History log of /linux-master/include/linux/uidgid.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# b2441318 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license

Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne.

How this work was done:

Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.

The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5

All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.

- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.

For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 11139

and resulted in the first patch in this series.

If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930

and resulted in the second patch in this series.

- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1

and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).

- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
in time.

In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.

Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.

In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
correct identifier.

Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct

This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.

These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# 37b11804 27-Jun-2016 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Handle -1 in k[ug]id_has_mapping when !CONFIG_USER_NS

Refuse to admit any user namespace has a mapping of the INVALID_UID

Acked-by: Seth Forshee <seth.forshee@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 929aa5b2 14-May-2015 Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>

uidgid: make uid_valid and gid_valid work with !CONFIG_MULTIUSER

{u,g}id_valid call {u,g}id_eq, which calls __k{u,g}id_val on both
arguments and compares. With !CONFIG_MULTIUSER, __k{u,g}id_val return a
constant 0, which makes {u,g}id_valid always return false. Change
{u,g}id_valid to compare their argument against -1 instead. That produces
identical results in the normal CONFIG_MULTIUSER=y case, but with
!CONFIG_MULTIUSER will make {u,g}id_valid constant-fold into "return
true;" rather than "return false;".

This fixes uses of devpts without CONFIG_MULTIUSER.

Signed-off-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
Reported-by: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com>,
Cc: Peter Hurley <peter@hurleysoftware.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 2813893f 15-Apr-2015 Iulia Manda <iulia.manda21@gmail.com>

kernel: conditionally support non-root users, groups and capabilities

There are a lot of embedded systems that run most or all of their
functionality in init, running as root:root. For these systems,
supporting multiple users is not necessary.

This patch adds a new symbol, CONFIG_MULTIUSER, that makes support for
non-root users, non-root groups, and capabilities optional. It is enabled
under CONFIG_EXPERT menu.

When this symbol is not defined, UID and GID are zero in any possible case
and processes always have all capabilities.

The following syscalls are compiled out: setuid, setregid, setgid,
setreuid, setresuid, getresuid, setresgid, getresgid, setgroups,
getgroups, setfsuid, setfsgid, capget, capset.

Also, groups.c is compiled out completely.

In kernel/capability.c, capable function was moved in order to avoid
adding two ifdef blocks.

This change saves about 25 KB on a defconfig build. The most minimal
kernels have total text sizes in the high hundreds of kB rather than
low MB. (The 25k goes down a bit with allnoconfig, but not that much.

The kernel was booted in Qemu. All the common functionalities work.
Adding users/groups is not possible, failing with -ENOSYS.

Bloat-o-meter output:
add/remove: 7/87 grow/shrink: 19/397 up/down: 1675/-26325 (-24650)

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Iulia Manda <iulia.manda21@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
Acked-by: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Tested-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Reviewed-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 261000a5 25-May-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: userns: Remove UIDGID_STRICT_TYPE_CHECKS

Removing UIDGID_STRICT_TYPE_CHECKS simplifies the code and always
generates a compile error if the uids and kuids or gids and kgids are
mixed by accident. Now that the appropriate conversions have been
placed throughout the kernel there is no longer a need for a mode where
we don't detect them as compile errors.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 22d917d8 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Rework the user_namespace adding uid/gid mapping support

- Convert the old uid mapping functions into compatibility wrappers
- Add a uid/gid mapping layer from user space uid and gids to kernel
internal uids and gids that is extent based for simplicty and speed.
* Working with number space after mapping uids/gids into their kernel
internal version adds only mapping complexity over what we have today,
leaving the kernel code easy to understand and test.
- Add proc files /proc/self/uid_map /proc/self/gid_map
These files display the mapping and allow a mapping to be added
if a mapping does not exist.
- Allow entering the user namespace without a uid or gid mapping.
Since we are starting with an existing user our uids and gids
still have global mappings so are still valid and useful they just don't
have local mappings. The requirement for things to work are global uid
and gid so it is odd but perfectly fine not to have a local uid
and gid mapping.
Not requiring global uid and gid mappings greatly simplifies
the logic of setting up the uid and gid mappings by allowing
the mappings to be set after the namespace is created which makes the
slight weirdness worth it.
- Make the mappings in the initial user namespace to the global
uid/gid space explicit. Today it is an identity mapping
but in the future we may want to twist this for debugging, similar
to what we do with jiffies.
- Document the memory ordering requirements of setting the uid and
gid mappings. We only allow the mappings to be set once
and there are no pointers involved so the requirments are
trivial but a little atypical.


In this scheme for the permission checks the performance is expected to
stay the same as the actuall machine instructions should remain the same.

The worst case I could think of is ls -l on a large directory where
all of the stat results need to be translated with from kuids and
kgids to uids and gids. So I benchmarked that case on my laptop
with a dual core hyperthread Intel i5-2520M cpu with 3M of cpu cache.

My benchmark consisted of going to single user mode where nothing else
was running. On an ext4 filesystem opening 1,000,000 files and looping
through all of the files 1000 times and calling fstat on the
individuals files. This was to ensure I was benchmarking stat times
where the inodes were in the kernels cache, but the inode values were
not in the processors cache. My results:

v3.4-rc1: ~= 156ns (unmodified v3.4-rc1 with user namespace support disabled)
v3.4-rc1-userns-: ~= 155ns (v3.4-rc1 with my user namespace patches and user namespace support disabled)
v3.4-rc1-userns+: ~= 164ns (v3.4-rc1 with my user namespace patches and user namespace support enabled)

All of the configurations ran in roughly 120ns when I performed tests
that ran in the cpu cache.

So in summary the performance impact is:
1ns improvement in the worst case with user namespace support compiled out.
8ns aka 5% slowdown in the worst case with user namespace support compiled in.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 5673a94c 17-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Add a Kconfig option to enforce strict kuid and kgid type checks

Make it possible to easily switch between strong mandatory
type checks and relaxed type checks so that the code can
easily be tested with the type checks and then built
with the strong type checks disabled so the resulting
code can be used.

Require strong mandatory type checks when enabling the user namespace.
It is very simple to make a typo and use the wrong type allowing
conversions to/from userspace values to be bypassed by accident,
the strong type checks prevent this.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 7a4e7408 14-Nov-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Add kuid_t and kgid_t and associated infrastructure in uidgid.h

Start distinguishing between internal kernel uids and gids and
values that userspace can use. This is done by introducing two
new types: kuid_t and kgid_t. These types and their associated
functions are infrastructure are declared in the new header

Ultimately there will be a different implementation of the mapping
functions for use with user namespaces. But to keep it simple
we introduce the mapping functions first to separate the meat
from the mechanical code conversions.

Export overflowuid and overflowgid so we can use from_kuid_munged
and from_kgid_munged in modular code.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>