on traffic already containing a SRH.
This is the BPF equivalent of the seg6 LWT infrastructure, which achieves
the same purpose but with a static SRH per route.

These helpers require CONFIG_IPV6=y (and not =m).

Signed-off-by: Mathieu Xhonneux <m.xhonneux@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David Lebrun <dlebrun@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 815581c1 23-May-2018 Sandipan Das <sandipan@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

bpf: get JITed image lengths of functions via syscall

This adds new two new fields to struct bpf_prog_info. For
multi-function programs, these fields can be used to pass
a list of the JITed image lengths of each function for a
given program to userspace using the bpf system call with
the BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD command.

This can be used by userspace applications like bpftool
to split up the contiguous JITed dump, also obtained via
the system call, into more relatable chunks corresponding
to each function.

Signed-off-by: Sandipan Das <sandipan@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# dbecd738 23-May-2018 Sandipan Das <sandipan@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

bpf: get kernel symbol addresses via syscall

This adds new two new fields to struct bpf_prog_info. For
multi-function programs, these fields can be used to pass
a list of kernel symbol addresses for all functions in a
given program to userspace using the bpf system call with
the BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD command.

When bpf_jit_kallsyms is enabled, we can get the address
of the corresponding kernel symbol for a callee function
and resolve the symbol's name. The address is determined
by adding the value of the call instruction's imm field
to __bpf_call_base. This offset gets assigned to the imm
field by the verifier.

For some architectures, such as powerpc64, the imm field
is not large enough to hold this offset.

We resolve this by:

[1] Assigning the subprog id to the imm field of a call
instruction in the verifier instead of the offset of
the callee's symbol's address from __bpf_call_base.

[2] Determining the address of a callee's corresponding
symbol by using the imm field as an index for the
list of kernel symbol addresses now available from
the program info.

Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Sandipan Das <sandipan@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 9b2cf328 22-May-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: btf: Rename btf_key_id and btf_value_id in bpf_map_info

In "struct bpf_map_info", the name "btf_id", "btf_key_id" and "btf_value_id"
could cause confusion because the "id" of "btf_id" means the BPF obj id
given to the BTF object while
"btf_key_id" and "btf_value_id" means the BTF type id within
that BTF object.

To make it clear, btf_key_id and btf_value_id are
renamed to btf_key_type_id and btf_value_type_id.

Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 303def35 17-May-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: allow sk_msg programs to read sock fields

Currently sk_msg programs only have access to the raw data. However,
it is often useful when building policies to have the policies specific
to the socket endpoint. This allows using the socket tuple as input
into filters, etc.

This patch adds ctx access to the sock fields.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 81110384 14-May-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sockmap, add hash map support

Sockmap is currently backed by an array and enforces keys to be
four bytes. This works well for many use cases and was originally
modeled after devmap which also uses four bytes keys. However,
this has become limiting in larger use cases where a hash would
be more appropriate. For example users may want to use the 5-tuple
of the socket as the lookup key.

To support this add hash support.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 87f5fc7e 09-May-2018 David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>

bpf: Provide helper to do forwarding lookups in kernel FIB table

Provide a helper for doing a FIB and neighbor lookup in the kernel
tables from an XDP program. The helper provides a fastpath for forwarding
packets. If the packet is a local delivery or for any reason is not a
simple lookup and forward, the packet continues up the stack.

If it is to be forwarded, the forwarding can be done directly if the
neighbor is already known. If the neighbor does not exist, the first
few packets go up the stack for neighbor resolution. Once resolved, the
xdp program provides the fast path.

On successful lookup the nexthop dmac, current device smac and egress
device index are returned.

The API supports IPv4, IPv6 and MPLS protocols, but only IPv4 and IPv6
are implemented in this patch. The API includes layer 4 parameters if
the XDP program chooses to do deep packet inspection to allow compare
against ACLs implemented as FIB rules.

Header rewrite is left to the XDP program.

The lookup takes 2 flags:
- BPF_FIB_LOOKUP_DIRECT to do a lookup that bypasses FIB rules and goes
straight to the table associated with the device (expert setting for
those looking to maximize throughput)

- BPF_FIB_LOOKUP_OUTPUT to do a lookup from the egress perspective.
Default is an ingress lookup.

Initial performance numbers collected by Jesper, forwarded packets/sec:

Full stack XDP FIB lookup XDP Direct lookup
IPv4 1,947,969 7,074,156 7,415,333
IPv6 1,728,000 6,165,504 7,262,720

These number are single CPU core forwarding on a Broadwell
E5-1650 v4 @ 3.60GHz.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 62dab84c 04-May-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: btf: Add struct bpf_btf_info

During BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD on a btf_fd, the current bpf_attr's
info.info is directly filled with the BTF binary data. It is
not extensible. In this case, we want to add BTF ID.

This patch adds "struct bpf_btf_info" which has the BTF ID as
one of its member. The BTF binary data itself is exposed through
the "btf" and "btf_size" members.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 78958fca 04-May-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: btf: Introduce BTF ID

This patch gives an ID to each loaded BTF. The ID is allocated by
the idr like the existing prog-id and map-id.

The bpf_put(map->btf) is moved to __bpf_map_put() so that the
userspace can stop seeing the BTF ID ASAP when the last BTF
refcnt is gone.

It also makes BTF accessible from userspace through the
1. new BPF_BTF_GET_FD_BY_ID command. It is limited to CAP_SYS_ADMIN
which is inline with the BPF_BTF_LOAD cmd and the existing
BPF_[MAP|PROG]_GET_FD_BY_ID cmd.
2. new btf_id (and btf_key_id + btf_value_id) in "struct bpf_map_info"

Once the BTF ID handler is accessible from userspace, freeing a BTF
object has to go through a rcu period. The BPF_BTF_GET_FD_BY_ID cmd
can then be done under a rcu_read_lock() instead of taking
spin_lock.
[Note: A similar rcu usage can be done to the existing
bpf_prog_get_fd_by_id() in a follow up patch]

When processing the BPF_BTF_GET_FD_BY_ID cmd,
refcount_inc_not_zero() is needed because the BTF object
could be already in the rcu dead row . btf_get() is
removed since its usage is currently limited to btf.c
alone. refcount_inc() is used directly instead.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 4e1ec56c 03-May-2018 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add skb_load_bytes_relative helper

This adds a small BPF helper similar to bpf_skb_load_bytes() that
is able to load relative to mac/net header offset from the skb's
linear data. Compared to bpf_skb_load_bytes(), it takes a fifth
argument namely start_header, which is either BPF_HDR_START_MAC
or BPF_HDR_START_NET. This allows for a more flexible alternative
compared to LD_ABS/LD_IND with negative offset. It's enabled for
tc BPF programs as well as sock filter program types where it's
mainly useful in reuseport programs to ease access to lower header
data.

Reference: https://lists.iovisor.org/pipermail/iovisor-dev/2017-March/000698.html
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# fbfc504a 02-May-2018 Björn Töpel <bjorn@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce new bpf AF_XDP map type BPF_MAP_TYPE_XSKMAP

The xskmap is yet another BPF map, very much inspired by
dev/cpu/sockmap, and is a holder of AF_XDP sockets. A user application
adds AF_XDP sockets into the map, and by using the bpf_redirect_map
helper, an XDP program can redirect XDP frames to an AF_XDP socket.

Note that a socket that is bound to certain ifindex/queue index will
*only* accept XDP frames from that netdev/queue index. If an XDP
program tries to redirect from a netdev/queue index other than what
the socket is bound to, the frame will not be received on the socket.

A socket can reside in multiple maps.

v3: Fixed race and simplified code.
v2: Removed one indirection in map lookup.

Signed-off-by: Björn Töpel <bjorn.topel@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 79552fbc 30-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix formatting for bpf_get_stack() helper doc

Fix formatting (indent) for bpf_get_stack() helper documentation, so
that the doc is rendered correctly with the Python script.

Fixes: c195651e565a ("bpf: add bpf_get_stack helper")
Cc: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 3bd5a09b 30-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: fix formatting for bpf_perf_event_read() helper doc

Some edits brought to the last iteration of BPF helper functions
documentation introduced an error with RST formatting. As a result, most
of one paragraph is rendered in bold text when only the name of a helper
should be. Fix it, and fix formatting of another function name in the
same paragraph.

Fixes: c6b5fb8690fa ("bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (42-50)")
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# a3ef8e9a 28-Apr-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Fix helpers ctx struct types in uapi doc

Helpers may operate on two types of ctx structures: user visible ones
(e.g. `struct bpf_sock_ops`) when used in user programs, and kernel ones
(e.g. `struct bpf_sock_ops_kern`) in kernel implementation.

UAPI documentation must refer to only user visible structures.

The patch replaces references to `_kern` structures in BPF helpers
description by corresponding user visible structures.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# c195651e 28-Apr-2018 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: add bpf_get_stack helper

Currently, stackmap and bpf_get_stackid helper are provided
for bpf program to get the stack trace. This approach has
a limitation though. If two stack traces have the same hash,
only one will get stored in the stackmap table,
so some stack traces are missing from user perspective.

This patch implements a new helper, bpf_get_stack, will
send stack traces directly to bpf program. The bpf program
is able to see all stack traces, and then can do in-kernel
processing or send stack traces to user space through
shared map or bpf_perf_event_output.

Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 2d020dd7 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (65-66)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions:

Helper from Nikita:
- bpf_xdp_adjust_tail()

Helper from Eyal:
- bpf_skb_get_xfrm_state()

v4:
- New patch (helpers did not exist yet for previous versions).

Cc: Nikita V. Shirokov <tehnerd@tehnerd.com>
Cc: Eyal Birger <eyal.birger@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# ab127040 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (58-64)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions, all
written by John:

- bpf_redirect_map()
- bpf_sk_redirect_map()
- bpf_sock_map_update()
- bpf_msg_redirect_map()
- bpf_msg_apply_bytes()
- bpf_msg_cork_bytes()
- bpf_msg_pull_data()

v4:
- bpf_redirect_map(): Fix typos: "XDP_ABORT" changed to "XDP_ABORTED",
"his" to "this". Also add a paragraph on performance improvement over
bpf_redirect() helper.

v3:
- bpf_sk_redirect_map(): Improve description of BPF_F_INGRESS flag.
- bpf_msg_redirect_map(): Improve description of BPF_F_INGRESS flag.
- bpf_redirect_map(): Fix note on CPU redirection, not fully implemented
for generic XDP but supported on native XDP.
- bpf_msg_pull_data(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.

Cc: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Cc: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 7aa79a86 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (51-57)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions:

Helpers from Lawrence:
- bpf_setsockopt()
- bpf_getsockopt()
- bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags_set()

Helpers from Yonghong:
- bpf_perf_event_read_value()
- bpf_perf_prog_read_value()

Helper from Josef:
- bpf_override_return()

Helper from Andrey:
- bpf_bind()

v4:
- bpf_perf_event_read_value(): State that this helper should be
preferred over bpf_perf_event_read().

v3:
- bpf_perf_event_read_value(): Fix time of selection for perf event type
in description. Remove occurences of "cores" to avoid confusion with
"CPU".
- bpf_bind(): Remove last paragraph of description, which was off topic.

Cc: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Cc: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Cc: Josef Bacik <jbacik@fb.com>
Cc: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
[for bpf_perf_event_read_value(), bpf_perf_prog_read_value()]
Acked-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
[for bpf_bind()]
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# c6b5fb86 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (42-50)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions:

Helper from Kaixu:
- bpf_perf_event_read()

Helpers from Martin:
- bpf_skb_under_cgroup()
- bpf_xdp_adjust_head()

Helpers from Sargun:
- bpf_probe_write_user()
- bpf_current_task_under_cgroup()

Helper from Thomas:
- bpf_skb_change_head()

Helper from Gianluca:
- bpf_probe_read_str()

Helpers from Chenbo:
- bpf_get_socket_cookie()
- bpf_get_socket_uid()

v4:
- bpf_perf_event_read(): State that bpf_perf_event_read_value() should
be preferred over this helper.
- bpf_skb_change_head(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_xdp_adjust_head(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_probe_write_user(): Add that dst must be a valid user space
address.
- bpf_get_socket_cookie(): Improve description by making clearer that
the cockie belongs to the socket, and state that it remains stable for
the life of the socket.

v3:
- bpf_perf_event_read(): Fix time of selection for perf event type in
description. Remove occurences of "cores" to avoid confusion with
"CPU".

Cc: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: Sargun Dhillon <sargun@sargun.me>
Cc: Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>
Cc: Gianluca Borello <g.borello@gmail.com>
Cc: Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
[for bpf_skb_under_cgroup(), bpf_xdp_adjust_head()]
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# fa15601a 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (33-41)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions, all
written by Daniel:

- bpf_get_hash_recalc()
- bpf_skb_change_tail()
- bpf_skb_pull_data()
- bpf_csum_update()
- bpf_set_hash_invalid()
- bpf_get_numa_node_id()
- bpf_set_hash()
- bpf_skb_adjust_room()
- bpf_xdp_adjust_meta()

v4:
- bpf_skb_change_tail(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_skb_pull_data(): Clarify the motivation for using this helper or
bpf_skb_load_bytes(), on non-linear buffers. Fix RST formatting for
*skb*. Clarify comment about invalidated verifier checks.
- bpf_csum_update(): Fix description of checksum (entire packet, not IP
checksum). Fix a typo: "header" instead of "helper".
- bpf_set_hash_invalid(): Mention bpf_get_hash_recalc().
- bpf_get_numa_node_id(): State that the helper is not restricted to
programs attached to sockets.
- bpf_skb_adjust_room(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_xdp_adjust_meta(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.

Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 1fdd08be 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (23-32)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions, all
written by Daniel:

- bpf_get_prandom_u32()
- bpf_get_smp_processor_id()
- bpf_get_cgroup_classid()
- bpf_get_route_realm()
- bpf_skb_load_bytes()
- bpf_csum_diff()
- bpf_skb_get_tunnel_opt()
- bpf_skb_set_tunnel_opt()
- bpf_skb_change_proto()
- bpf_skb_change_type()

v4:
- bpf_get_prandom_u32(): Warn that the prng is not cryptographically
secure.
- bpf_get_smp_processor_id(): Fix a typo (case).
- bpf_get_cgroup_classid(): Clarify description. Add notes on the helper
being limited to cgroup v1, and to egress path.
- bpf_get_route_realm(): Add comparison with bpf_get_cgroup_classid().
Add a note about usage with TC and advantage of clsact. Fix a typo in
return value ("sdb" instead of "skb").
- bpf_skb_load_bytes(): Make explicit loading large data loads it to the
eBPF stack.
- bpf_csum_diff(): Add a note on seed that can be cascaded. Link to
bpf_l3|l4_csum_replace().
- bpf_skb_get_tunnel_opt(): Add a note about usage with "collect
metadata" mode, and example of this with Geneve.
- bpf_skb_set_tunnel_opt(): Add a link to bpf_skb_get_tunnel_opt()
description.
- bpf_skb_change_proto(): Mention that the main use case is NAT64.
Clarify comment about invalidated verifier checks.

v3:
- bpf_get_prandom_u32(): Fix helper name :(. Add description, including
a note on the internal random state.
- bpf_get_smp_processor_id(): Add description, including a note on the
processor id remaining stable during program run.
- bpf_get_cgroup_classid(): State that CONFIG_CGROUP_NET_CLASSID is
required to use the helper. Add a reference to related documentation.
State that placing a task in net_cls controller disables cgroup-bpf.
- bpf_get_route_realm(): State that CONFIG_CGROUP_NET_CLASSID is
required to use this helper.
- bpf_skb_load_bytes(): Fix comment on current use cases for the helper.

Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# c456dec4 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (12-22)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions, all
written by Alexei:

- bpf_get_current_pid_tgid()
- bpf_get_current_uid_gid()
- bpf_get_current_comm()
- bpf_skb_vlan_push()
- bpf_skb_vlan_pop()
- bpf_skb_get_tunnel_key()
- bpf_skb_set_tunnel_key()
- bpf_redirect()
- bpf_perf_event_output()
- bpf_get_stackid()
- bpf_get_current_task()

v4:
- bpf_redirect(): Fix typo: "XDP_ABORT" changed to "XDP_ABORTED". Add
note on bpf_redirect_map() providing better performance. Replace "Save
for" with "Except for".
- bpf_skb_vlan_push(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_skb_vlan_pop(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_skb_get_tunnel_key(): Add notes on tunnel_id, "collect metadata"
mode, and example tunneling protocols with which it can be used.
- bpf_skb_set_tunnel_key(): Add a reference to the description of
bpf_skb_get_tunnel_key().
- bpf_perf_event_output(): Specify that, and for what purpose, the
helper can be used with programs attached to TC and XDP.

v3:
- bpf_skb_get_tunnel_key(): Change and improve description and example.
- bpf_redirect(): Improve description of BPF_F_INGRESS flag.
- bpf_perf_event_output(): Fix first sentence of description. Delete
wrong statement on context being evaluated as a struct pt_reg. Remove
the long yet incomplete example.
- bpf_get_stackid(): Add a note about PERF_MAX_STACK_DEPTH being
configurable.

Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# ad4a5223 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add documentation for eBPF helpers (01-11)

Add documentation for eBPF helper functions to bpf.h user header file.
This documentation can be parsed with the Python script provided in
another commit of the patch series, in order to provide a RST document
that can later be converted into a man page.

The objective is to make the documentation easily understandable and
accessible to all eBPF developers, including beginners.

This patch contains descriptions for the following helper functions, all
written by Alexei:

- bpf_map_lookup_elem()
- bpf_map_update_elem()
- bpf_map_delete_elem()
- bpf_probe_read()
- bpf_ktime_get_ns()
- bpf_trace_printk()
- bpf_skb_store_bytes()
- bpf_l3_csum_replace()
- bpf_l4_csum_replace()
- bpf_tail_call()
- bpf_clone_redirect()

v4:
- bpf_map_lookup_elem(): Add "const" qualifier for key.
- bpf_map_update_elem(): Add "const" qualifier for key and value.
- bpf_map_lookup_elem(): Add "const" qualifier for key.
- bpf_skb_store_bytes(): Clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.
- bpf_l3_csum_replace(): Mention L3 instead of just IP, and add a note
about bpf_csum_diff().
- bpf_l4_csum_replace(): Mention L4 instead of just TCP/UDP, and add a
note about bpf_csum_diff().
- bpf_tail_call(): Bring minor edits to description.
- bpf_clone_redirect(): Add a note about the relation with
bpf_redirect(). Also clarify comment about invalidated verifier
checks.

v3:
- bpf_map_lookup_elem(): Fix description of restrictions for flags
related to the existence of the entry.
- bpf_trace_printk(): State that trace_pipe can be configured. Fix
return value in case an unknown format specifier is met. Add a note on
kernel log notice when the helper is used. Edit example.
- bpf_tail_call(): Improve comment on stack inheritance.
- bpf_clone_redirect(): Improve description of BPF_F_INGRESS flag.

Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 56a092c8 25-Apr-2018 Quentin Monnet <quentin@isovalent.com>

bpf: add script and prepare bpf.h for new helpers documentation

Remove previous "overview" of eBPF helpers from user bpf.h header.
Replace it by a comment explaining how to process the new documentation
(to come in following patches) with a Python script to produce RST, then
man page documentation.

Also add the aforementioned Python script under scripts/. It is used to
process include/uapi/linux/bpf.h and to extract helper descriptions, to
turn it into a RST document that can further be processed with rst2man
to produce a man page. The script takes one "--filename <path/to/file>"
option. If the script is launched from scripts/ in the kernel root
directory, it should be able to find the location of the header to
parse, and "--filename <path/to/file>" is then optional. If it cannot
find the file, then the option becomes mandatory. RST-formatted
documentation is printed to standard output.

Typical workflow for producing the final man page would be:

$ ./scripts/bpf_helpers_doc.py \
--filename include/uapi/linux/bpf.h > /tmp/bpf-helpers.rst
$ rst2man /tmp/bpf-helpers.rst > /tmp/bpf-helpers.7
$ man /tmp/bpf-helpers.7

Note that the tool kernel-doc cannot be used to document eBPF helpers,
whose signatures are not available directly in the header files
(pre-processor directives are used to produce them at the beginning of
the compilation process).

v4:
- Also remove overviews for newly added bpf_xdp_adjust_tail() and
bpf_skb_get_xfrm_state().
- Remove vague statement about what helpers are restricted to GPL
programs in "LICENSE" section for man page footer.
- Replace license boilerplate with SPDX tag for Python script.

v3:
- Change license for man page.
- Remove "for safety reasons" from man page header text.
- Change "packets metadata" to "packets" in man page header text.
- Move and fix comment on helpers introducing no overhead.
- Remove "NOTES" section from man page footer.
- Add "LICENSE" section to man page footer.
- Edit description of file include/uapi/linux/bpf.h in man page footer.

Signed-off-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# b85fab0e 25-Apr-2018 Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>

bpf: Add gpl_compatible flag to struct bpf_prog_info

Adding gpl_compatible flag to struct bpf_prog_info
so it can be dumped via bpf_prog_get_info_by_fd and
displayed via bpftool progs dump.

Alexei noticed 4-byte hole in struct bpf_prog_info,
so we put the u32 flags field in there, and we can
keep adding bit fields in there without breaking
user space.

Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 12bed760 24-Apr-2018 Eyal Birger <eyal.birger@gmail.com>

bpf: add helper for getting xfrm states

This commit introduces a helper which allows fetching xfrm state
parameters by eBPF programs attached to TC.

Prototype:
bpf_skb_get_xfrm_state(skb, index, xfrm_state, size, flags)

skb: pointer to skb
index: the index in the skb xfrm_state secpath array
xfrm_state: pointer to 'struct bpf_xfrm_state'
size: size of 'struct bpf_xfrm_state'
flags: reserved for future extensions

The helper returns 0 on success. Non zero if no xfrm state at the index
is found - or non exists at all.

struct bpf_xfrm_state currently includes the SPI, peer IPv4/IPv6
address and the reqid; it can be further extended by adding elements to
its end - indicating the populated fields by the 'size' argument -
keeping backwards compatibility.

Typical usage:

struct bpf_xfrm_state x = {};
bpf_skb_get_xfrm_state(skb, 0, &x, sizeof(x), 0);
...

Signed-off-by: Eyal Birger <eyal.birger@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# a26ca7c9 18-Apr-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: btf: Add pretty print support to the basic arraymap

This patch adds pretty print support to the basic arraymap.
Support for other bpf maps can be added later.

This patch adds new attrs to the BPF_MAP_CREATE command to allow
specifying the btf_fd, btf_key_id and btf_value_id. The
BPF_MAP_CREATE can then associate the btf to the map if
the creating map supports BTF.

A BTF supported map needs to implement two new map ops,
map_seq_show_elem() and map_check_btf(). This patch has
implemented these new map ops for the basic arraymap.

It also adds file_operations, bpffs_map_fops, to the pinned
map such that the pinned map can be opened and read.
After that, the user has an intuitive way to do
"cat bpffs/pathto/a-pinned-map" instead of getting
an error.

bpffs_map_fops should not be extended further to support
other operations. Other operations (e.g. write/key-lookup...)
should be realized by the userspace tools (e.g. bpftool) through
the BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD, map's lookup/update interface...etc.
Follow up patches will allow the userspace to obtain
the BTF from a map-fd.

Here is a sample output when reading a pinned arraymap
with the following map's value:

struct map_value {
int count_a;
int count_b;
};

cat /sys/fs/bpf/pinned_array_map:

0: {1,2}
1: {3,4}
2: {5,6}
...

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# f56a653c 18-Apr-2018 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: btf: Add BPF_BTF_LOAD command

This patch adds a BPF_BTF_LOAD command which
1) loads and verifies the BTF (implemented in earlier patches)
2) returns a BTF fd to userspace. In the next patch, the
BTF fd can be specified during BPF_MAP_CREATE.

It currently limits to CAP_SYS_ADMIN.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# b32cc5b9 17-Apr-2018 Nikita V. Shirokov <tehnerd@tehnerd.com>

bpf: adding bpf_xdp_adjust_tail helper

Adding new bpf helper which would allow us to manipulate
xdp's data_end pointer, and allow us to reduce packet's size
indended use case: to generate ICMP messages from XDP context,
where such message would contain truncated original packet.

Signed-off-by: Nikita V. Shirokov <tehnerd@tehnerd.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# aac3fc32 30-Mar-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Post-hooks for sys_bind

"Post-hooks" are hooks that are called right before returning from
sys_bind. At this time IP and port are already allocated and no further
changes to `struct sock` can happen before returning from sys_bind but
BPF program has a chance to inspect the socket and change sys_bind
result.

Specifically it can e.g. inspect what port was allocated and if it
doesn't satisfy some policy, BPF program can force sys_bind to fail and
return EPERM to user.

Another example of usage is recording the IP:port pair to some map to
use it in later calls to sys_connect. E.g. if some TCP server inside
cgroup was bound to some IP:port_n, it can be recorded to a map. And
later when some TCP client inside same cgroup is trying to connect to
127.0.0.1:port_n, BPF hook for sys_connect can override the destination
and connect application to IP:port_n instead of 127.0.0.1:port_n. That
helps forcing all applications inside a cgroup to use desired IP and not
break those applications if they e.g. use localhost to communicate
between each other.

== Implementation details ==

Post-hooks are implemented as two new attach types
`BPF_CGROUP_INET4_POST_BIND` and `BPF_CGROUP_INET6_POST_BIND` for
existing prog type `BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK`.

Separate attach types for IPv4 and IPv6 are introduced to avoid access
to IPv6 field in `struct sock` from `inet_bind()` and to IPv4 field from
`inet6_bind()` since those fields might not make sense in such cases.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# d74bad4e 30-Mar-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Hooks for sys_connect

== The problem ==

See description of the problem in the initial patch of this patch set.

== The solution ==

The patch provides much more reliable in-kernel solution for the 2nd
part of the problem: making outgoing connecttion from desired IP.

It adds new attach types `BPF_CGROUP_INET4_CONNECT` and
`BPF_CGROUP_INET6_CONNECT` for program type
`BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR` that can be used to override both
source and destination of a connection at connect(2) time.

Local end of connection can be bound to desired IP using newly
introduced BPF-helper `bpf_bind()`. It allows to bind to only IP though,
and doesn't support binding to port, i.e. leverages
`IP_BIND_ADDRESS_NO_PORT` socket option. There are two reasons for this:
* looking for a free port is expensive and can affect performance
significantly;
* there is no use-case for port.

As for remote end (`struct sockaddr *` passed by user), both parts of it
can be overridden, remote IP and remote port. It's useful if an
application inside cgroup wants to connect to another application inside
same cgroup or to itself, but knows nothing about IP assigned to the
cgroup.

Support is added for IPv4 and IPv6, for TCP and UDP.

IPv4 and IPv6 have separate attach types for same reason as sys_bind
hooks, i.e. to prevent reading from / writing to e.g. user_ip6 fields
when user passes sockaddr_in since it'd be out-of-bound.

== Implementation notes ==

The patch introduces new field in `struct proto`: `pre_connect` that is
a pointer to a function with same signature as `connect` but is called
before it. The reason is in some cases BPF hooks should be called way
before control is passed to `sk->sk_prot->connect`. Specifically
`inet_dgram_connect` autobinds socket before calling
`sk->sk_prot->connect` and there is no way to call `bpf_bind()` from
hooks from e.g. `ip4_datagram_connect` or `ip6_datagram_connect` since
it'd cause double-bind. On the other hand `proto.pre_connect` provides a
flexible way to add BPF hooks for connect only for necessary `proto` and
call them at desired time before `connect`. Since `bpf_bind()` is
allowed to bind only to IP and autobind in `inet_dgram_connect` binds
only port there is no chance of double-bind.

bpf_bind() sets `force_bind_address_no_port` to bind to only IP despite
of value of `bind_address_no_port` socket field.

bpf_bind() sets `with_lock` to `false` when calling to __inet_bind()
and __inet6_bind() since all call-sites, where bpf_bind() is called,
already hold socket lock.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 4fbac77d 30-Mar-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Hooks for sys_bind

== The problem ==

There is a use-case when all processes inside a cgroup should use one
single IP address on a host that has multiple IP configured. Those
processes should use the IP for both ingress and egress, for TCP and UDP
traffic. So TCP/UDP servers should be bound to that IP to accept
incoming connections on it, and TCP/UDP clients should make outgoing
connections from that IP. It should not require changing application
code since it's often not possible.

Currently it's solved by intercepting glibc wrappers around syscalls
such as `bind(2)` and `connect(2)`. It's done by a shared library that
is preloaded for every process in a cgroup so that whenever TCP/UDP
server calls `bind(2)`, the library replaces IP in sockaddr before
passing arguments to syscall. When application calls `connect(2)` the
library transparently binds the local end of connection to that IP
(`bind(2)` with `IP_BIND_ADDRESS_NO_PORT` to avoid performance penalty).

Shared library approach is fragile though, e.g.:
* some applications clear env vars (incl. `LD_PRELOAD`);
* `/etc/ld.so.preload` doesn't help since some applications are linked
with option `-z nodefaultlib`;
* other applications don't use glibc and there is nothing to intercept.

== The solution ==

The patch provides much more reliable in-kernel solution for the 1st
part of the problem: binding TCP/UDP servers on desired IP. It does not
depend on application environment and implementation details (whether
glibc is used or not).

It adds new eBPF program type `BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR` and
attach types `BPF_CGROUP_INET4_BIND` and `BPF_CGROUP_INET6_BIND`
(similar to already existing `BPF_CGROUP_INET_SOCK_CREATE`).

The new program type is intended to be used with sockets (`struct sock`)
in a cgroup and provided by user `struct sockaddr`. Pointers to both of
them are parts of the context passed to programs of newly added types.

The new attach types provides hooks in `bind(2)` system call for both
IPv4 and IPv6 so that one can write a program to override IP addresses
and ports user program tries to bind to and apply such a program for
whole cgroup.

== Implementation notes ==

[1]
Separate attach types for `AF_INET` and `AF_INET6` are added
intentionally to prevent reading/writing to offsets that don't make
sense for corresponding socket family. E.g. if user passes `sockaddr_in`
it doesn't make sense to read from / write to `user_ip6[]` context
fields.

[2]
The write access to `struct bpf_sock_addr_kern` is implemented using
special field as an additional "register".

There are just two registers in `sock_addr_convert_ctx_access`: `src`
with value to write and `dst` with pointer to context that can't be
changed not to break later instructions. But the fields, allowed to
write to, are not available directly and to access them address of
corresponding pointer has to be loaded first. To get additional register
the 1st not used by `src` and `dst` one is taken, its content is saved
to `bpf_sock_addr_kern.tmp_reg`, then the register is used to load
address of pointer field, and finally the register's content is restored
from the temporary field after writing `src` value.

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 5e43f899 30-Mar-2018 Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>

bpf: Check attach type at prog load time

== The problem ==

There are use-cases when a program of some type can be attached to
multiple attach points and those attach points must have different
permissions to access context or to call helpers.

E.g. context structure may have fields for both IPv4 and IPv6 but it
doesn't make sense to read from / write to IPv6 field when attach point
is somewhere in IPv4 stack.

Same applies to BPF-helpers: it may make sense to call some helper from
some attach point, but not from other for same prog type.

== The solution ==

Introduce `expected_attach_type` field in in `struct bpf_attr` for
`BPF_PROG_LOAD` command. If scenario described in "The problem" section
is the case for some prog type, the field will be checked twice:

1) At load time prog type is checked to see if attach type for it must
be known to validate program permissions correctly. Prog will be
rejected with EINVAL if it's the case and `expected_attach_type` is
not specified or has invalid value.

2) At attach time `attach_type` is compared with `expected_attach_type`,
if prog type requires to have one, and, if they differ, attach will
be rejected with EINVAL.

The `expected_attach_type` is now available as part of `struct bpf_prog`
in both `bpf_verifier_ops->is_valid_access()` and
`bpf_verifier_ops->get_func_proto()` () and can be used to check context
accesses and calls to helpers correspondingly.

Initially the idea was discussed by Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com> and
Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net> here:
https://marc.info/?l=linux-netdev&m=152107378717201&w=2

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ignatov <rdna@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# c4f6699d 28-Mar-2018 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_RAW_TRACEPOINT

Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT bpf program type to access
kernel internal arguments of the tracepoints in their raw form.

>From bpf program point of view the access to the arguments look like:
struct bpf_raw_tracepoint_args {
__u64 args[0];
};

int bpf_prog(struct bpf_raw_tracepoint_args *ctx)
{
// program can read args[N] where N depends on tracepoint
// and statically verified at program load+attach time
}

kprobe+bpf infrastructure allows programs access function arguments.
This feature allows programs access raw tracepoint arguments.

Similar to proposed 'dynamic ftrace events' there are no abi guarantees
to what the tracepoints arguments are and what their meaning is.
The program needs to type cast args properly and use bpf_probe_read()
helper to access struct fields when argument is a pointer.

For every tracepoint __bpf_trace_##call function is prepared.
In assembler it looks like:
(gdb) disassemble __bpf_trace_xdp_exception
Dump of assembler code for function __bpf_trace_xdp_exception:
0xffffffff81132080 <+0>: mov %ecx,%ecx
0xffffffff81132082 <+2>: jmpq 0xffffffff811231f0 <bpf_trace_run3>

where

TRACE_EVENT(xdp_exception,
TP_PROTO(const struct net_device *dev,
const struct bpf_prog *xdp, u32 act),

The above assembler snippet is casting 32-bit 'act' field into 'u64'
to pass into bpf_trace_run3(), while 'dev' and 'xdp' args are passed as-is.
All of ~500 of __bpf_trace_*() functions are only 5-10 byte long
and in total this approach adds 7k bytes to .text.

This approach gives the lowest possible overhead
while calling trace_xdp_exception() from kernel C code and
transitioning into bpf land.
Since tracepoint+bpf are used at speeds of 1M+ events per second
this is valuable optimization.

The new BPF_RAW_TRACEPOINT_OPEN sys_bpf command is introduced
that returns anon_inode FD of 'bpf-raw-tracepoint' object.

The user space looks like:
// load bpf prog with BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT type
prog_fd = bpf_prog_load(...);
// receive anon_inode fd for given bpf_raw_tracepoint with prog attached
raw_tp_fd = bpf_raw_tracepoint_open("xdp_exception", prog_fd);

Ctrl-C of tracing daemon or cmdline tool that uses this feature
will automatically detach bpf program, unload it and
unregister tracepoint probe.

On the kernel side the __bpf_raw_tp_map section of pointers to
tracepoint definition and to __bpf_trace_*() probe function is used
to find a tracepoint with "xdp_exception" name and
corresponding __bpf_trace_xdp_exception() probe function
which are passed to tracepoint_probe_register() to connect probe
with tracepoint.

Addition of bpf_raw_tracepoint doesn't interfere with ftrace and perf
tracepoint mechanisms. perf_event_open() can be used in parallel
on the same tracepoint.
Multiple bpf_raw_tracepoint_open("xdp_exception", prog_fd) are permitted.
Each with its own bpf program. The kernel will execute
all tracepoint probes and all attached bpf programs.

In the future bpf_raw_tracepoints can be extended with
query/introspection logic.

__bpf_raw_tp_map section logic was contributed by Steven Rostedt

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Acked-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 015632bb 18-Mar-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sk_msg program helper bpf_sk_msg_pull_data

Currently, if a bpf sk msg program is run the program
can only parse data that the (start,end) pointers already
consumed. For sendmsg hooks this is likely the first
scatterlist element. For sendpage this will be the range
(0,0) because the data is shared with userspace and by
default we want to avoid allowing userspace to modify
data while (or after) BPF verdict is being decided.

To support pulling in additional bytes for parsing use
a new helper bpf_sk_msg_pull(start, end, flags) which
works similar to cls tc logic. This helper will attempt
to point the data start pointer at 'start' bytes offest
into msg and data end pointer at 'end' bytes offset into
message.

After basic sanity checks to ensure 'start' <= 'end' and
'end' <= msg_length there are a few cases we need to
handle.

First the sendmsg hook has already copied the data from
userspace and has exclusive access to it. Therefor, it
is not necessesary to copy the data. However, it may
be required. After finding the scatterlist element with
'start' offset byte in it there are two cases. One the
range (start,end) is entirely contained in the sg element
and is already linear. All that is needed is to update the
data pointers, no allocate/copy is needed. The other case
is (start, end) crosses sg element boundaries. In this
case we allocate a block of size 'end - start' and copy
the data to linearize it.

Next sendpage hook has not copied any data in initial
state so that data pointers are (0,0). In this case we
handle it similar to the above sendmsg case except the
allocation/copy must always happen. Then when sending
the data we have possibly three memory regions that
need to be sent, (0, start - 1), (start, end), and
(end + 1, msg_length). This is required to ensure any
writes by the BPF program are correctly transmitted.

Lastly this operation will invalidate any previous
data checks so BPF programs will have to revalidate
pointers after making this BPF call.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 91843d54 18-Mar-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sockmap, add msg_cork_bytes() helper

In the case where we need a specific number of bytes before a
verdict can be assigned, even if the data spans multiple sendmsg
or sendfile calls. The BPF program may use msg_cork_bytes().

The extreme case is a user can call sendmsg repeatedly with
1-byte msg segments. Obviously, this is bad for performance but
is still valid. If the BPF program needs N bytes to validate
a header it can use msg_cork_bytes to specify N bytes and the
BPF program will not be called again until N bytes have been
accumulated. The infrastructure will attempt to coalesce data
if possible so in many cases (most my use cases at least) the
data will be in a single scatterlist element with data pointers
pointing to start/end of the element. However, this is dependent
on available memory so is not guaranteed. So BPF programs must
validate data pointer ranges, but this is the case anyways to
convince the verifier the accesses are valid.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 2a100317 18-Mar-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sockmap, add bpf_msg_apply_bytes() helper

A single sendmsg or sendfile system call can contain multiple logical
messages that a BPF program may want to read and apply a verdict. But,
without an apply_bytes helper any verdict on the data applies to all
bytes in the sendmsg/sendfile. Alternatively, a BPF program may only
care to read the first N bytes of a msg. If the payload is large say
MB or even GB setting up and calling the BPF program repeatedly for
all bytes, even though the verdict is already known, creates
unnecessary overhead.

To allow BPF programs to control how many bytes a given verdict
applies to we implement a bpf_msg_apply_bytes() helper. When called
from within a BPF program this sets a counter, internal to the
BPF infrastructure, that applies the last verdict to the next N
bytes. If the N is smaller than the current data being processed
from a sendmsg/sendfile call, the first N bytes will be sent and
the BPF program will be re-run with start_data pointing to the N+1
byte. If N is larger than the current data being processed the
BPF verdict will be applied to multiple sendmsg/sendfile calls
until N bytes are consumed.

Note1 if a socket closes with apply_bytes counter non-zero this
is not a problem because data is not being buffered for N bytes
and is sent as its received.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 4f738adb 18-Mar-2018 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: create tcp_bpf_ulp allowing BPF to monitor socket TX/RX data

This implements a BPF ULP layer to allow policy enforcement and
monitoring at the socket layer. In order to support this a new
program type BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG is used to run the policy at
the sendmsg/sendpage hook. To attach the policy to sockets a
sockmap is used with a new program attach type BPF_SK_MSG_VERDICT.

Similar to previous sockmap usages when a sock is added to a
sockmap, via a map update, if the map contains a BPF_SK_MSG_VERDICT
program type attached then the BPF ULP layer is created on the
socket and the attached BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG program is run for
every msg in sendmsg case and page/offset in sendpage case.

BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG Semantics/API:

BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG supports only two return codes SK_PASS and
SK_DROP. Returning SK_DROP free's the copied data in the sendmsg
case and in the sendpage case leaves the data untouched. Both cases
return -EACESS to the user. Returning SK_PASS will allow the msg to
be sent.

In the sendmsg case data is copied into kernel space buffers before
running the BPF program. The kernel space buffers are stored in a
scatterlist object where each element is a kernel memory buffer.
Some effort is made to coalesce data from the sendmsg call here.
For example a sendmsg call with many one byte iov entries will
likely be pushed into a single entry. The BPF program is run with
data pointers (start/end) pointing to the first sg element.

In the sendpage case data is not copied. We opt not to copy the
data by default here, because the BPF infrastructure does not
know what bytes will be needed nor when they will be needed. So
copying all bytes may be wasteful. Because of this the initial
start/end data pointers are (0,0). Meaning no data can be read or
written. This avoids reading data that may be modified by the
user. A new helper is added later in this series if reading and
writing the data is needed. The helper call will do a copy by
default so that the page is exclusively owned by the BPF call.

The verdict from the BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG applies to the entire msg
in the sendmsg() case and the entire page/offset in the sendpage case.
This avoids ambiguity on how to handle mixed return codes in the
sendmsg case. Again a helper is added later in the series if
a verdict needs to apply to multiple system calls and/or only
a subpart of the currently being processed message.

The helper msg_redirect_map() can be used to select the socket to
send the data on. This is used similar to existing redirect use
cases. This allows policy to redirect msgs.

Pseudo code simple example:

The basic logic to attach a program to a socket is as follows,

// load the programs
bpf_prog_load(SOCKMAP_TCP_MSG_PROG, BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG,
&obj, &msg_prog);

// lookup the sockmap
bpf_map_msg = bpf_object__find_map_by_name(obj, "my_sock_map");

// get fd for sockmap
map_fd_msg = bpf_map__fd(bpf_map_msg);

// attach program to sockmap
bpf_prog_attach(msg_prog, map_fd_msg, BPF_SK_MSG_VERDICT, 0);

Adding sockets to the map is done in the normal way,

// Add a socket 'fd' to sockmap at location 'i'
bpf_map_update_elem(map_fd_msg, &i, fd, BPF_ANY);

After the above any socket attached to "my_sock_map", in this case
'fd', will run the BPF msg verdict program (msg_prog) on every
sendmsg and sendpage system call.

For a complete example see BPF selftests or sockmap samples.

Implementation notes:

It seemed the simplest, to me at least, to use a refcnt to ensure
psock is not lost across the sendmsg copy into the sg, the bpf program
running on the data in sg_data, and the final pass to the TCP stack.
Some performance testing may show a better method to do this and avoid
the refcnt cost, but for now use the simpler method.

Another item that will come after basic support is in place is
supporting MSG_MORE flag. At the moment we call sendpages even if
the MSG_MORE flag is set. An enhancement would be to collect the
pages into a larger scatterlist and pass down the stack. Notice that
bpf_tcp_sendmsg() could support this with some additional state saved
across sendmsg calls. I built the code to support this without having
to do refactoring work. Other features TBD include ZEROCOPY and the
TCP_RECV_QUEUE/TCP_NO_QUEUE support. This will follow initial series
shortly.

Future work could improve size limits on the scatterlist rings used
here. Currently, we use MAX_SKB_FRAGS simply because this was being
used already in the TLS case. Future work could extend the kernel sk
APIs to tune this depending on workload. This is a trade-off
between memory usage and throughput performance.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 615755a7 14-Mar-2018 Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>

bpf: extend stackmap to save binary_build_id+offset instead of address

Currently, bpf stackmap store address for each entry in the call trace.
To map these addresses to user space files, it is necessary to maintain
the mapping from these virtual address to symbols in the binary. Usually,
the user space profiler (such as perf) has to scan /proc/pid/maps at the
beginning of profiling, and monitor mmap2() calls afterwards. Given the
cost of maintaining the address map, this solution is not practical for
system wide profiling that is always on.

This patch tries to solve this problem with a variation of stackmap. This
variation is enabled by flag BPF_F_STACK_BUILD_ID. Instead of storing
addresses, the variation stores ELF file build_id + offset.

Build ID is a 20-byte unique identifier for ELF files. The following
command shows the Build ID of /bin/bash:

[user@]$ readelf -n /bin/bash
...
Build ID: XXXXXXXXXX
...

With BPF_F_STACK_BUILD_ID, bpf_get_stackid() tries to parse Build ID
for each entry in the call trace, and translate it into the following
struct:

struct bpf_stack_build_id_offset {
__s32 status;
unsigned char build_id[BPF_BUILD_ID_SIZE];
union {
__u64 offset;
__u64 ip;
};
};

The search of build_id is limited to the first page of the file, and this
page should be in page cache. Otherwise, we fallback to store ip for this
entry (ip field in struct bpf_stack_build_id_offset). This requires the
build_id to be stored in the first page. A quick survey of binary and
dynamic library files in a few different systems shows that almost all
binary and dynamic library files have build_id in the first page.

Build_id is only meaningful for user stack. If a kernel stack is added to
a stackmap with BPF_F_STACK_BUILD_ID, it will automatically fallback to
only store ip (status == BPF_STACK_BUILD_ID_IP). Similarly, if build_id
lookup failed for some reason, it will also fallback to store ip.

User space can access struct bpf_stack_build_id_offset with bpf
syscall BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM. It is necessary for user space to
maintain mapping from build id to binary files. This mostly static
mapping is much easier to maintain than per process address maps.

Note: Stackmap with build_id only works in non-nmi context at this time.
This is because we need to take mm->mmap_sem for find_vma(). If this
changes, we would like to allow build_id lookup in nmi context.

Signed-off-by: Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 77a5196a 01-Mar-2018 William Tu <u9012063@gmail.com>

gre: add sequence number for collect md mode.

Currently GRE sequence number can only be used in native
tunnel mode. This patch adds sequence number support for
gre collect metadata mode. RFC2890 defines GRE sequence
number to be specific to the traffic flow identified by the
key. However, this patch does not implement per-key seqno.
The sequence number is shared in the same tunnel device.
That is, different tunnel keys using the same collect_md
tunnel share single sequence number.

Signed-off-by: William Tu <u9012063@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# d4487491 25-Jan-2018 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_SOCK_OPS_STATE_CB

Adds support for calling sock_ops BPF program when there is a TCP state
change. Two arguments are used; one for the old state and another for
the new state.

There is a new enum in include/uapi/linux/bpf.h that exports the TCP
states that prepends BPF_ to the current TCP state names. If it is ever
necessary to change the internal TCP state values (other than adding
more to the end), then it will become necessary to convert from the
internal TCP state value to the BPF value before calling the BPF
sock_ops function. There are a set of compile checks added in tcp.c
to detect if the internal and BPF values differ so we can make the
necessary fixes.

New op: BPF_SOCK_OPS_STATE_CB.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# a31ad29e 25-Jan-2018 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_SOCK_OPS_RETRANS_CB

Adds support for calling sock_ops BPF program when there is a
retransmission. Three arguments are used; one for the sequence number,
another for the number of segments retransmitted, and the last one for
the return value of tcp_transmit_skb (0 => success).
Does not include syn-ack retransmissions.

New op: BPF_SOCK_OPS_RETRANS_CB.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 44f0e430 25-Jan-2018 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add support for reading sk_state and more

Add support for reading many more tcp_sock fields

state, same as sk->sk_state
rtt_min same as sk->rtt_min.s[0].v (current rtt_min)
snd_ssthresh
rcv_nxt
snd_nxt
snd_una
mss_cache
ecn_flags
rate_delivered
rate_interval_us
packets_out
retrans_out
total_retrans
segs_in
data_segs_in
segs_out
data_segs_out
lost_out
sacked_out
sk_txhash
bytes_received (__u64)
bytes_acked (__u64)

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# f89013f6 25-Jan-2018 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add sock_ops RTO callback

Adds an optional call to sock_ops BPF program based on whether the
BPF_SOCK_OPS_RTO_CB_FLAG is set in bpf_sock_ops_flags.
The BPF program is passed 2 arguments: icsk_retransmits and whether the
RTO has expired.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# b13d8807 25-Jan-2018 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Adds field bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags to tcp_sock

Adds field bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags to tcp_sock and bpf_sock_ops. Its primary
use is to determine if there should be calls to sock_ops bpf program at
various points in the TCP code. The field is initialized to zero,
disabling the calls. A sock_ops BPF program can set it, per connection and
as necessary, when the connection is established.

It also adds support for reading and writting the field within a
sock_ops BPF program. Reading is done by accessing the field directly.
However, writing is done through the helper function
bpf_sock_ops_cb_flags_set, in order to return an error if a BPF program
is trying to set a callback that is not supported in the current kernel
(i.e. running an older kernel). The helper function returns 0 if it was
able to set all of the bits set in the argument, a positive number
containing the bits that could not be set, or -EINVAL if the socket is
not a full TCP socket.

Examples of where one could call the bpf program:

1) When RTO fires
2) When a packet is retransmitted
3) When the connection terminates
4) When a packet is sent
5) When a packet is received

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# de525be2 25-Jan-2018 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Support passing args to sock_ops bpf function

Adds support for passing up to 4 arguments to sock_ops bpf functions. It
reusues the reply union, so the bpf_sock_ops structures are not
increased in size.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 52775b33 17-Jan-2018 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: offload: report device information about offloaded maps

Tell user space about device on which the map was created.
Unfortunate reality of user ABI makes sharing this code
with program offload difficult but the information is the
same.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# cb5f7334 16-Jan-2018 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: add comments to BPF ld/ldx sizes

Doc BPF ld/ldx size defines as comments in code, as it makes in
faster to lookup in a programming/review setting, than looking up
the sizes in Documentation/networking/filter.txt.

Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# a3884572 11-Jan-2018 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: offload: add map offload infrastructure

BPF map offload follow similar path to program offload. At creation
time users may specify ifindex of the device on which they want to
create the map. Map will be validated by the kernel's
.map_alloc_check callback and device driver will be called for the
actual allocation. Map will have an empty set of operations
associated with it (save for alloc and free callbacks). The real
device callbacks are kept in map->offload->dev_ops because they
have slightly different signatures. Map operations are called in
process context so the driver may communicate with HW freely,
msleep(), wait() etc.

Map alloc and free callbacks are muxed via existing .ndo_bpf, and
are always called with rtnl lock held. Maps and programs are
guaranteed to be destroyed before .ndo_uninit (i.e. before
unregister_netdev() returns). Map callbacks are invoked with
bpf_devs_lock *read* locked, drivers must take care of exclusive
locking if necessary.

All offload-specific branches are marked with unlikely() (through
bpf_map_is_dev_bound()), given that branch penalty will be
negligible compared to IO anyway, and we don't want to penalize
SW path unnecessarily.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# daaf24c6 11-Jan-2018 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: simplify xdp_convert_ctx_access for xdp_rxq_info

As pointed out by Daniel Borkmann, using bpf_target_off() is not
necessary for xdp_rxq_info when extracting queue_index and
ifindex, as these members are u32 like BPF_W.

Also fix trivial spelling mistake introduced in same commit.

Fixes: 02dd3291b2f0 ("bpf: finally expose xdp_rxq_info to XDP bpf-programs")
Reported-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 02dd3291 03-Jan-2018 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: finally expose xdp_rxq_info to XDP bpf-programs

Now all XDP driver have been updated to setup xdp_rxq_info and assign
this to xdp_buff->rxq. Thus, it is now safe to enable access to some
of the xdp_rxq_info struct members.

This patch extend xdp_md and expose UAPI to userspace for
ingress_ifindex and rx_queue_index. Access happens via bpf
instruction rewrite, that load data directly from struct xdp_rxq_info.

* ingress_ifindex map to xdp_rxq_info->dev->ifindex
* rx_queue_index map to xdp_rxq_info->queue_index

Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 675fc275 27-Dec-2017 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: offload: report device information for offloaded programs

Report to the user ifindex and namespace information of offloaded
programs. If device has disappeared return -ENODEV. Specify the
namespace using dev/inode combination.

CC: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 06ef0ccb 18-Dec-2017 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf/cgroup: fix a verification error for a CGROUP_DEVICE type prog

The tools/testing/selftests/bpf test program
test_dev_cgroup fails with the following error
when compiled with llvm 6.0. (I did not try
with earlier versions.)

libbpf: load bpf program failed: Permission denied
libbpf: -- BEGIN DUMP LOG ---
libbpf:
0: (61) r2 = *(u32 *)(r1 +4)
1: (b7) r0 = 0
2: (55) if r2 != 0x1 goto pc+8
R0=inv0 R1=ctx(id=0,off=0,imm=0) R2=inv1 R10=fp0
3: (69) r2 = *(u16 *)(r1 +0)
invalid bpf_context access off=0 size=2
...

The culprit is the following statement in dev_cgroup.c:
short type = ctx->access_type & 0xFFFF;
This code is typical as the ctx->access_type is assigned
as below in kernel/bpf/cgroup.c:
struct bpf_cgroup_dev_ctx ctx = {
.access_type = (access << 16) | dev_type,
.major = major,
.minor = minor,
};

The compiler converts it to u16 access while
the verifier cgroup_dev_is_valid_access rejects
any non u32 access.

This patch permits the field access_type to be accessible
with type u16 and u8 as well.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Tested-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# cc8b0b92 14-Dec-2017 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce function calls (function boundaries)

Allow arbitrary function calls from bpf function to another bpf function.

Since the beginning of bpf all bpf programs were represented as a single function
and program authors were forced to use always_inline for all functions
in their C code. That was causing llvm to unnecessary inflate the code size
and forcing developers to move code to header files with little code reuse.

With a bit of additional complexity teach verifier to recognize
arbitrary function calls from one bpf function to another as long as
all of functions are presented to the verifier as a single bpf program.
New program layout:
r6 = r1 // some code
..
r1 = .. // arg1
r2 = .. // arg2
call pc+1 // function call pc-relative
exit
.. = r1 // access arg1
.. = r2 // access arg2
..
call pc+20 // second level of function call
...

It allows for better optimized code and finally allows to introduce
the core bpf libraries that can be reused in different projects,
since programs are no longer limited by single elf file.
With function calls bpf can be compiled into multiple .o files.

This patch is the first step. It detects programs that contain
multiple functions and checks that calls between them are valid.
It splits the sequence of bpf instructions (one program) into a set
of bpf functions that call each other. Calls to only known
functions are allowed. In the future the verifier may allow
calls to unresolved functions and will do dynamic linking.
This logic supports statically linked bpf functions only.

Such function boundary detection could have been done as part of
control flow graph building in check_cfg(), but it's cleaner to
separate function boundary detection vs control flow checks within
a subprogram (function) into logically indepedent steps.
Follow up patches may split check_cfg() further, but not check_subprogs().

Only allow bpf-to-bpf calls for root only and for non-hw-offloaded programs.
These restrictions can be relaxed in the future.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 9802d865 11-Dec-2017 Josef Bacik <jbacik@fb.com>

bpf: add a bpf_override_function helper

Error injection is sloppy and very ad-hoc. BPF could fill this niche
perfectly with it's kprobe functionality. We could make sure errors are
only triggered in specific call chains that we care about with very
specific situations. Accomplish this with the bpf_override_funciton
helper. This will modify the probe'd callers return value to the
specified value and set the PC to an override function that simply
returns, bypassing the originally probed function. This gives us a nice
clean way to implement systematic error injection for all of our code
paths.

Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Josef Bacik <jbacik@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# f19397a5 01-Dec-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add access to snd_cwnd and others in sock_ops

Adds read access to snd_cwnd and srtt_us fields of tcp_sock. Since these
fields are only valid if the socket associated with the sock_ops program
call is a full socket, the field is_fullsock is also added to the
bpf_sock_ops struct. If the socket is not a full socket, reading these
fields returns 0.

Note that in most cases it will not be necessary to check is_fullsock to
know if there is a full socket. The context of the call, as specified by
the 'op' field, can sometimes determine whether there is a full socket.

The struct bpf_sock_ops has the following fields added:

__u32 is_fullsock; /* Some TCP fields are only valid if
* there is a full socket. If not, the
* fields read as zero.
*/
__u32 snd_cwnd;
__u32 srtt_us; /* Averaged RTT << 3 in usecs */

There is a new macro, SOCK_OPS_GET_TCP32(NAME), to make it easier to add
read access to more 32 bit tcp_sock fields.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 1ee64009 20-Nov-2017 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: revert report offload info to user space

This reverts commit bd601b6ada11 ("bpf: report offload info to user
space"). The ifindex by itself is not sufficient, we should provide
information on which network namespace this ifindex belongs to.
After considering some options we concluded that it's best to just
remove this API for now, and rework it in -next.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 1f6f4cb7 20-Nov-2017 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: offload: rename the ifindex field

bpf_target_prog seems long and clunky, rename it to prog_ifindex.
We don't want to call this field just ifindex, because maps
may need a similar field in the future and bpf_attr members for
programs and maps are unnamed.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# f3edacbd 11-Nov-2017 David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

bpf: Revert bpf_overrid_function() helper changes.

NACK'd by x86 maintainer.

Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# dd0bb688 07-Nov-2017 Josef Bacik <jbacik@fb.com>

bpf: add a bpf_override_function helper

Error injection is sloppy and very ad-hoc. BPF could fill this niche
perfectly with it's kprobe functionality. We could make sure errors are
only triggered in specific call chains that we care about with very
specific situations. Accomplish this with the bpf_override_funciton
helper. This will modify the probe'd callers return value to the
specified value and set the PC to an override function that simply
returns, bypassing the originally probed function. This gives us a nice
clean way to implement systematic error injection for all of our code
paths.

Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Josef Bacik <jbacik@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# ebc614f6 05-Nov-2017 Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>

bpf, cgroup: implement eBPF-based device controller for cgroup v2

Cgroup v2 lacks the device controller, provided by cgroup v1.
This patch adds a new eBPF program type, which in combination
of previously added ability to attach multiple eBPF programs
to a cgroup, will provide a similar functionality, but with some
additional flexibility.

This patch introduces a BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_DEVICE program type.
A program takes major and minor device numbers, device type
(block/character) and access type (mknod/read/write) as parameters
and returns an integer which defines if the operation should be
allowed or terminated with -EPERM.

Signed-off-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# bd601b6a 03-Nov-2017 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: report offload info to user space

Extend struct bpf_prog_info to contain information about program
being bound to a device. Since the netdev may get destroyed while
program still exists we need a flag to indicate the program is
loaded for a device, even if the device is gone.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Simon Horman <simon.horman@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# ab3f0063 03-Nov-2017 Jakub Kicinski <kuba@kernel.org>

bpf: offload: add infrastructure for loading programs for a specific netdev

The fact that we don't know which device the program is going
to be used on is quite limiting in current eBPF infrastructure.
We have to reverse or limit the changes which kernel makes to
the loaded bytecode if we want it to be offloaded to a networking
device. We also have to invent new APIs for debugging and
troubleshooting support.

Make it possible to load programs for a specific netdev. This
helps us to bring the debug information closer to the core
eBPF infrastructure (e.g. we will be able to reuse the verifer
log in device JIT). It allows device JITs to perform translation
on the original bytecode.

__bpf_prog_get() when called to get a reference for an attachment
point will now refuse to give it if program has a device assigned.
Following patches will add a version of that function which passes
the expected netdev in. @type argument in __bpf_prog_get() is
renamed to attach_type to make it clearer that it's only set on
attachment.

All calls to ndo_bpf are protected by rtnl, only verifier callbacks
are not. We need a wait queue to make sure netdev doesn't get
destroyed while verifier is still running and calling its driver.

Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Simon Horman <simon.horman@netronome.com>
Reviewed-by: Quentin Monnet <quentin.monnet@netronome.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# e2be04c7 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX license identifier to uapi header files with a license

Many user space API headers have licensing information, which is either
incomplete, badly formatted or just a shorthand for referring to the
license under which the file is supposed to be. This makes it hard for
compliance tools to determine the correct license.

Update these files with an SPDX license identifier. The identifier was
chosen based on the license information in the file.

GPL/LGPL licensed headers get the matching GPL/LGPL SPDX license
identifier with the added 'WITH Linux-syscall-note' exception, which is
the officially assigned exception identifier for the kernel syscall
exception:

NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use kernel
services by normal system calls - this is merely considered normal use
of the kernel, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".

This exception makes it possible to include GPL headers into non GPL
code, without confusing license compliance tools.

Headers which have either explicit dual licensing or are just licensed
under a non GPL license are updated with the corresponding SPDX
identifier and the GPLv2 with syscall exception identifier. The format
is:
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR SPDX-ID-OF-OTHER-LICENSE)

SPDX license identifiers are a legally binding shorthand, which can be
used instead of the full boiler plate text. The update does not remove
existing license information as this has to be done on a case by case
basis and the copyright holders might have to be consulted. This will
happen in a separate step.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne. See the previous patch in this series for the
methodology of how this patch was researched.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>


# 04686ef2 31-Oct-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: remove SK_REDIRECT from UAPI

Now that SK_REDIRECT is no longer a valid return code. Remove it
from the UAPI completely. Then do a namespace remapping internal
to sockmap so SK_REDIRECT is no longer externally visible.

Patchs primary change is to do a namechange from SK_REDIRECT to
__SK_REDIRECT

Reported-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# bfa64075 27-Oct-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: rename sk_actions to align with bpf infrastructure

Recent additions to support multiple programs in cgroups impose
a strict requirement, "all yes is yes, any no is no". To enforce
this the infrastructure requires the 'no' return code, SK_DROP in
this case, to be 0.

To apply these rules to SK_SKB program types the sk_actions return
codes need to be adjusted.

This fix adds SK_PASS and makes 'SK_DROP = 0'. Finally, remove
SK_ABORTED to remove any chance that the API may allow aborted
program flows to be passed up the stack. This would be incorrect
behavior and allow programs to break existing policies.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# cd86d1fd 20-Oct-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Adding helper function bpf_getsockops

Adding support for helper function bpf_getsockops to socket_ops BPF
programs. This patch only supports TCP_CONGESTION.

Signed-off-by: Vlad Vysotsky <vlad@cs.ucla.edu>
Acked-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# e6546ef6 20-Oct-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: add support for BPF_SOCK_OPS_BASE_RTT

A congestion control algorithm can make a call to the BPF socket_ops
program to request the base RTT. The base RTT can be congestion control
dependent and is meant to represent a congestion threshold such that
RTTs above it indicate congestion. This is especially useful for flows
within a DC where the base RTT is easy to obtain.

Being provided a base RTT solves a basic problem in RTT based congestion
avoidance algorithms (such as Vegas, NV and BBR). Although it is easy
to get the base RTT when the network is not congested, it is very
diffcult to do when it is very congested. Newer connections get an
inflated value of the base RTT leading to unfariness (newer flows with a
larger base RTT get more bandwidth). As a result, RTT based congestion
avoidance algorithms tend to update their base RTTs to improve fairness.
In very congested networks this can lead to base RTT inflation, reducing
the ability of these RTT based congestion control algorithms to prevent
congestion.

Note that in my experiments with TCP-NV, the base RTT provided can be
much larger than the actual hardware RTT. For example, experimenting
with hosts within a rack where the hardware RTT is 16-20us, I've used
base RTTs up to 150us. The effect of using a larger base RTT is that the
congestion avoidance algorithm will allow more queueing. When there are
only a few flows the main effect is larger measured RTTs and RPC
latencies due to the increased queueing. When there are a lot of flows,
a larger base RTT can lead to more congestion and more packet drops.
For this case, where the hardware RTT is 20us, a base RTT of 80us
produces good results.

This patch only introduces BPF_SOCK_OPS_BASE_RTT, a later patch in this
set adds support for using it in TCP-NV. Further study and testing is
needed before support can be added to other delay based congestion
avoidance algorithms.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6e71b04a 18-Oct-2017 Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>

bpf: Add file mode configuration into bpf maps

Introduce the map read/write flags to the eBPF syscalls that returns the
map fd. The flags is used to set up the file mode when construct a new
file descriptor for bpf maps. To not break the backward capability, the
f_flags is set to O_RDWR if the flag passed by syscall is 0. Otherwise
it should be O_RDONLY or O_WRONLY. When the userspace want to modify or
read the map content, it will check the file mode to see if it is
allowed to make the change.

Signed-off-by: Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6710e112 15-Oct-2017 Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>

bpf: introduce new bpf cpu map type BPF_MAP_TYPE_CPUMAP

The 'cpumap' is primarily used as a backend map for XDP BPF helper
call bpf_redirect_map() and XDP_REDIRECT action, like 'devmap'.

This patch implement the main part of the map. It is not connected to
the XDP redirect system yet, and no SKB allocation are done yet.

The main concern in this patch is to ensure the datapath can run
without any locking. This adds complexity to the setup and tear-down
procedure, which assumptions are extra carefully documented in the
code comments.

V2:
- make sure array isn't larger than NR_CPUS
- make sure CPUs added is a valid possible CPU

V3: fix nitpicks from Jakub Kicinski <kubakici@wp.pl>

V5:
- Restrict map allocation to root / CAP_SYS_ADMIN
- WARN_ON_ONCE if queue is not empty on tear-down
- Return -EPERM on memlock limit instead of -ENOMEM
- Error code in __cpu_map_entry_alloc() also handle ptr_ring_cleanup()
- Moved cpu_map_enqueue() to next patch

V6: all notice by Daniel Borkmann
- Fix err return code in cpu_map_alloc() introduced in V5
- Move cpu_possible() check after max_entries boundary check
- Forbid usage initially in check_map_func_compatibility()

V7:
- Fix alloc error path spotted by Daniel Borkmann
- Did stress test adding+removing CPUs from the map concurrently
- Fixed refcnt issue on cpu_map_entry, kthread started too soon
- Make sure packets are flushed during tear-down, involved use of
rcu_barrier() and kthread_run only exit after queue is empty
- Fix alloc error path in __cpu_map_entry_alloc() for ptr_ring

V8:
- Nitpicking comments and gramma by Edward Cree
- Fix missing semi-colon introduced in V7 due to rebasing
- Move struct bpf_cpu_map_entry members cpu+map_id to tracepoint patch

Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 067cae47 05-Oct-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Use char in prog and map name

Instead of u8, use char for prog and map name. It can avoid the
userspace tool getting compiler's signess warning. The
bpf_prog_aux, bpf_map, bpf_attr, bpf_prog_info and
bpf_map_info are changed.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: Jakub Kicinski <jakub.kicinski@netronome.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 4bebdc7a 05-Oct-2017 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: add helper bpf_perf_prog_read_value

This patch adds helper bpf_perf_prog_read_cvalue for perf event based bpf
programs, to read event counter and enabled/running time.
The enabled/running time is accumulated since the perf event open.

The typical use case for perf event based bpf program is to attach itself
to a single event. In such cases, if it is desirable to get scaling factor
between two bpf invocations, users can can save the time values in a map,
and use the value from the map and the current value to calculate
the scaling factor.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 908432ca 05-Oct-2017 Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>

bpf: add helper bpf_perf_event_read_value for perf event array map

Hardware pmu counters are limited resources. When there are more
pmu based perf events opened than available counters, kernel will
multiplex these events so each event gets certain percentage
(but not 100%) of the pmu time. In case that multiplexing happens,
the number of samples or counter value will not reflect the
case compared to no multiplexing. This makes comparison between
different runs difficult.

Typically, the number of samples or counter value should be
normalized before comparing to other experiments. The typical
normalization is done like:
normalized_num_samples = num_samples * time_enabled / time_running
normalized_counter_value = counter_value * time_enabled / time_running
where time_enabled is the time enabled for event and time_running is
the time running for event since last normalization.

This patch adds helper bpf_perf_event_read_value for kprobed based perf
event array map, to read perf counter and enabled/running time.
The enabled/running time is accumulated since the perf event open.
To achieve scaling factor between two bpf invocations, users
can can use cpu_id as the key (which is typical for perf array usage model)
to remember the previous value and do the calculation inside the
bpf program.

Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 468e2f64 02-Oct-2017 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_PROG_QUERY command

introduce BPF_PROG_QUERY command to retrieve a set of either
attached programs to given cgroup or a set of effective programs
that will execute for events within a cgroup

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
for cgroup bits
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 324bda9e6 02-Oct-2017 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: multi program support for cgroup+bpf

introduce BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI flag that can be used to attach multiple
bpf programs to a cgroup.

The difference between three possible flags for BPF_PROG_ATTACH command:
- NONE(default): No further bpf programs allowed in the subtree.
- BPF_F_ALLOW_OVERRIDE: If a sub-cgroup installs some bpf program,
the program in this cgroup yields to sub-cgroup program.
- BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI: If a sub-cgroup installs some bpf program,
that cgroup program gets run in addition to the program in this cgroup.

NONE and BPF_F_ALLOW_OVERRIDE existed before. This patch doesn't
change their behavior. It only clarifies the semantics in relation
to new flag.

Only one program is allowed to be attached to a cgroup with
NONE or BPF_F_ALLOW_OVERRIDE flag.
Multiple programs are allowed to be attached to a cgroup with
BPF_F_ALLOW_MULTI flag. They are executed in FIFO order
(those that were attached first, run first)
The programs of sub-cgroup are executed first, then programs of
this cgroup and then programs of parent cgroup.
All eligible programs are executed regardless of return code from
earlier programs.

To allow efficient execution of multiple programs attached to a cgroup
and to avoid penalizing cgroups without any programs attached
introduce 'struct bpf_prog_array' which is RCU protected array
of pointers to bpf programs.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
for cgroup bits
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 90caccdd 03-Oct-2017 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: fix bpf_tail_call() x64 JIT

- bpf prog_array just like all other types of bpf array accepts 32-bit index.
Clarify that in the comment.
- fix x64 JIT of bpf_tail_call which was incorrectly loading 8 instead of 4 bytes
- tighten corresponding check in the interpreter to stay consistent

The JIT bug can be triggered after introduction of BPF_F_NUMA_NODE flag
in commit 96eabe7a40aa in 4.14. Before that the map_flags would stay zero and
though JIT code is wrong it will check bounds correctly.
Hence two fixes tags. All other JITs don't have this problem.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Fixes: 96eabe7a40aa ("bpf: Allow selecting numa node during map creation")
Fixes: b52f00e6a715 ("x86: bpf_jit: implement bpf_tail_call() helper")
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# ad5b177b 27-Sep-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add map_name to bpf_map_info

This patch allows userspace to specify a name for a map
during BPF_MAP_CREATE.

The map's name can later be exported to user space
via BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# cb4d2b3f 27-Sep-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add name, load_time, uid and map_ids to bpf_prog_info

The patch adds name and load_time to struct bpf_prog_aux. They
are also exported to bpf_prog_info.

The bpf_prog's name is passed by userspace during BPF_PROG_LOAD.
The kernel only stores the first (BPF_PROG_NAME_LEN - 1) bytes
and the name stored in the kernel is always \0 terminated.

The kernel will reject name that contains characters other than
isalnum() and '_'. It will also reject name that is not null
terminated.

The existing 'user->uid' of the bpf_prog_aux is also exported to
the bpf_prog_info as created_by_uid.

The existing 'used_maps' of the bpf_prog_aux is exported to
the newly added members 'nr_map_ids' and 'map_ids' of
the bpf_prog_info. On the input, nr_map_ids tells how
big the userspace's map_ids buffer is. On the output,
nr_map_ids tells the exact user_map_cnt and it will only
copy up to the userspace's map_ids buffer is allowed.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# de8f3a83 24-Sep-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add meta pointer for direct access

This work enables generic transfer of metadata from XDP into skb. The
basic idea is that we can make use of the fact that the resulting skb
must be linear and already comes with a larger headroom for supporting
bpf_xdp_adjust_head(), which mangles xdp->data. Here, we base our work
on a similar principle and introduce a small helper bpf_xdp_adjust_meta()
for adjusting a new pointer called xdp->data_meta. Thus, the packet has
a flexible and programmable room for meta data, followed by the actual
packet data. struct xdp_buff is therefore laid out that we first point
to data_hard_start, then data_meta directly prepended to data followed
by data_end marking the end of packet. bpf_xdp_adjust_head() takes into
account whether we have meta data already prepended and if so, memmove()s
this along with the given offset provided there's enough room.

xdp->data_meta is optional and programs are not required to use it. The
rationale is that when we process the packet in XDP (e.g. as DoS filter),
we can push further meta data along with it for the XDP_PASS case, and
give the guarantee that a clsact ingress BPF program on the same device
can pick this up for further post-processing. Since we work with skb
there, we can also set skb->mark, skb->priority or other skb meta data
out of BPF, thus having this scratch space generic and programmable
allows for more flexibility than defining a direct 1:1 transfer of
potentially new XDP members into skb (it's also more efficient as we
don't need to initialize/handle each of such new members). The facility
also works together with GRO aggregation. The scratch space at the head
of the packet can be multiple of 4 byte up to 32 byte large. Drivers not
yet supporting xdp->data_meta can simply be set up with xdp->data_meta
as xdp->data + 1 as bpf_xdp_adjust_meta() will detect this and bail out,
such that the subsequent match against xdp->data for later access is
guaranteed to fail.

The verifier treats xdp->data_meta/xdp->data the same way as we treat
xdp->data/xdp->data_end pointer comparisons. The requirement for doing
the compare against xdp->data is that it hasn't been modified from it's
original address we got from ctx access. It may have a range marking
already from prior successful xdp->data/xdp->data_end pointer comparisons
though.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 9beb8bed 08-Sep-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: make error reporting in bpf_warn_invalid_xdp_action more clear

Differ between illegal XDP action code and just driver
unsupported one to provide better feedback when we throw
a one-time warning here. Reason is that with 814abfabef3c
("xdp: add bpf_redirect helper function") not all drivers
support the new XDP return code yet and thus they will
fall into their 'default' case when checking for return
codes after program return, which then triggers a
bpf_warn_invalid_xdp_action() stating that the return
code is illegal, but from XDP perspective it's not.

I decided not to place something like a XDP_ACT_MAX define
into uapi i) given we don't have this either for all other
program types, ii) future action codes could have further
encoding there, which would render such define unsuitable
and we wouldn't be able to rip it out again, and iii) we
rarely add new action codes.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 482dca93 31-Aug-2017 David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>

bpf: Add mark and priority to sock options that can be set

Add socket mark and priority to fields that can be set by
ebpf program when a socket is created.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 2f857d04 28-Aug-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sockmap, remove STRPARSER map_flags and add multi-map support

The addition of map_flags BPF_SOCKMAP_STRPARSER flags was to handle a
specific use case where we want to have BPF parse program disabled on
an entry in a sockmap.

However, Alexei found the API a bit cumbersome and I agreed. Lets
remove the STRPARSER flag and support the use case by allowing socks
to be in multiple maps. This allows users to create two maps one with
programs attached and one without. When socks are added to maps they
now inherit any programs attached to the map. This is a nice
generalization and IMO improves the API.

The API rules are less ambiguous and do not need a flag:

- When a sock is added to a sockmap we have two cases,

i. The sock map does not have any attached programs so
we can add sock to map without inheriting bpf programs.
The sock may exist in 0 or more other maps.

ii. The sock map has an attached BPF program. To avoid duplicate
bpf programs we only add the sock entry if it does not have
an existing strparser/verdict attached, returning -EBUSY if
a program is already attached. Otherwise attach the program
and inherit strparser/verdict programs from the sock map.

This allows for socks to be in a multiple maps for redirects and
inherit a BPF program from a single map.

Also this patch simplifies the logic around BPF_{EXIST|NOEXIST|ANY}
flags. In the original patch I tried to be extra clever and only
update map entries when necessary. Now I've decided the complexity
is not worth it. If users constantly update an entry with the same
sock for no reason (i.e. update an entry without actually changing
any parameters on map or sock) we still do an alloc/release. Using
this and allowing multiple entries of a sock to exist in a map the
logic becomes much simpler.

Note: Now that multiple maps are supported the "maps" pointer called
when a socket is closed becomes a list of maps to remove the sock from.
To keep the map up to date when a sock is added to the sockmap we must
add the map/elem in the list. Likewise when it is removed we must
remove it from the list. This results in searching the per psock list
on delete operation. On TCP_CLOSE events we walk the list and remove
the psock from all map/entry locations. I don't see any perf
implications in this because at most I have a psock in two maps. If
a psock were to be in many maps its possibly this might be noticeable
on delete but I can't think of a reason to dup a psock in many maps.
The sk_callback_lock is used to protect read/writes to the list. This
was convenient because in all locations we were taking the lock
anyways just after working on the list. Also the lock is per sock so
in normal cases we shouldn't see any contention.

Suggested-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Fixes: 174a79ff9515 ("bpf: sockmap with sk redirect support")
Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 464bc0fd 28-Aug-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: convert sockmap field attach_bpf_fd2 to type

In the initial sockmap API we provided strparser and verdict programs
using a single attach command by extending the attach API with a the
attach_bpf_fd2 field.

However, if we add other programs in the future we will be adding a
field for every new possible type, attach_bpf_fd(3,4,..). This
seems a bit clumsy for an API. So lets push the programs using two
new type fields.

BPF_SK_SKB_STREAM_PARSER
BPF_SK_SKB_STREAM_VERDICT

This has the advantage of having a readable name and can easily be
extended in the future.

Updates to samples and sockmap included here also generalize tests
slightly to support upcoming patch for multiple map support.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Fixes: 174a79ff9515 ("bpf: sockmap with sk redirect support")
Suggested-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 96eabe7a 18-Aug-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Allow selecting numa node during map creation

The current map creation API does not allow to provide the numa-node
preference. The memory usually comes from where the map-creation-process
is running. The performance is not ideal if the bpf_prog is known to
always run in a numa node different from the map-creation-process.

One of the use case is sharding on CPU to different LRU maps (i.e.
an array of LRU maps). Here is the test result of map_perf_test on
the INNER_LRU_HASH_PREALLOC test if we force the lru map used by
CPU0 to be allocated from a remote numa node:

[ The machine has 20 cores. CPU0-9 at node 0. CPU10-19 at node 1 ]

># taskset -c 10 ./map_perf_test 512 8 1260000 8000000
5:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1628380 events per sec
4:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1626396 events per sec
3:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1626144 events per sec
6:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1621657 events per sec
2:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1621534 events per sec
1:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1620292 events per sec
7:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1613305 events per sec
0:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1239150 events per sec #<<<

After specifying numa node:
># taskset -c 10 ./map_perf_test 512 8 1260000 8000000
5:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1629627 events per sec
3:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1628057 events per sec
1:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1623054 events per sec
6:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1616033 events per sec
2:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1614630 events per sec
4:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1612651 events per sec
7:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1609337 events per sec
0:inner_lru_hash_map_perf pre-alloc 1619340 events per sec #<<<

This patch adds one field, numa_node, to the bpf_attr. Since numa node 0
is a valid node, a new flag BPF_F_NUMA_NODE is also added. The numa_node
field is honored if and only if the BPF_F_NUMA_NODE flag is set.

Numa node selection is not supported for percpu map.

This patch does not change all the kmalloc. F.e.
'htab = kzalloc()' is not changed since the object
is small enough to stay in the cache.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 8a31db56 15-Aug-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: add access to sock fields and pkt data from sk_skb programs

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 174a79ff 15-Aug-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: sockmap with sk redirect support

Recently we added a new map type called dev map used to forward XDP
packets between ports (6093ec2dc313). This patches introduces a
similar notion for sockets.

A sockmap allows users to add participating sockets to a map. When
sockets are added to the map enough context is stored with the
map entry to use the entry with a new helper

bpf_sk_redirect_map(map, key, flags)

This helper (analogous to bpf_redirect_map in XDP) is given the map
and an entry in the map. When called from a sockmap program, discussed
below, the skb will be sent on the socket using skb_send_sock().

With the above we need a bpf program to call the helper from that will
then implement the send logic. The initial site implemented in this
series is the recv_sock hook. For this to work we implemented a map
attach command to add attributes to a map. In sockmap we add two
programs a parse program and a verdict program. The parse program
uses strparser to build messages and pass them to the verdict program.
The parse programs use the normal strparser semantics. The verdict
program is of type SK_SKB.

The verdict program returns a verdict SK_DROP, or SK_REDIRECT for
now. Additional actions may be added later. When SK_REDIRECT is
returned, expected when bpf program uses bpf_sk_redirect_map(), the
sockmap logic will consult per cpu variables set by the helper routine
and pull the sock entry out of the sock map. This pattern follows the
existing redirect logic in cls and xdp programs.

This gives the flow,

recv_sock -> str_parser (parse_prog) -> verdict_prog -> skb_send_sock
\
-> kfree_skb

As an example use case a message based load balancer may use specific
logic in the verdict program to select the sock to send on.

Sample programs are provided in future patches that hopefully illustrate
the user interfaces. Also selftests are in follow-on patches.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# b005fd18 15-Aug-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: introduce new program type for skbs on sockets

A class of programs, run from strparser and soon from a new map type
called sock map, are used with skb as the context but on established
sockets. By creating a specific program type for these we can use
bpf helpers that expect full sockets and get the verifier to ensure
these helpers are not used out of context.

The new type is BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_SKB. This patch introduces the
infrastructure and type.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 92b31a9a 09-Aug-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add BPF_J{LT,LE,SLT,SLE} instructions

Currently, eBPF only understands BPF_JGT (>), BPF_JGE (>=),
BPF_JSGT (s>), BPF_JSGE (s>=) instructions, this means that
particularly *JLT/*JLE counterparts involving immediates need
to be rewritten from e.g. X < [IMM] by swapping arguments into
[IMM] > X, meaning the immediate first is required to be loaded
into a register Y := [IMM], such that then we can compare with
Y > X. Note that the destination operand is always required to
be a register.

This has the downside of having unnecessarily increased register
pressure, meaning complex program would need to spill other
registers temporarily to stack in order to obtain an unused
register for the [IMM]. Loading to registers will thus also
affect state pruning since we need to account for that register
use and potentially those registers that had to be spilled/filled
again. As a consequence slightly more stack space might have
been used due to spilling, and BPF programs are a bit longer
due to extra code involving the register load and potentially
required spill/fills.

Thus, add BPF_JLT (<), BPF_JLE (<=), BPF_JSLT (s<), BPF_JSLE (s<=)
counterparts to the eBPF instruction set. Modifying LLVM to
remove the NegateCC() workaround in a PoC patch at [1] and
allowing it to also emit the new instructions resulted in
cilium's BPF programs that are injected into the fast-path to
have a reduced program length in the range of 2-3% (e.g.
accumulated main and tail call sections from one of the object
file reduced from 4864 to 4729 insns), reduced complexity in
the range of 10-30% (e.g. accumulated sections reduced in one
of the cases from 116432 to 88428 insns), and reduced stack
usage in the range of 1-5% (e.g. accumulated sections from one
of the object files reduced from 824 to 784b).

The modification for LLVM will be incorporated in a backwards
compatible way. Plan is for LLVM to have i) a target specific
option to offer a possibility to explicitly enable the extension
by the user (as we have with -m target specific extensions today
for various CPU insns), and ii) have the kernel checked for
presence of the extensions and enable them transparently when
the user is selecting more aggressive options such as -march=native
in a bpf target context. (Other frontends generating BPF byte
code, e.g. ply can probe the kernel directly for its code
generation.)

[1] https://github.com/borkmann/llvm/tree/bpf-insns

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 56ce097c 04-Aug-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

net: comment fixes against BPF devmap helper calls

Update BPF comments to accurately reflect XDP usage.

Fixes: 97f91a7cf04ff ("bpf: add bpf_redirect_map helper routine")
Reported-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 97f91a7c 17-Jul-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: add bpf_redirect_map helper routine

BPF programs can use the devmap with a bpf_redirect_map() helper
routine to forward packets to netdevice in map.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 546ac1ff 17-Jul-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

bpf: add devmap, a map for storing net device references

Device map (devmap) is a BPF map, primarily useful for networking
applications, that uses a key to lookup a reference to a netdevice.

The map provides a clean way for BPF programs to build virtual port
to physical port maps. Additionally, it provides a scoping function
for the redirect action itself allowing multiple optimizations. Future
patches will leverage the map to provide batching at the XDP layer.

Another optimization/feature, that is not yet implemented, would be
to support multiple netdevices per key to support efficient multicast
and broadcast support.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 814abfab 17-Jul-2017 John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>

xdp: add bpf_redirect helper function

This adds support for a bpf_redirect helper function to the XDP
infrastructure. For now this only supports redirecting to the egress
path of a port.

In order to support drivers handling a xdp_buff natively this patches
uses a new ndo operation ndo_xdp_xmit() that takes pushes a xdp_buff
to the specified device.

If the program specifies either (a) an unknown device or (b) a device
that does not support the operation a BPF warning is thrown and the
XDP_ABORTED error code is returned.

Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Jesper Dangaard Brouer <brouer@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 2be7e212 01-Jul-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_skb_adjust_room helper

This work adds a helper that can be used to adjust net room of an
skb. The helper is generic and can be further extended in future.
Main use case is for having a programmatic way to add/remove room to
v4/v6 header options along with cls_bpf on egress and ingress hook
of the data path. It reuses most of the infrastructure that we added
for the bpf_skb_change_type() helper which can be used in nat64
translations. Similarly, the helper only takes care of adjusting the
room so that related data is populated and csum adapted out of the
BPF program using it.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 13bf9641 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Adds support for setting sndcwnd clamp

Adds a new bpf_setsockopt for TCP sockets, TCP_BPF_SNDCWND_CLAMP, which
sets the initial congestion window. It is useful to limit the sndcwnd
when the host are close to each other (small RTT).

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# fc747810 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Adds support for setting initial cwnd

Adds a new bpf_setsockopt for TCP sockets, TCP_BPF_IW, which sets the
initial congestion window. This can be used when the hosts are far
apart (large RTTs) and it is safe to start with a large inital cwnd.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 91b5b21c 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add support for changing congestion control

Added support for changing congestion control for SOCK_OPS bpf
programs through the setsockopt bpf helper function. It also adds
a new SOCK_OPS op, BPF_SOCK_OPS_NEEDS_ECN, that is needed for
congestion controls, like dctcp, that need to enable ECN in the
SYN packets.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 9872a4bd 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add TCP connection BPF callbacks

Added callbacks to BPF SOCK_OPS type program before an active
connection is intialized and after a passive or active connection is
established.

The following patch demostrates how they can be used to set send and
receive buffer sizes.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 8c4b4c7e 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Add setsockopt helper function to bpf

Added support for calling a subset of socket setsockopts from
BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS programs. The code was duplicated rather
than making the changes to call the socket setsockopt function because
the changes required would have been larger.

The ops supported are:
SO_RCVBUF
SO_SNDBUF
SO_MAX_PACING_RATE
SO_PRIORITY
SO_RCVLOWAT
SO_MARK

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 13d3b1eb 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Support for setting initial receive window

This patch adds suppport for setting the initial advertized window from
within a BPF_SOCK_OPS program. This can be used to support larger
initial cwnd values in environments where it is known to be safe.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 8550f328 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: Support for per connection SYN/SYN-ACK RTOs

This patch adds support for setting a per connection SYN and
SYN_ACK RTOs from within a BPF_SOCK_OPS program. For example,
to set small RTOs when it is known both hosts are within a
datacenter.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 40304b2a 30-Jun-2017 Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>

bpf: BPF support for sock_ops

Created a new BPF program type, BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS, and a corresponding
struct that allows BPF programs of this type to access some of the
socket's fields (such as IP addresses, ports, etc.). It uses the
existing bpf cgroups infrastructure so the programs can be attached per
cgroup with full inheritance support. The program will be called at
appropriate times to set relevant connections parameters such as buffer
sizes, SYN and SYN-ACK RTOs, etc., based on connection information such
as IP addresses, port numbers, etc.

Alghough there are already 3 mechanisms to set parameters (sysctls,
route metrics and setsockopts), this new mechanism provides some
distinct advantages. Unlike sysctls, it can set parameters per
connection. In contrast to route metrics, it can also use port numbers
and information provided by a user level program. In addition, it could
set parameters probabilistically for evaluation purposes (i.e. do
something different on 10% of the flows and compare results with the
other 90% of the flows). Also, in cases where IPv6 addresses contain
geographic information, the rules to make changes based on the distance
(or RTT) between the hosts are much easier than route metric rules and
can be global. Finally, unlike setsockopt, it oes not require
application changes and it can be updated easily at any time.

Although the bpf cgroup framework already contains a sock related
program type (BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK), I created the new type
(BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS) beccause the existing type expects to be called
only once during the connections's lifetime. In contrast, the new
program type will be called multiple times from different places in the
network stack code. For example, before sending SYN and SYN-ACKs to set
an appropriate timeout, when the connection is established to set
congestion control, etc. As a result it has "op" field to specify the
type of operation requested.

The purpose of this new program type is to simplify setting connection
parameters, such as buffer sizes, TCP's SYN RTO, etc. For example, it is
easy to use facebook's internal IPv6 addresses to determine if both hosts
of a connection are in the same datacenter. Therefore, it is easy to
write a BPF program to choose a small SYN RTO value when both hosts are
in the same datacenter.

This patch only contains the framework to support the new BPF program
type, following patches add the functionality to set various connection
parameters.

This patch defines a new BPF program type: BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_OPS
and a new bpf syscall command to load a new program of this type:
BPF_PROG_LOAD_SOCKET_OPS.

Two new corresponding structs (one for the kernel one for the user/BPF
program):

/* kernel version */
struct bpf_sock_ops_kern {
struct sock *sk;
__u32 op;
union {
__u32 reply;
__u32 replylong[4];
};
};

/* user version
* Some fields are in network byte order reflecting the sock struct
* Use the bpf_ntohl helper macro in samples/bpf/bpf_endian.h to
* convert them to host byte order.
*/
struct bpf_sock_ops {
__u32 op;
union {
__u32 reply;
__u32 replylong[4];
};
__u32 family;
__u32 remote_ip4; /* In network byte order */
__u32 local_ip4; /* In network byte order */
__u32 remote_ip6[4]; /* In network byte order */
__u32 local_ip6[4]; /* In network byte order */
__u32 remote_port; /* In network byte order */
__u32 local_port; /* In host byte horder */
};

Currently there are two types of ops. The first type expects the BPF
program to return a value which is then used by the caller (or a
negative value to indicate the operation is not supported). The second
type expects state changes to be done by the BPF program, for example
through a setsockopt BPF helper function, and they ignore the return
value.

The reply fields of the bpf_sockt_ops struct are there in case a bpf
program needs to return a value larger than an integer.

Signed-off-by: Lawrence Brakmo <brakmo@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# ded092cd 10-Jun-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_set_hash helper for tc progs

Allow for tc BPF programs to set a skb->hash, apart from clearing
and triggering a recalc that we have right now. It allows for BPF
to implement a custom hashing routine for skb_get_hash().

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 1e270976 05-Jun-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD

A single BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD cmd is used to obtain the info
for both bpf_prog and bpf_map. The kernel can figure out the
fd is associated with a bpf_prog or bpf_map.

The suggested struct bpf_prog_info and struct bpf_map_info are
not meant to be a complete list and it is not the goal of this patch.
New fields can be added in the future patch.

The focus of this patch is to create the interface,
BPF_OBJ_GET_INFO_BY_FD cmd for exposing the bpf_prog's and
bpf_map's info.

The obj's info, which will be extended (and get bigger) over time, is
separated from the bpf_attr to avoid bloating the bpf_attr.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# bd5f5f4e 05-Jun-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_MAP_GET_FD_BY_ID

Add BPF_MAP_GET_FD_BY_ID command to allow user to get a fd
from a bpf_map's ID.

bpf_map_inc_not_zero() is added and is called with map_idr_lock
held.

__bpf_map_put() is also added which has the 'bool do_idr_lock'
param to decide if the map_idr_lock should be acquired when
freeing the map->id.

In the error path of bpf_map_inc_not_zero(), it may have to
call __bpf_map_put(map, false) which does not need
to take the map_idr_lock when freeing the map->id.

It is currently limited to CAP_SYS_ADMIN which we can
consider to lift it in followup patches.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# b16d9aa4 05-Jun-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_PROG_GET_FD_BY_ID

Add BPF_PROG_GET_FD_BY_ID command to allow user to get a fd
from a bpf_prog's ID.

bpf_prog_inc_not_zero() is added and is called with prog_idr_lock
held.

__bpf_prog_put() is also added which has the 'bool do_idr_lock'
param to decide if the prog_idr_lock should be acquired when
freeing the prog->id.

In the error path of bpf_prog_inc_not_zero(), it may have to
call __bpf_prog_put(map, false) which does not need
to take the prog_idr_lock when freeing the prog->id.

It is currently limited to CAP_SYS_ADMIN which we can
consider to lift it in followup patches.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 34ad5580 05-Jun-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_(PROG|MAP)_GET_NEXT_ID command

This patch adds BPF_PROG_GET_NEXT_ID and BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_ID
to allow userspace to iterate all bpf_prog IDs and bpf_map IDs.

The API is trying to be consistent with the existing
BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_KEY.

It is currently limited to CAP_SYS_ADMIN which we can
consider to lift it in followup patches.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# b7d3ed5b 02-Jun-2017 Teng Qin <qinteng@fb.com>

bpf: update perf event helper functions documentation

This commit updates documentation of the bpf_perf_event_output and
bpf_perf_event_read helpers to match their implementation.

Signed-off-by: Teng Qin <qinteng@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# e07b98d9 10-May-2017 David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

bpf: Add strict alignment flag for BPF_PROG_LOAD.

Add a new field, "prog_flags", and an initial flag value
BPF_F_STRICT_ALIGNMENT.

When set, the verifier will enforce strict pointer alignment
regardless of the setting of CONFIG_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS.

The verifier, in this mode, will also use a fixed value of "2" in
place of NET_IP_ALIGN.

This facilitates test cases that will exercise and validate this part
of the verifier even when run on architectures where alignment doesn't
matter.

Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>


# 5d4e3443 26-Apr-2017 Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>

bpf: Fix inaccurate helper function description

The description inside uapi/linux/bpf.h about bpf_get_socket_uid
helper function is no longer valid. It returns overflowuid rather
than 0 when failed.

Signed-off-by: Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# b1d9fc41 19-Apr-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add napi_id read access to __sk_buff

Add napi_id access to __sk_buff for socket filter program types, tc
program types and other bpf_convert_ctx_access() users. Having access
to skb->napi_id is useful for per RX queue listener siloing, f.e.
in combination with SO_ATTACH_REUSEPORT_EBPF and when busy polling is
used, meaning SO_REUSEPORT enabled listeners can then select the
corresponding socket at SYN time already [1]. The skb is marked via
skb_mark_napi_id() early in the receive path (e.g., napi_gro_receive()).

Currently, sockets can only use SO_INCOMING_NAPI_ID from 6d4339028b35
("net: Introduce SO_INCOMING_NAPI_ID") as a socket option to look up
the NAPI ID associated with the queue for steering, which requires a
prior sk_mark_napi_id() after the socket was looked up.

Semantics for the __sk_buff napi_id access are similar, meaning if
skb->napi_id is < MIN_NAPI_ID (e.g. outgoing packets using sender_cpu),
then an invalid napi_id of 0 is returned to the program, otherwise a
valid non-zero napi_id.

[1] http://netdevconf.org/2.1/slides/apr6/dumazet-BUSY-POLLING-Netdev-2.1.pdf

Suggested-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 3c60a531 08-Apr-2017 Alexander Alemayhu <alexander@alemayhu.com>

bpf: fix comment typo

o s/bpf_bpf_get_socket_cookie/bpf_get_socket_cookie

Signed-off-by: Alexander Alemayhu <alexander@alemayhu.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 1cf1cae9 30-Mar-2017 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN command

development and testing of networking bpf programs is quite cumbersome.
Despite availability of user space bpf interpreters the kernel is
the ultimate authority and execution environment.
Current test frameworks for TC include creation of netns, veth,
qdiscs and use of various packet generators just to test functionality
of a bpf program. XDP testing is even more complicated, since
qemu needs to be started with gro/gso disabled and precise queue
configuration, transferring of xdp program from host into guest,
attaching to virtio/eth0 and generating traffic from the host
while capturing the results from the guest.

Moreover analyzing performance bottlenecks in XDP program is
impossible in virtio environment, since cost of running the program
is tiny comparing to the overhead of virtio packet processing,
so performance testing can only be done on physical nic
with another server generating traffic.

Furthermore ongoing changes to user space control plane of production
applications cannot be run on the test servers leaving bpf programs
stubbed out for testing.

Last but not least, the upstream llvm changes are validated by the bpf
backend testsuite which has no ability to test the code generated.

To improve this situation introduce BPF_PROG_TEST_RUN command
to test and performance benchmark bpf programs.

Joint work with Daniel Borkmann.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6acc5c29 22-Mar-2017 Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>

Add a eBPF helper function to retrieve socket uid

Returns the owner uid of the socket inside a sk_buff. This is useful to
perform per-UID accounting of network traffic or per-UID packet
filtering. The socket need to be a fullsock otherwise overflowuid is
returned.

Signed-off-by: Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 91b8270f 22-Mar-2017 Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>

Add a helper function to get socket cookie in eBPF

Retrieve the socket cookie generated by sock_gen_cookie() from a sk_buff
with a known socket. Generates a new cookie if one was not yet set.If
the socket pointer inside sk_buff is NULL, 0 is returned. The helper
function coud be useful in monitoring per socket networking traffic
statistics and provide a unique socket identifier per namespace.

Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Chenbo Feng <fengc@google.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# bcc6b1b7 22-Mar-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add hash of maps support

This patch adds hash of maps support (hashmap->bpf_map).
BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH_OF_MAPS is added.

A map-in-map contains a pointer to another map and lets call
this pointer 'inner_map_ptr'.

Notes on deleting inner_map_ptr from a hash map:

1. For BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC map-in-map, when deleting
an inner_map_ptr, the htab_elem itself will go through
a rcu grace period and the inner_map_ptr resides
in the htab_elem.

2. For pre-allocated htab_elem (!BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC),
when deleting an inner_map_ptr, the htab_elem may
get reused immediately. This situation is similar
to the existing prealloc-ated use cases.

However, the bpf_map_fd_put_ptr() calls bpf_map_put() which calls
inner_map->ops->map_free(inner_map) which will go
through a rcu grace period (i.e. all bpf_map's map_free
currently goes through a rcu grace period). Hence,
the inner_map_ptr is still safe for the rcu reader side.

This patch also includes BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH_OF_MAPS to the
check_map_prealloc() in the verifier. preallocation is a
must for BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT. Hence, even we don't expect
heavy updates to map-in-map, enforcing BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC for map-in-map
is impossible without disallowing BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT from using
map-in-map first.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 56f668df 22-Mar-2017 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add array of maps support

This patch adds a few helper funcs to enable map-in-map
support (i.e. outer_map->inner_map). The first outer_map type
BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY_OF_MAPS is also added in this patch.
The next patch will introduce a hash of maps type.

Any bpf map type can be acted as an inner_map. The exception
is BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY because the extra level of
indirection makes it harder to verify the owner_prog_type
and owner_jited.

Multi-level map-in-map is not supported (i.e. map->map is ok
but not map->map->map).

When adding an inner_map to an outer_map, it currently checks the
map_type, key_size, value_size, map_flags, max_entries and ops.
The verifier also uses those map's properties to do static analysis.
map_flags is needed because we need to ensure BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT
is using a preallocated hashtab for the inner_hash also. ops and
max_entries are needed to generate inlined map-lookup instructions.
For simplicity reason, a simple '==' test is used for both map_flags
and max_entries. The equality of ops is implied by the equality of
map_type.

During outer_map creation time, an inner_map_fd is needed to create an
outer_map. However, the inner_map_fd's life time does not depend on the
outer_map. The inner_map_fd is merely used to initialize
the inner_map_meta of the outer_map.

Also, for the outer_map:

* It allows element update and delete from syscall
* It allows element lookup from bpf_prog

The above is similar to the current fd_array pattern.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 7f677633 10-Feb-2017 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_F_ALLOW_OVERRIDE flag

If BPF_F_ALLOW_OVERRIDE flag is used in BPF_PROG_ATTACH command
to the given cgroup the descendent cgroup will be able to override
effective bpf program that was inherited from this cgroup.
By default it's not passed, therefore override is disallowed.

Examples:
1.
prog X attached to /A with default
prog Y fails to attach to /A/B and /A/B/C
Everything under /A runs prog X

2.
prog X attached to /A with allow_override.
prog Y fails to attach to /A/B with default (non-override)
prog M attached to /A/B with allow_override.
Everything under /A/B runs prog M only.

3.
prog X attached to /A with allow_override.
prog Y fails to attach to /A with default.
The user has to detach first to switch the mode.

In the future this behavior may be extended with a chain of
non-overridable programs.

Also fix the bug where detach from cgroup where nothing is attached
was not throwing error. Return ENOENT in such case.

Add several testcases and adjust libbpf.

Fixes: 3007098494be ("cgroup: add support for eBPF programs")
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# d1b662ad 23-Jan-2017 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: allow option for setting bpf_l4_csum_replace from scratch

When programs need to calculate the csum from scratch for small UDP
packets and use bpf_l4_csum_replace() to feed the result from helpers
like bpf_csum_diff(), then we need a flag besides BPF_F_MARK_MANGLED_0
that would ignore the case of current csum being 0, and which would
still allow for the helper to set the csum and transform when needed
to CSUM_MANGLED_0.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# b95a5c4d 21-Jan-2017 Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>

bpf: add a longest prefix match trie map implementation

This trie implements a longest prefix match algorithm that can be used
to match IP addresses to a stored set of ranges.

Internally, data is stored in an unbalanced trie of nodes that has a
maximum height of n, where n is the prefixlen the trie was created
with.

Tries may be created with prefix lengths that are multiples of 8, in
the range from 8 to 2048. The key used for lookup and update operations
is a struct bpf_lpm_trie_key, and the value is a uint64_t.

The code carries more information about the internal implementation.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>
Reviewed-by: David Herrmann <dh.herrmann@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# a5e8c070 18-Jan-2017 Gianluca Borello <g.borello@gmail.com>

bpf: add bpf_probe_read_str helper

Provide a simple helper with the same semantics of strncpy_from_unsafe():

int bpf_probe_read_str(void *dst, int size, const void *unsafe_addr)

This gives more flexibility to a bpf program. A typical use case is
intercepting a file name during sys_open(). The current approach is:

SEC("kprobe/sys_open")
void bpf_sys_open(struct pt_regs *ctx)
{
char buf[PATHLEN]; // PATHLEN is defined to 256
bpf_probe_read(buf, sizeof(buf), ctx->di);

/* consume buf */
}

This is suboptimal because the size of the string needs to be estimated
at compile time, causing more memory to be copied than often necessary,
and can become more problematic if further processing on buf is done,
for example by pushing it to userspace via bpf_perf_event_output(),
since the real length of the string is unknown and the entire buffer
must be copied (and defining an unrolled strnlen() inside the bpf
program is a very inefficient and unfeasible approach).

With the new helper, the code can easily operate on the actual string
length rather than the buffer size:

SEC("kprobe/sys_open")
void bpf_sys_open(struct pt_regs *ctx)
{
char buf[PATHLEN]; // PATHLEN is defined to 256
int res = bpf_probe_read_str(buf, sizeof(buf), ctx->di);

/* consume buf, for example push it to userspace via
* bpf_perf_event_output(), but this time we can use
* res (the string length) as event size, after checking
* its boundaries.
*/
}

Another useful use case is when parsing individual process arguments or
individual environment variables navigating current->mm->arg_start and
current->mm->env_start: using this helper and the return value, one can
quickly iterate at the right offset of the memory area.

The code changes simply leverage the already existent
strncpy_from_unsafe() kernel function, which is safe to be called from a
bpf program as it is used in bpf_trace_printk().

Signed-off-by: Gianluca Borello <g.borello@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 17bedab2 07-Dec-2016 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: xdp: Allow head adjustment in XDP prog

This patch allows XDP prog to extend/remove the packet
data at the head (like adding or removing header). It is
done by adding a new XDP helper bpf_xdp_adjust_head().

It also renames bpf_helper_changes_skb_data() to
bpf_helper_changes_pkt_data() to better reflect
that XDP prog does not work on skb.

This patch adds one "xdp_adjust_head" bit to bpf_prog for the
XDP-capable driver to check if the XDP prog requires
bpf_xdp_adjust_head() support. The driver can then decide
to error out during XDP_SETUP_PROG.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: John Fastabend <john.r.fastabend@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# aa4c1037 01-Dec-2016 David Ahern <dsa@cumulusnetworks.com>

bpf: Add support for reading socket family, type, protocol

Add socket family, type and protocol to bpf_sock allowing bpf programs
read-only access.

Add __sk_flags_offset[0] to struct sock before the bitfield to
programmtically determine the offset of the unsigned int containing
protocol and type.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsa@cumulusnetworks.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 61023658 01-Dec-2016 David Ahern <dsa@cumulusnetworks.com>

bpf: Add new cgroup attach type to enable sock modifications

Add new cgroup based program type, BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK. Similar to
BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB programs can be attached to a cgroup and run
any time a process in the cgroup opens an AF_INET or AF_INET6 socket.
Currently only sk_bound_dev_if is exported to userspace for modification
by a bpf program.

This allows a cgroup to be configured such that AF_INET{6} sockets opened
by processes are automatically bound to a specific device. In turn, this
enables the running of programs that do not support SO_BINDTODEVICE in a
specific VRF context / L3 domain.

Signed-off-by: David Ahern <dsa@cumulusnetworks.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 3a0af8fd 30-Nov-2016 Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>

bpf: BPF for lightweight tunnel infrastructure

Registers new BPF program types which correspond to the LWT hooks:
- BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_IN => dst_input()
- BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_OUT => dst_output()
- BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_XMIT => lwtunnel_xmit()

The separate program types are required to differentiate between the
capabilities each LWT hook allows:

* Programs attached to dst_input() or dst_output() are restricted and
may only read the data of an skb. This prevent modification and
possible invalidation of already validated packet headers on receive
and the construction of illegal headers while the IP headers are
still being assembled.

* Programs attached to lwtunnel_xmit() are allowed to modify packet
content as well as prepending an L2 header via a newly introduced
helper bpf_skb_change_head(). This is safe as lwtunnel_xmit() is
invoked after the IP header has been assembled completely.

All BPF programs receive an skb with L3 headers attached and may return
one of the following error codes:

BPF_OK - Continue routing as per nexthop
BPF_DROP - Drop skb and return EPERM
BPF_REDIRECT - Redirect skb to device as per redirect() helper.
(Only valid in lwtunnel_xmit() context)

The return codes are binary compatible with their TC_ACT_
relatives to ease compatibility.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# f4324551 23-Nov-2016 Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>

bpf: add BPF_PROG_ATTACH and BPF_PROG_DETACH commands

Extend the bpf(2) syscall by two new commands, BPF_PROG_ATTACH and
BPF_PROG_DETACH which allow attaching and detaching eBPF programs
to a target.

On the API level, the target could be anything that has an fd in
userspace, hence the name of the field in union bpf_attr is called
'target_fd'.

When called with BPF_ATTACH_TYPE_CGROUP_INET_{E,IN}GRESS, the target is
expected to be a valid file descriptor of a cgroup v2 directory which
has the bpf controller enabled. These are the only use-cases
implemented by this patch at this point, but more can be added.

If a program of the given type already exists in the given cgroup,
the program is swapped automically, so userspace does not have to drop
an existing program first before installing a new one, which would
otherwise leave a gap in which no program is attached.

For more information on the propagation logic to subcgroups, please
refer to the bpf cgroup controller implementation.

The API is guarded by CAP_NET_ADMIN.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 0e33661d 23-Nov-2016 Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>

bpf: add new prog type for cgroup socket filtering

This program type is similar to BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER, except that
it does not allow BPF_LD_[ABS|IND] instructions and hooks up the
bpf_skb_load_bytes() helper.

Programs of this type will be attached to cgroups for network filtering
and accounting.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Mack <daniel@zonque.org>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 8f844938 11-Nov-2016 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_MAP_TYPE_LRU_PERCPU_HASH

Provide a LRU version of the existing BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_HASH

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 29ba732a 11-Nov-2016 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

bpf: Add BPF_MAP_TYPE_LRU_HASH

Provide a LRU version of the existing BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# ebb676da 27-Oct-2016 Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>

bpf: Print function name in addition to function id

The verifier currently prints raw function ids when printing CALL
instructions or when complaining:

5: (85) call 23
unknown func 23

print a meaningful function name instead:

5: (85) call bpf_redirect#23
unknown func bpf_redirect#23

Moves the function documentation to a single comment and renames all
helpers names in the list to conform to the bpf_ prefix notation so
they can be greped in the kernel source.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 2d0e30c3 20-Oct-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add helper for retrieving current numa node id

Use case is mainly for soreuseport to select sockets for the local
numa node, but since generic, lets also add this for other networking
and tracing program types.

Suggested-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 7a4b28c6 22-Sep-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add helper to invalidate hash

Add a small helper that complements 36bbef52c7eb ("bpf: direct packet
write and access for helpers for clsact progs") for invalidating the
current skb->hash after mangling on headers via direct packet write.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 36bbef52 19-Sep-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: direct packet write and access for helpers for clsact progs

This work implements direct packet access for helpers and direct packet
write in a similar fashion as already available for XDP types via commits
4acf6c0b84c9 ("bpf: enable direct packet data write for xdp progs") and
6841de8b0d03 ("bpf: allow helpers access the packet directly"), and as a
complementary feature to the already available direct packet read for tc
(cls/act) programs.

For enabling this, we need to introduce two helpers, bpf_skb_pull_data()
and bpf_csum_update(). The first is generally needed for both, read and
write, because they would otherwise only be limited to the current linear
skb head. Usually, when the data_end test fails, programs just bail out,
or, in the direct read case, use bpf_skb_load_bytes() as an alternative
to overcome this limitation. If such data sits in non-linear parts, we
can just pull them in once with the new helper, retest and eventually
access them.

At the same time, this also makes sure the skb is uncloned, which is, of
course, a necessary condition for direct write. As this needs to be an
invariant for the write part only, the verifier detects writes and adds
a prologue that is calling bpf_skb_pull_data() to effectively unclone the
skb from the very beginning in case it is indeed cloned. The heuristic
makes use of a similar trick that was done in 233577a22089 ("net: filter:
constify detection of pkt_type_offset"). This comes at zero cost for other
programs that do not use the direct write feature. Should a program use
this feature only sparsely and has read access for the most parts with,
for example, drop return codes, then such write action can be delegated
to a tail called program for mitigating this cost of potential uncloning
to a late point in time where it would have been paid similarly with the
bpf_skb_store_bytes() as well. Advantage of direct write is that the
writes are inlined whereas the helper cannot make any length assumptions
and thus needs to generate a call to memcpy() also for small sizes, as well
as cost of helper call itself with sanity checks are avoided. Plus, when
direct read is already used, we don't need to cache or perform rechecks
on the data boundaries (due to verifier invalidating previous checks for
helpers that change skb->data), so more complex programs using rewrites
can benefit from switching to direct read plus write.

For direct packet access to helpers, we save the otherwise needed copy into
a temp struct sitting on stack memory when use-case allows. Both facilities
are enabled via may_access_direct_pkt_data() in verifier. For now, we limit
this to map helpers and csum_diff, and can successively enable other helpers
where we find it makes sense. Helpers that definitely cannot be allowed for
this are those part of bpf_helper_changes_skb_data() since they can change
underlying data, and those that write into memory as this could happen for
packet typed args when still cloned. bpf_csum_update() helper accommodates
for the fact that we need to fixup checksum_complete when using direct write
instead of bpf_skb_store_bytes(), meaning the programs can use available
helpers like bpf_csum_diff(), and implement csum_add(), csum_sub(),
csum_block_add(), csum_block_sub() equivalents in eBPF together with the
new helper. A usage example will be provided for iproute2's examples/bpf/
directory.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 0515e599 01-Sep-2016 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT program type

Introduce BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT programs that can be attached to
HW and SW perf events (PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE and PERF_TYPE_SOFTWARE
correspondingly in uapi/linux/perf_event.h)

The program visible context meta structure is
struct bpf_perf_event_data {
struct pt_regs regs;
__u64 sample_period;
};
which is accessible directly from the program:
int bpf_prog(struct bpf_perf_event_data *ctx)
{
... ctx->sample_period ...
... ctx->regs.ip ...
}

The bpf verifier rewrites the accesses into kernel internal
struct bpf_perf_event_data_kern which allows changing
struct perf_sample_data without affecting bpf programs.
New fields can be added to the end of struct bpf_perf_event_data
in the future.

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 5293efe6 17-Aug-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_skb_change_tail helper

This work adds a bpf_skb_change_tail() helper for tc BPF programs. The
basic idea is to expand or shrink the skb in a controlled manner. The
eBPF program can then rewrite the rest via helpers like bpf_skb_store_bytes(),
bpf_lX_csum_replace() and others rather than passing a raw buffer for
writing here.

bpf_skb_change_tail() is really a slow path helper and intended for
replies with f.e. ICMP control messages. Concept is similar to other
helpers like bpf_skb_change_proto() helper to keep the helper without
protocol specifics and let the BPF program mangle the remaining parts.
A flags field has been added and is reserved for now should we extend
the helper in future.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 747ea55e 12-Aug-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: fix bpf_skb_in_cgroup helper naming

While hashing out BPF's current_task_under_cgroup helper bits, it came
to discussion that the skb_in_cgroup helper name was suboptimally chosen.

Tejun says:

So, I think in_cgroup should mean that the object is in that
particular cgroup while under_cgroup in the subhierarchy of that
cgroup. Let's rename the other subhierarchy test to under too. I
think that'd be a lot less confusing going forward.

[...]

It's more intuitive and gives us the room to implement the real
"in" test if ever necessary in the future.

Since this touches uapi bits, we need to change this as long as v4.8
is not yet officially released. Thus, change the helper enum and rename
related bits.

Fixes: 4a482f34afcc ("cgroup: bpf: Add bpf_skb_in_cgroup_proto")
Reference: http://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/658500/
Suggested-by: Sargun Dhillon <sargun@sargun.me>
Suggested-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>


# 60d20f91 12-Aug-2016 Sargun Dhillon <sargun@sargun.me>

bpf: Add bpf_current_task_under_cgroup helper

This adds a bpf helper that's similar to the skb_in_cgroup helper to check
whether the probe is currently executing in the context of a specific
subset of the cgroupsv2 hierarchy. It does this based on membership test
for a cgroup arraymap. It is invalid to call this in an interrupt, and
it'll return an error. The helper is primarily to be used in debugging
activities for containers, where you may have multiple programs running in
a given top-level "container".

Signed-off-by: Sargun Dhillon <sargun@sargun.me>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 96ae5227 25-Jul-2016 Sargun Dhillon <sargun@sargun.me>

bpf: Add bpf_probe_write_user BPF helper to be called in tracers

This allows user memory to be written to during the course of a kprobe.
It shouldn't be used to implement any kind of security mechanism
because of TOC-TOU attacks, but rather to debug, divert, and
manipulate execution of semi-cooperative processes.

Although it uses probe_kernel_write, we limit the address space
the probe can write into by checking the space with access_ok.
We do this as opposed to calling copy_to_user directly, in order
to avoid sleeping. In addition we ensure the threads's current fs
/ segment is USER_DS and the thread isn't exiting nor a kernel thread.

Given this feature is meant for experiments, and it has a risk of
crashing the system, and running programs, we print a warning on
when a proglet that attempts to use this helper is installed,
along with the pid and process name.

Signed-off-by: Sargun Dhillon <sargun@sargun.me>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6ce96ca3 19-Jul-2016 Brenden Blanco <bblanco@plumgrid.com>

bpf: add XDP_TX xdp_action for direct forwarding

XDP enabled drivers must transmit received packets back out on the same
port they were received on when a program returns this action.

Signed-off-by: Brenden Blanco <bblanco@plumgrid.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6a773a15 19-Jul-2016 Brenden Blanco <bblanco@plumgrid.com>

bpf: add XDP prog type for early driver filter

Add a new bpf prog type that is intended to run in early stages of the
packet rx path. Only minimal packet metadata will be available, hence a
new context type, struct xdp_md, is exposed to userspace. So far only
expose the packet start and end pointers, and only in read mode.

An XDP program must return one of the well known enum values, all other
return codes are reserved for future use. Unfortunately, this
restriction is hard to enforce at verification time, so take the
approach of warning at runtime when such programs are encountered. Out
of bounds return codes should alias to XDP_ABORTED.

Signed-off-by: Brenden Blanco <bblanco@plumgrid.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 555c8a86 14-Jul-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: avoid stack copy and use skb ctx for event output

This work addresses a couple of issues bpf_skb_event_output()
helper currently has: i) We need two copies instead of just a
single one for the skb data when it should be part of a sample.
The data can be non-linear and thus needs to be extracted via
bpf_skb_load_bytes() helper first, and then copied once again
into the ring buffer slot. ii) Since bpf_skb_load_bytes()
currently needs to be used first, the helper needs to see a
constant size on the passed stack buffer to make sure BPF
verifier can do sanity checks on it during verification time.
Thus, just passing skb->len (or any other non-constant value)
wouldn't work, but changing bpf_skb_load_bytes() is also not
the proper solution, since the two copies are generally still
needed. iii) bpf_skb_load_bytes() is just for rather small
buffers like headers, since they need to sit on the limited
BPF stack anyway. Instead of working around in bpf_skb_load_bytes(),
this work improves the bpf_skb_event_output() helper to address
all 3 at once.

We can make use of the passed in skb context that we have in
the helper anyway, and use some of the reserved flag bits as
a length argument. The helper will use the new __output_custom()
facility from perf side with bpf_skb_copy() as callback helper
to walk and extract the data. It will pass the data for setup
to bpf_event_output(), which generates and pushes the raw record
with an additional frag part. The linear data used in the first
frag of the record serves as programmatically defined meta data
passed along with the appended sample.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 606274c5 06-Jul-2016 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: introduce bpf_get_current_task() helper

over time there were multiple requests to access different data
structures and fields of task_struct current, so finally add
the helper to access 'current' as-is. Tracing bpf programs will do
the rest of walking the pointers via bpf_probe_read().
Note that current can be null and bpf program has to deal it with,
but even dumb passing null into bpf_probe_read() is still safe.

Suggested-by: Brendan Gregg <brendan.d.gregg@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 13c5c240 02-Jul-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_get_hash_recalc helper

If skb_clear_hash() was invoked due to mangling of relevant headers and
BPF program needs skb->hash later on, we can add a helper to trigger hash
recalculation via bpf_get_hash_recalc().

The helper will return the newly retrieved hash directly, but later access
can also be done via skb context again through skb->hash directly (inline)
without needing to call the helper once more.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 4a482f34 30-Jun-2016 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

cgroup: bpf: Add bpf_skb_in_cgroup_proto

Adds a bpf helper, bpf_skb_in_cgroup, to decide if a skb->sk
belongs to a descendant of a cgroup2. It is similar to the
feature added in netfilter:
commit c38c4597e4bf ("netfilter: implement xt_cgroup cgroup2 path match")

The user is expected to populate a BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_ARRAY
which will be used by the bpf_skb_in_cgroup.

Modifications to the bpf verifier is to ensure BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_ARRAY
and bpf_skb_in_cgroup() are always used together.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 4ed8ec52 30-Jun-2016 Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>

cgroup: bpf: Add BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_ARRAY

Add a BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_ARRAY and its bpf_map_ops's implementations.
To update an element, the caller is expected to obtain a cgroup2 backed
fd by open(cgroup2_dir) and then update the array with that fd.

Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@fb.com>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# d2485c42 27-Jun-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_skb_change_type helper

This work adds a helper for changing skb->pkt_type in a controlled way.
We only allow a subset of possible values and can extend that in future
should other use cases come up. Doing this as a helper has the advantage
that errors can be handeled gracefully and thus helper kept extensible.

It's a write counterpart to pkt_type member we can already read from
struct __sk_buff context. Major use case is to change incoming skbs to
PACKET_HOST in a programmatic way instead of having to recirculate via
redirect(..., BPF_F_INGRESS), for example.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6578171a 27-Jun-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf: add bpf_skb_change_proto helper

This patch adds a minimal helper for doing the groundwork of changing
the skb->protocol in a controlled way. Currently supported is v4 to
v6 and vice versa transitions, which allows f.e. for a minimal, static
nat64 implementation where applications in containers that still
require IPv4 can be transparently operated in an IPv6-only environment.
For example, host facing veth of the container can transparently do
the transitions in a programmatic way with the help of clsact qdisc
and cls_bpf.

Idea is to separate concerns for keeping complexity of the helper
lower, which means that the programs utilize bpf_skb_change_proto(),
bpf_skb_store_bytes() and bpf_lX_csum_replace() to get the job done,
instead of doing everything in a single helper (and thus partially
duplicating helper functionality). Also, bpf_skb_change_proto()
shouldn't need to deal with raw packet data as this is done by other
helpers.

bpf_skb_proto_6_to_4() and bpf_skb_proto_4_to_6() unclone the skb to
operate on a private one, push or pop additionally required header
space and migrate the gso/gro meta data from the shared info. We do
mark the gso type as dodgy so that headers are checked and segs
recalculated by the gso/gro engine. The gso_size target is adapted
as well. The flags argument added is currently reserved and can be
used for future extensions.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 6816a7ff 27-Jun-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf, trace: add BPF_F_CURRENT_CPU flag for bpf_perf_event_read

Follow-up commit to 1e33759c788c ("bpf, trace: add BPF_F_CURRENT_CPU
flag for bpf_perf_event_output") to add the same functionality into
bpf_perf_event_read() helper. The split of index into flags and index
component is also safe here, since such large maps are rejected during
map allocation time.

Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 969bf05e 05-May-2016 Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>

bpf: direct packet access

Extended BPF carried over two instructions from classic to access
packet data: LD_ABS and LD_IND. They're highly optimized in JITs,
but due to their design they have to do length check for every access.
When BPF is processing 20M packets per second single LD_ABS after JIT
is consuming 3% cpu. Hence the need to optimize it further by amortizing
the cost of 'off < skb_headlen' over multiple packet accesses.
One option is to introduce two new eBPF instructions LD_ABS_DW and LD_IND_DW
with similar usage as skb_header_pointer().
The kernel part for interpreter and x64 JIT was implemented in [1], but such
new insns behave like old ld_abs and abort the program with 'return 0' if
access is beyond linear data. Such hidden control flow is hard to workaround
plus changing JITs and rolling out new llvm is incovenient.

Therefore allow cls_bpf/act_bpf program access skb->data directly:
int bpf_prog(struct __sk_buff *skb)
{
struct iphdr *ip;

if (skb->data + sizeof(struct iphdr) + ETH_HLEN > skb->data_end)
/* packet too small */
return 0;

ip = skb->data + ETH_HLEN;

/* access IP header fields with direct loads */
if (ip->version != 4 || ip->saddr == 0x7f000001)
return 1;
[...]
}

This solution avoids introduction of new instructions. llvm stays
the same and all JITs stay the same, but verifier has to work extra hard
to prove safety of the above program.

For XDP the direct store instructions can be allowed as well.

The skb->data is NET_IP_ALIGNED, so for common cases the verifier can check
the alignment. The complex packet parsers where packet pointer is adjusted
incrementally cannot be tracked for alignment, so allow byte access in such cases
and misaligned access on architectures that define efficient_unaligned_access

[1] https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/ast/bpf.git/?h=ld_abs_dw

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>


# 1e33759c 18-Apr-2016 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

bpf, trace: add BPF_F_CURRENT_CPU flag for bpf_perf_event_output