History log of /linux-master/include/linux/ipc_namespace.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 1f5c135e 14-Feb-2022 Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>

ipc: Store ipc sysctls in the ipc namespace

The ipc sysctls are not available for modification inside the user
namespace. Following the mqueue sysctls, we changed the implementation
to be more userns friendly.

So far, the changes do not provide additional access to files. This
will be done in a future patch.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/be6f9d014276f4dddd0c3aa05a86052856c1c555.1644862280.git.legion@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# dc55e35f 14-Feb-2022 Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>

ipc: Store mqueue sysctls in the ipc namespace

Right now, the mqueue sysctls take ipc namespaces into account in a
rather hacky way. This works in most cases, but does not respect the
user namespace.

Within the user namespace, the user cannot change the /proc/sys/fs/mqueue/*
parametres. This poses a problem in the rootless containers.

To solve this I changed the implementation of the mqueue sysctls just
like some other sysctls.

So far, the changes do not provide additional access to files. This will
be done in a future patch.

* Don't implemenet set_permissions to keep the current behavior.

* Fixed compilation problem if CONFIG_POSIX_MQUEUE_SYSCTL is not

Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexey Gladkov <legion@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/b0ccbb2489119f1f20c737cf1930c3a9c4e4243a.1644862280.git.legion@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 85b6d246 19-Nov-2021 Alexander Mikhalitsyn <alexander.mikhalitsyn@virtuozzo.com>

shm: extend forced shm destroy to support objects from several IPC nses

Currently, the exit_shm() function not designed to work properly when
task->sysvshm.shm_clist holds shm objects from different IPC namespaces.

This is a real pain when sysctl kernel.shm_rmid_forced = 1, because it
leads to use-after-free (reproducer exists).

This is an attempt to fix the problem by extending exit_shm mechanism to
handle shm's destroy from several IPC ns'es.

To achieve that we do several things:

1. add a namespace (non-refcounted) pointer to the struct shmid_kernel

2. during new shm object creation (newseg()/shmget syscall) we
initialize this pointer by current task IPC ns

3. exit_shm() fully reworked such that it traverses over all shp's in
task->sysvshm.shm_clist and gets IPC namespace not from current task
as it was before but from shp's object itself, then call
shm_destroy(shp, ns).

Note: We need to be really careful here, because as it was said before
(1), our pointer to IPC ns non-refcnt'ed. To be on the safe side we
using special helper get_ipc_ns_not_zero() which allows to get IPC ns
refcounter only if IPC ns not in the "state of destruction".


Q: Why can we access shp->ns memory using non-refcounted pointer?
A: Because shp object lifetime is always shorther than IPC namespace
lifetime, so, if we get shp object from the task->sysvshm.shm_clist
while holding task_lock(task) nobody can steal our namespace.

Q: Does this patch change semantics of unshare/setns/clone syscalls?
A: No. It's just fixes non-covered case when process may leave IPC
namespace without getting task->sysvshm.shm_clist list cleaned up.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/67bb03e5-f79c-1815-e2bf-949c67047418@colorfullife.com
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20211109151501.4921-1-manfred@colorfullife.com
Fixes: ab602f79915 ("shm: make exit_shm work proportional to task activity")
Co-developed-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexander Mikhalitsyn <alexander.mikhalitsyn@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Andrei Vagin <avagin@gmail.com>
Cc: Pavel Tikhomirov <ptikhomirov@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Vasily Averin <vvs@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 137ec390 03-Aug-2020 Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>

ipc: Use generic ns_common::count

Switch over ipc namespaces to use the newly introduced common lifetime

Currently every namespace type has its own lifetime counter which is stored
in the specific namespace struct. The lifetime counters are used
identically for all namespaces types. Namespaces may of course have
additional unrelated counters and these are not altered.

This introduces a common lifetime counter into struct ns_common. The
ns_common struct encompasses information that all namespaces share. That
should include the lifetime counter since its common for all of them.

It also allows us to unify the type of the counters across all namespaces.
Most of them use refcount_t but one uses atomic_t and at least one uses
kref. Especially the last one doesn't make much sense since it's just a
wrapper around refcount_t since 2016 and actually complicates cleanup
operations by having to use container_of() to cast the correct namespace
struct out of struct ns_common.

Having the lifetime counter for the namespaces in one place reduces
maintenance cost. Not just because after switching all namespaces over we
will have removed more code than we added but also because the logic is
more easily understandable and we indicate to the user that the basic
lifetime requirements for all namespaces are currently identical.

Signed-off-by: Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@virtuozzo.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Acked-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/159644978697.604812.16592754423881032385.stgit@localhost.localdomain
Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>

# e1eb26fa 07-Jun-2020 Giuseppe Scrivano <gscrivan@redhat.com>

ipc/namespace.c: use a work queue to free_ipc

the reason is to avoid a delay caused by the synchronize_rcu() call in
kern_umount() when the mqueue mount is freed.

the code:

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <sched.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main()
int i;

for (i = 0; i < 1000; i++)
if (unshare(CLONE_NEWIPC) < 0)
error(EXIT_FAILURE, errno, "unshare");

goes from

Command being timed: "./ipc-namespace"
User time (seconds): 0.00
System time (seconds): 0.06
Percent of CPU this job got: 0%
Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): 0:08.05


Command being timed: "./ipc-namespace"
User time (seconds): 0.00
System time (seconds): 0.02
Percent of CPU this job got: 96%
Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): 0:00.03

Signed-off-by: Giuseppe Scrivano <gscrivan@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200225145419.527994-1-gscrivan@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 3278a2c2 14-May-2019 Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>

ipc: conserve sequence numbers in ipcmni_extend mode

Rewrite, based on the patch from Waiman Long:

The mixing in of a sequence number into the IPC IDs is probably to avoid
ID reuse in userspace as much as possible. With ipcmni_extend mode, the
number of usable sequence numbers is greatly reduced leading to higher
chance of ID reuse.

To address this issue, we need to conserve the sequence number space as
much as possible. Right now, the sequence number is incremented for
every new ID created. In reality, we only need to increment the
sequence number when new allocated ID is not greater than the last one
allocated. It is in such case that the new ID may collide with an
existing one. This is being done irrespective of the ipcmni mode.

In order to avoid any races, the index is first allocated and then the
pointer is replaced.

Changes compared to the initial patch:
- Handle failures from idr_alloc().
- Avoid that concurrent operations can see the wrong sequence number.
(This is achieved by using idr_replace()).
- IPCMNI_SEQ_SHIFT is not a constant, thus renamed to
- IPCMNI_SEQ_MAX is not a constant, thus renamed to ipcmni_seq_max().

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190329204930.21620-2-longman@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Suggested-by: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Waiman Long <longman@redhat.com>
Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: "Eric W . Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: "Luis R. Rodriguez" <mcgrof@kernel.org>
Cc: Takashi Iwai <tiwai@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 27c331a1 21-Aug-2018 Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>

ipc/util.c: further variable name cleanups

The varable names got a mess, thus standardize them again:

id: user space id. Called semid, shmid, msgid if the type is known.
Most functions use "id" already.
idx: "index" for the idr lookup
Right now, some functions use lid, ipc_addid() already uses idx as
the variable name.
seq: sequence number, to avoid quick collisions of the user space id
key: user space key, used for the rhash tree

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180712185241.4017-12-manfred@colorfullife.com
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# dc2c8c84 21-Aug-2018 Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>

ipc: get rid of ids->tables_initialized hack

In sysvipc we have an ids->tables_initialized regarding the rhashtable,
introduced in 0cfb6aee70bd ("ipc: optimize semget/shmget/msgget for lots
of keys")

It's there, specifically, to prevent nil pointer dereferences, from using
an uninitialized api. Considering how rhashtable_init() can fail
(probably due to ENOMEM, if anything), this made the overall ipc
initialization capable of failure as well. That alone is ugly, but fine,
however I've spotted a few issues regarding the semantics of
tables_initialized (however unlikely they may be):

- There is inconsistency in what we return to userspace: ipc_addid()
returns ENOSPC which is certainly _wrong_, while ipc_obtain_object_idr()
returns EINVAL.

- After we started using rhashtables, ipc_findkey() can return nil upon
!tables_initialized, but the caller expects nil for when the ipc
structure isn't found, and can therefore call into ipcget() callbacks.

Now that rhashtable initialization cannot fail, we can properly get rid of
the hack altogether.

[manfred@colorfullife.com: commit id extended to 12 digits]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180712185241.4017-10-manfred@colorfullife.com
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 0eb71a9d 17-Jun-2018 NeilBrown <neilb@suse.com>

rhashtable: split rhashtable.h

Due to the use of rhashtables in net namespaces,
rhashtable.h is included in lots of the kernel,
so a small changes can required a large recompilation.
This makes development painful.

This patch splits out rhashtable-types.h which just includes
the major type declarations, and does not include (non-trivial)
inline code. rhashtable.h is no longer included by anything
in the include/ directory.
Common include files only include rhashtable-types.h so a large
recompilation is only triggered when that changes.

Acked-by: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>
Signed-off-by: NeilBrown <neilb@suse.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

# 15df03c8 17-Nov-2017 Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>

sysvipc: make get_maxid O(1) again

For a custom microbenchmark on a 3.30GHz Xeon SandyBridge, which calls
IPC_STAT over and over, it was calculated that, on avg the cost of
ipc_get_maxid() for increasing amounts of keys was:

10 keys: ~900 cycles
100 keys: ~15000 cycles
1000 keys: ~150000 cycles
10000 keys: ~2100000 cycles

This is unsurprising as maxid is currently O(n).

By having the max_id available in O(1) we save all those cycles for each
semctl(_STAT) command, the idr_find can be expensive -- which some real
(customer) workloads actually poll on.

Note that this used to be the case, until commit 7ca7e564e04 ("ipc:
store ipcs into IDRs"). The cost is the extra idr_find when doing
RMIDs, but we simply go backwards, and should not take too many
iterations to find the new value.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170831172049.14576-5-dave@stgolabs.net
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b8fd9983 17-Nov-2017 Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>

sysvipc: unteach ids->next_id for !CHECKPOINT_RESTORE

Patch series "sysvipc: ipc-key management improvements".

Here are a few improvements I spotted while eyeballing Guillaume's
rhashtable implementation for ipc keys. The first and fourth patches
are the interesting ones, the middle two are trivial.

This patch (of 4):

The next_id object-allocation functionality was introduced in commit
03f595668017 ("ipc: add sysctl to specify desired next object id").

Given that these new entries are _only_ exported under the
CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE option, there is no point for the common case
to even know about ->next_id. As such rewrite ipc_buildid() such that
it can do away with the field as well as unnecessary branches when
adding a new identifier. The end result also better differentiates both
cases, so the code ends up being cleaner; albeit the small duplications
regarding the default case.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170831172049.14576-2-dave@stgolabs.net
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b2441318 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license

Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne.

How this work was done:

Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.

The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5

All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.

- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.

For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 11139

and resulted in the first patch in this series.

If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930

and resulted in the second patch in this series.

- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1

and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).

- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
in time.

In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.

Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.

In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
correct identifier.

Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct

This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.

These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# 0cfb6aee 08-Sep-2017 Guillaume Knispel <guillaume.knispel@supersonicimagine.com>

ipc: optimize semget/shmget/msgget for lots of keys

ipc_findkey() used to scan all objects to look for the wanted key. This
is slow when using a high number of keys. This change adds an rhashtable
of kern_ipc_perm objects in ipc_ids, so that one lookup cease to be O(n).

This change gives a 865% improvement of benchmark reaim.jobs_per_min on a
56 threads Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2695 v3 @ 2.30GHz with 256G memory [1]

Other (more micro) benchmark results, by the author: On an i5 laptop, the
following loop executed right after a reboot took, without and with this

for (int i = 0, k=0x424242; i < KEYS; ++i)
semget(k++, 1, IPC_CREAT | 0600);

total total max single max single
KEYS without with call without call with

1 3.5 4.9 µs 3.5 4.9
10 7.6 8.6 µs 3.7 4.7
32 16.2 15.9 µs 4.3 5.3
100 72.9 41.8 µs 3.7 4.7
1000 5,630.0 502.0 µs * *
10000 1,340,000.0 7,240.0 µs * *
31900 17,600,000.0 22,200.0 µs * *

*: unreliable measure: high variance

The duration for a lookup-only usage was obtained by the same loop once
the keys are present:

total total max single max single
KEYS without with call without call with

1 2.1 2.5 µs 2.1 2.5
10 4.5 4.8 µs 2.2 2.3
32 13.0 10.8 µs 2.3 2.8
100 82.9 25.1 µs * 2.3
1000 5,780.0 217.0 µs * *
10000 1,470,000.0 2,520.0 µs * *
31900 17,400,000.0 7,810.0 µs * *

Finally, executing each semget() in a new process gave, when still
summing only the durations of these syscalls:

total total
KEYS without with

1 3.7 5.0 µs
10 32.9 36.7 µs
32 125.0 109.0 µs
100 523.0 353.0 µs
1000 20,300.0 3,280.0 µs
10000 2,470,000.0 46,700.0 µs
31900 27,800,000.0 219,000.0 µs

total total
KEYS without with

1 2.5 2.7 µs
10 25.4 24.4 µs
32 106.0 72.6 µs
100 591.0 352.0 µs
1000 22,400.0 2,250.0 µs
10000 2,510,000.0 25,700.0 µs
31900 28,200,000.0 115,000.0 µs

[1] http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170814060507.GE23258@yexl-desktop

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170815194954.ck32ta2z35yuzpwp@debix
Signed-off-by: Guillaume Knispel <guillaume.knispel@supersonicimagine.com>
Reviewed-by: Marc Pardo <marc.pardo@supersonicimagine.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: "Peter Zijlstra (Intel)" <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: Andrey Vagin <avagin@openvz.org>
Cc: Guillaume Knispel <guillaume.knispel@supersonicimagine.com>
Cc: Marc Pardo <marc.pardo@supersonicimagine.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# a2e0602c 08-Sep-2017 Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@intel.com>

ipc: convert ipc_namespace.count from atomic_t to refcount_t

refcount_t type and corresponding API should be used instead of atomic_t
when the variable is used as a reference counter. This allows to avoid
accidental refcounter overflows that might lead to use-after-free

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1499417992-3238-2-git-send-email-elena.reshetova@intel.com
Signed-off-by: Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Hans Liljestrand <ishkamiel@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: David Windsor <dwindsor@gmail.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: <arozansk@redhat.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 3859a271 28-Oct-2016 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

randstruct: Mark various structs for randomization

This marks many critical kernel structures for randomization. These are
structures that have been targeted in the past in security exploits, or
contain functions pointers, pointers to function pointer tables, lists,
workqueues, ref-counters, credentials, permissions, or are otherwise
sensitive. This initial list was extracted from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's
code in the last public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on my understanding
of the code. Changes or omissions from the original code are mine and
don't reflect the original grsecurity/PaX code.

Left out of this list is task_struct, which requires special handling
and will be covered in a subsequent patch.

Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# aba35661 08-Aug-2016 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

ipcns: Add a limit on the number of ipc namespaces

Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 3bd080e4 02-Aug-2016 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipc: delete "nr_ipc_ns"

Write-only variable.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20160708214356.GA6785@p183.telecom.by
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 0050ee05 12-Dec-2014 Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>

ipc/msg: increase MSGMNI, remove scaling

SysV can be abused to allocate locked kernel memory. For most systems, a
small limit doesn't make sense, see the discussion with regards to SHMMAX.

Therefore: increase MSGMNI to the maximum supported.

And: If we ignore the risk of locking too much memory, then an automatic
scaling of MSGMNI doesn't make sense. Therefore the logic can be removed.

The code preserves auto_msgmni to avoid breaking any user space applications
that expect that the value exists.

1) If an administrator must limit the memory allocations, then he can set
MSGMNI as necessary.

Or he can disable sysv entirely (as e.g. done by Android).

2) MSGMAX and MSGMNB are intentionally not increased, as these values are used
to control latency vs. throughput:
If MSGMNB is large, then msgsnd() just returns and more messages can be queued
before a task switch to a task that calls msgrcv() is forced.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 435d5f4b 31-Oct-2014 Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

common object embedded into various struct ....ns

for now - just move corresponding ->proc_inum instances over there

Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>

# f3713fd9 25-Feb-2014 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>

ipc,mqueue: remove limits for the amount of system-wide queues

Commit 93e6f119c0ce ("ipc/mqueue: cleanup definition names and
locations") added global hardcoded limits to the amount of message
queues that can be created. While these limits are per-namespace,
reality is that it ends up breaking userspace applications.
Historically users have, at least in theory, been able to create up to
INT_MAX queues, and limiting it to just 1024 is way too low and dramatic
for some workloads and use cases. For instance, Madars reports:

"This update imposes bad limits on our multi-process application. As
our app uses approaches that each process opens its own set of queues
(usually something about 3-5 queues per process). In some scenarios
we might run up to 3000 processes or more (which of-course for linux
is not a problem). Thus we might need up to 9000 queues or more. All
processes run under one user."

Other affected users can be found in launchpad bug #1155695:

Instead of increasing this limit, revert it entirely and fallback to the
original way of dealing queue limits -- where once a user's resource
limit is reached, and all memory is used, new queues cannot be created.

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
Reported-by: Madars Vitolins <m@silodev.com>
Acked-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [3.5+]
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# daf948c7 27-Jan-2014 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>

ipc: delete seq_max field in struct ipc_ids

This field is only used to reset the ids seq number if it exceeds the
smaller of INT_MAX/SEQ_MULTIPLIER and USHRT_MAX, and can therefore be
moved out of the structure and into its own macro. Since each
ipc_namespace contains a table of 3 pointers to struct ipc_ids we can
save space in instruction text:

text data bss dec hex filename
56232 2348 24 58604 e4ec ipc/built-in.o
56216 2348 24 58588 e4dc ipc/built-in.o-after

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>
Reviewed-by: Jonathan Gonzalez <jgonzalez@linets.cl>
Cc: Aswin Chandramouleeswaran <aswin@hp.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 9bf76ca3 02-Nov-2013 Mathias Krause <minipli@googlemail.com>

ipc, msg: forbid negative values for "msg{max,mnb,mni}"

Negative message lengths make no sense -- so don't do negative queue
lenghts or identifier counts. Prevent them from getting negative.

Also change the underlying data types to be unsigned to avoid hairy
surprises with sign extensions in cases where those variables get
evaluated in unsigned expressions with bigger data types, e.g size_t.

In case a user still wants to have "unlimited" sizes she could just use
INT_MAX instead.

Signed-off-by: Mathias Krause <minipli@googlemail.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d9a605e4 11-Sep-2013 Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com>

ipc: rename ids->rw_mutex

Since in some situations the lock can be shared for readers, we shouldn't
be calling it a mutex, rename it to rwsem.

Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com>
Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d69f3bad 30-Apr-2013 Robin Holt <holt@sgi.com>

ipc: sysv shared memory limited to 8TiB

Trying to run an application which was trying to put data into half of
memory using shmget(), we found that having a shmall value below 8EiB-8TiB
would prevent us from using anything more than 8TiB. By setting
kernel.shmall greater than 8EiB-8TiB would make the job work.

In the newseg() function, ns->shm_tot which, at 8TiB is INT_MAX.

458 static int newseg(struct ipc_namespace *ns, struct ipc_params *params)
459 {
465 int numpages = (size + PAGE_SIZE -1) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
474 if (ns->shm_tot + numpages > ns->shm_ctlall)
475 return -ENOSPC;

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: make ipc/shm.c:newseg()'s numpages size_t, not int]
Signed-off-by: Robin Holt <holt@sgi.com>
Reported-by: Alex Thorlton <athorlton@sgi.com>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 03f59566 04-Jan-2013 Stanislav Kinsbursky <skinsbursky@parallels.com>

ipc: add sysctl to specify desired next object id

Add 3 new variables and sysctls to tune them (by one "next_id" variable
for messages, semaphores and shared memory respectively). This variable
can be used to set desired id for next allocated IPC object. By default
it's equal to -1 and old behaviour is preserved. If this variable is
non-negative, then desired idr will be extracted from it and used as a
start value to search for free IDR slot.


1) this patch doesn't guarantee that the new object will have desired
id. So it's up to user space how to handle new object with wrong id.

2) After a sucessful id allocation attempt, "next_id" will be set back
to -1 (if it was non-negative).

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: checkpatch fixes]
Signed-off-by: Stanislav Kinsbursky <skinsbursky@parallels.com>
Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@parallels.com>
Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 98f842e6 15-Jun-2011 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

proc: Usable inode numbers for the namespace file descriptors.

Assign a unique proc inode to each namespace, and use that
inode number to ensure we only allocate at most one proc
inode for every namespace in proc.

A single proc inode per namespace allows userspace to test
to see if two processes are in the same namespace.

This has been a long requested feature and only blocked because
a naive implementation would put the id in a global space and
would ultimately require having a namespace for the names of
namespaces, making migration and certain virtualization tricks

We still don't have per superblock inode numbers for proc, which
appears necessary for application unaware checkpoint/restart and
migrations (if the application is using namespace file descriptors)
but that is now allowd by the design if it becomes important.

I have preallocated the ipc and uts initial proc inode numbers so
their structures can be statically initialized.

Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# bcf58e72 26-Jul-2012 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

userns: Make create_new_namespaces take a user_ns parameter

Modify create_new_namespaces to explicitly take a user namespace
parameter, instead of implicitly through the task_struct.

This allows an implementation of unshare(CLONE_NEWUSER) where
the new user namespace is not stored onto the current task_struct
until after all of the namespaces are created.

Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# cef0184c 31-May-2012 KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>

mqueue: separate mqueue default value from maximum value

Commit b231cca4381e ("message queues: increase range limits") changed
mqueue default value when attr parameter is specified NULL from hard
coded value to fs.mqueue.{msg,msgsize}_max sysctl value.

This made large side effect. When user need to use two mqueue
applications 1) using !NULL attr parameter and it require big message
size and 2) using NULL attr parameter and only need small size message,
app (1) require to raise fs.mqueue.msgsize_max and app (2) consume large
memory size even though it doesn't need.

Doug Ledford propsed to switch back it to static hard coded value.
However it also has a compatibility problem. Some applications might
started depend on the default value is tunable.

The solution is to separate default value from maximum value.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Joe Korty <joe.korty@ccur.com>
Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# e6315bb1 31-May-2012 KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>

mqueue: revert bump up DFLT_*MAX

Mqueue limitation is slightly naieve parameter likes other ipcs because
unprivileged user can consume kernel memory by using ipcs.

Thus, too aggressive raise bring us security issue. Example, current
setting allow evil unprivileged user use 256GB (= 256 * 1024 * 1024*1024)
and it's enough large to system will belome unresponsive. Don't do that.

Instead, every admin should adjust the knobs for their own systems.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Acked-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Joe Korty <joe.korty@ccur.com>
Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <haveblue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 5b5c4d1a 31-May-2012 Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>

ipc/mqueue: update maximums for the mqueue subsystem

Commit b231cca4381e ("message queues: increase range limits") changed the
maximum size of a message in a message queue from INT_MAX to 8192*128.
Unfortunately, we had customers that relied on a size much larger than
8192*128 on their production systems. After reviewing POSIX, we found
that it is silent on the maximum message size. We did find a couple other
areas in which it was not silent. Fix up the mqueue maximums so that the
customer's system can continue to work, and document both the POSIX and
real world requirements in ipc_namespace.h so that we don't have this
issue crop back up.

Also, commit 9cf18e1dd74cd0 ("ipc: HARD_MSGMAX should be higher not lower
on 64bit") fiddled with HARD_MSGMAX without realizing that the number was
intentionally in place to limit the msg queue depth to one that was small
enough to kmalloc an array of pointers (hence why we divided 128k by
sizeof(long)). If we wish to meet POSIX requirements, we have no choice
but to change our allocation to a vmalloc instead (at least for the large
queue size case). With that, it's possible to increase our allowed
maximum to the POSIX requirements (or more if we choose).

[sfr@canb.auug.org.au: using vmalloc requires including vmalloc.h]
Signed-off-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com>
Cc: Joe Korty <joe.korty@ccur.com>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 858ee378 31-May-2012 Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>

ipc/mqueue: switch back to using non-max values on create

Commit b231cca4381e ("message queues: increase range limits") changed
how we create a queue that does not include an attr struct passed to
open so that it creates the queue with whatever the maximum values are.
However, if the admin has set the maximums to allow flexibility in
creating a queue (aka, both a large size and large queue are allowed,
but combined they create a queue too large for the RLIMIT_MSGQUEUE of
the user), then attempts to create a queue without an attr struct will
fail. Switch back to using acceptable defaults regardless of what the
maximums are.

Note: so far, we only know of a few applications that rely on this
behavior (specifically, set the maximums in /proc, then run the
application which calls mq_open() without passing in an attr struct, and
the application expects the newly created message queue to have the
maximum sizes that were set in /proc used on the mq_open() call, and all
of those applications that we know of are actually part of regression
test suites that were coded to do something like this:

for size in 4096 65536 $((1024 * 1024)) $((16 * 1024 * 1024)); do
echo $size > /proc/sys/fs/mqueue/msgsize_max
mq_open || echo "Error opening mq with size $size"

These test suites that depend on any behavior like this are broken. The
concept that programs should rely upon the system wide maximum in order
to get their desired results instead of simply using a attr struct to
specify what they want is fundamentally unfriendly programming practice
for any multi-tasking OS.

Fixing this will break those few apps that we know of (and those app
authors recognize the brokenness of their code and the need to fix it).
However, the following patch "mqueue: separate mqueue default value"
allows a workaround in the form of new knobs for the default msg queue
creation parameters for any software out there that we don't already
know about that might rely on this behavior at the moment.

Signed-off-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com>
Cc: Joe Korty <joe.korty@ccur.com>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 93e6f119 31-May-2012 Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>

ipc/mqueue: cleanup definition names and locations

Since commit b231cca4381e ("message queues: increase range limits") on
Oct 18, 2008, calls to mq_open() that did not pass in an attribute
struct and expected to get default values for the size of the queue and
the max message size now get the system wide maximums instead of
hardwired defaults like they used to get.

This was uncovered when one of the earlier patches in this patch set
increased the default system wide maximums at the same time it increased
the hard ceiling on the system wide maximums (a customer specifically
needed the hard ceiling brought back up, the new ceiling that commit
b231cca4381e introduced was too low for their production systems). By
increasing the default maximums and not realising they were tied to any
attempt to create a message queue without an attribute struct, I had
inadvertently made it such that all message queue creation attempts
without an attribute struct were failing because the new default
maximums would create a queue that exceeded the default rlimit for
message queue bytes.

As a result, the system wide defaults were brought back down to their
previous levels, and the system wide ceilings on the maximums were
raised to meet the customer's needs. However, the fact that the no
attribute struct behavior of mq_open() could be broken by changing the
system wide maximums for message queues was seen as fundamentally broken
itself. So we hardwired the no attribute case back like it used to be.
But, then we realized that on the very off chance that some piece of
software in the wild depended on that behavior, we could work around
that issue by adding two new knobs to /proc that allowed setting the
defaults for message queues created without an attr struct separately
from the system wide maximums.

What is not an option IMO is to leave the current behavior in place. No
piece of software should ever rely on setting the system wide maximums
in order to get a desired message queue. Such a reliance would be so
fundamentally multitasking OS unfriendly as to not really be tolerable.
Fortunately, we don't know of any software in the wild that uses this
except for a regression test program that caught the issue in the first
place. If there is though, we have made accommodations with the two new
/proc knobs (and that's all the accommodations such fundamentally broken
software can be allowed)..

This patch:

The various defines for minimums and maximums of the sysctl controllable
mqueue values are scattered amongst different files and named
inconsistently. Move them all into ipc_namespace.h and make them have
consistent names. Additionally, make the number of queues per namespace
also have a minimum and maximum and use the same sysctl function as the
other two settable variables.

Signed-off-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com>
Cc: Joe Korty <joe.korty@ccur.com>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b34a6b1d 26-Jul-2011 Vasiliy Kulikov <segoon@openwall.com>

ipc: introduce shm_rmid_forced sysctl

Add support for the shm_rmid_forced sysctl. If set to 1, all shared
memory objects in current ipc namespace will be automatically forced to

The POSIX way of handling shmem allows one to create shm objects and
call shmdt(), leaving shm object associated with no process, thus
consuming memory not counted via rlimits.

With shm_rmid_forced=1 the shared memory object is counted at least for
one process, so OOM killer may effectively kill the fat process holding
the shared memory.

It obviously breaks POSIX - some programs relying on the feature would
stop working. So set shm_rmid_forced=1 only if you're sure nobody uses
"orphaned" memory. Use shm_rmid_forced=0 by default for compatability

The feature was previously impemented in -ow as a configure option.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix documentation, per Randy]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warning]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: readability/conventionality tweaks]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix shm_rmid_forced/shm_forced_rmid confusion, use standard comment layout]
Signed-off-by: Vasiliy Kulikov <segoon@openwall.com>
Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: "Serge E. Hallyn" <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Cc: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Alan Cox <alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk>
Cc: Solar Designer <solar@openwall.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b0e77598 23-Mar-2011 Serge E. Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>

userns: user namespaces: convert several capable() calls

CAP_IPC_OWNER and CAP_IPC_LOCK can be checked against current_user_ns(),
because the resource comes from current's own ipc namespace.

setuid/setgid are to uids in own namespace, so again checks can be against

Jan 11: Use task_ns_capable() in place of sched_capable().
Jan 11: Use nsown_capable() as suggested by Bastian Blank.
Jan 11: Clarify (hopefully) some logic in futex and sched.c
Feb 15: use ns_capable for ipc, not nsown_capable
Feb 23: let copy_ipcs handle setting ipc_ns->user_ns
Feb 23: pass ns down rather than taking it from current

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b515498f 23-Mar-2011 Serge E. Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>

userns: add a user namespace owner of ipc ns

Feb 15: Don't set new ipc->user_ns if we didn't create a new
Feb 23: Move extern declaration to ipc_namespace.h, and group
fwd declarations at top.

Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Acked-by: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 8467005d 10-Mar-2010 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

nsproxy: remove INIT_NSPROXY()

Remove INIT_NSPROXY(), use C99 initializer.
Remove INIT_IPC_NS(), INIT_NET_NS() while I'm at it.

Note: headers trim will be done later, now it's quite pointless because
results will be invalidated by merge window.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 9cf18e1d 15-Dec-2009 Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com>

ipc: HARD_MSGMAX should be higher not lower on 64bit

We have HARD_MSGMAX lower on 64bit than on 32bit, since usually 64bit
machines have more memory than 32bit machines.

Making it higher on 64bit seems reasonable, and keep the original number
on 32bit.

Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: WANG Cong <amwang@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 665c7741 17-Jun-2009 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipcns: move free_ipcs() proto

Function is really private to ipc/ and avoid struct kern_ipc_perm
forward declaration.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b4188def 17-Jun-2009 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

ipcns: make free_ipc_ns() static

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# bdc8e5f8 06-Apr-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

namespaces: mqueue namespace: adapt sysctl

Largely inspired from ipc/ipc_sysctl.c. This patch isolates the mqueue
sysctl stuff in its own file.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: build fix]
Signed-off-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 7eafd7c7 06-Apr-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

namespaces: ipc namespaces: implement support for posix msqueues

Implement multiple mounts of the mqueue file system, and link it to usage

Each ipc ns has a corresponding mqueuefs superblock. When a user does
clone(CLONE_NEWIPC) or unshare(CLONE_NEWIPC), the unshare will cause an
internal mount of a new mqueuefs sb linked to the new ipc ns.

When a user does 'mount -t mqueue mqueue /dev/mqueue', he mounts the
mqueuefs superblock.

Posix message queues can be worked with both through the mq_* system calls
(see mq_overview(7)), and through the VFS through the mqueue mount. Any
usage of mq_open() and friends will work with the acting task's ipc
namespace. Any actions through the VFS will work with the mqueuefs in
which the file was created. So if a user doesn't remount mqueuefs after
unshare(CLONE_NEWIPC), mq_open("/ab") will not be reflected in "ls

If task a mounts mqueue for ipc_ns:1, then clones task b with a new ipcns,
ipcns:2, and then task a is the last task in ipc_ns:1 to exit, then (1)
ipc_ns:1 will be freed, (2) it's superblock will live on until task b
umounts the corresponding mqueuefs, and vfs actions will continue to
succeed, but (3) sb->s_fs_info will be NULL for the sb corresponding to
the deceased ipc_ns:1.

To make this happen, we must protect the ipc reference count when

a) a task exits and drops its ipcns->count, since it might be dropping
it to 0 and freeing the ipcns

b) a task accesses the ipcns through its mqueuefs interface, since it
bumps the ipcns refcount and might race with the last task in the ipcns

So the kref is changed to an atomic_t so we can use
atomic_dec_and_lock(&ns->count,mq_lock), and every access to the ipcns
through ns = mqueuefs_sb->s_fs_info is protected by the same lock.

Signed-off-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 614b84cf 06-Apr-2009 Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>

namespaces: mqueue ns: move mqueue_mnt into struct ipc_namespace

Move mqueue vfsmount plus a few tunables into the ipc_namespace struct.
The CONFIG_IPC_NS boolean and the ipc_namespace struct will serve both the
posix message queue namespaces and the SYSV ipc namespaces.

The sysctl code will be fixed separately in patch 3. After just this
patch, making a change to posix mqueue tunables always changes the values
in the initial ipc namespace.

Signed-off-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 9eefe520 25-Jul-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: do not use a negative value to re-enable msgmni automatic recomputing

This patch proposes an alternative to the "magical
positive-versus-negative number trick" Andrew complained about last week
in http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/6/24/418.

This had been introduced with the patches that scale msgmni to the amount
of lowmem. With these patches, msgmni has a registered notification
routine that recomputes msgmni value upon memory add/remove or ipc
namespace creation/ removal.

When msgmni is changed from user space (i.e. value written to the proc
file), that notification routine is unregistered, and the way to make it
registered back is to write a negative value into the proc file. This is
the "magical positive-versus-negative number trick".

To fix this, a new proc file is introduced: /proc/sys/kernel/auto_msgmni.
This file acts as ON/OFF for msgmni automatic recomputing.

With this patch, the process is the following:
1) kernel boots in "automatic recomputing mode"
/proc/sys/kernel/msgmni contains the value that has been computed (depends
on lowmem)
/proc/sys/kernel/automatic_msgmni contains "1"

2) echo <val> > /proc/sys/kernel/msgmni
. sets msg_ctlmni to <val>
. de-activates automatic recomputing (i.e. if, say, some memory is added
msgmni won't be recomputed anymore)
. /proc/sys/kernel/automatic_msgmni now contains "0"

3) echo "0" > /proc/sys/kernel/automatic_msgmni
. de-activates msgmni automatic recomputing
this has the same effect as 2) except that msg_ctlmni's value stays
blocked at its current value)

3) echo "1" > /proc/sys/kernel/automatic_msgmni
. recomputes msgmni's value based on the current available memory size
and number of ipc namespaces
. re-activates automatic recomputing for msgmni.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Solofo Ramangalahy <Solofo.Ramangalahy@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 6546bc42 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: re-enable msgmni automatic recomputing msgmni if set to negative

The enhancement as asked for by Yasunori: if msgmni is set to a negative
value, register it back into the ipcns notifier chain.

A new interface has been added to the notification mechanism:
notifier_chain_cond_register() registers a notifier block only if not already
registered. With that new interface we avoid taking care of the states
changes in procfs.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# e2c284d8 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: recompute msgmni on ipc namespace creation/removal

Introduce a notification mechanism that aims at recomputing msgmni each time
an ipc namespace is created or removed.

The ipc namespace notifier chain already defined for memory hotplug management
is used for that purpose too.

Each time a new ipc namespace is allocated or an existing ipc namespace is
removed, the ipcns notifier chain is notified. The callback routine for each
registered ipc namespace is then activated in order to recompute msgmni for
that namespace.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b6b337ad 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: recompute msgmni on memory add / remove

Introduce the registration of a callback routine that recomputes msg_ctlmni
upon memory add / remove.

A single notifier block is registered in the hotplug memory chain for all the
ipc namespaces.

Since the ipc namespaces are not linked together, they have their own
notification chain: one notifier_block is defined per ipc namespace.

Each time an ipc namespace is created (removed) it registers (unregisters) its
notifier block in (from) the ipcns chain. The callback routine registered in
the memory chain invokes the ipcns notifier chain with the IPCNS_LOWMEM event.
Each callback routine registered in the ipcns namespace, in turn, recomputes
msgmni for the owning namespace.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 4d89dc6a 29-Apr-2008 Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>

ipc: scale msgmni to the number of ipc namespaces

Since all the namespaces see the same amount of memory (the total one) this
patch introduces a new variable that counts the ipc namespaces and divides
msg_ctlmni by this counter.

Signed-off-by: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 01b8b07a 08-Feb-2008 Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>

IPC: consolidate sem_exit_ns(), msg_exit_ns() and shm_exit_ns()

sem_exit_ns(), msg_exit_ns() and shm_exit_ns() are all called when an
ipc_namespace is released to free all ipcs of each type. But in fact, they
do the same thing: they loop around all ipcs to free them individually by
calling a specific routine.

This patch proposes to consolidate this by introducing a common function,
free_ipcs(), that do the job. The specific routine to call on each
individual ipcs is passed as parameter. For this, these ipc-specific
'free' routines are reworked to take a generic 'struct ipc_perm' as

Signed-off-by: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Cc: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Cc: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# ed2ddbf8 08-Feb-2008 Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>

IPC: make struct ipc_ids static in ipc_namespace

Each ipc_namespace contains a table of 3 pointers to struct ipc_ids (3 for
msg, sem and shm, structure used to store all ipcs) These 'struct ipc_ids'
are dynamically allocated for each icp_namespace as the ipc_namespace
itself (for the init namespace, they are initialized with pointers to
static variables instead)

It is so for historical reason: in fact, before the use of idr to store the
ipcs, the ipcs were stored in tables of variable length, depending of the
maximum number of ipc allowed. Now, these 'struct ipc_ids' have a fixed
size. As they are allocated in any cases for each new ipc_namespace, there
is no gain of memory in having them allocated separately of the struct

This patch proposes to make this table static in the struct ipc_namespace.
Thus, we can allocate all in once and get rid of all the code needed to
allocate and free these ipc_ids separately.

Signed-off-by: Pierre Peiffer <pierre.peiffer@bull.net>
Acked-by: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Cc: Nadia Derbey <Nadia.Derbey@bull.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# ae5e1b22 08-Feb-2008 Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>

namespaces: move the IPC namespace under IPC_NS option

Currently the IPC namespace management code is spread over the ipc/*.c files.
I moved this code into ipc/namespace.c file which is compiled out when needed.

The linux/ipc_namespace.h file is used to store the prototypes of the
functions in namespace.c and the stubs for NAMESPACES=n case. This is done
so, because the stub for copy_ipc_namespace requires the knowledge of the
CLONE_NEWIPC flag, which is in sched.h. But the linux/ipc.h file itself in
included into many many .c files via the sys.h->sem.h sequence so adding the
sched.h into it will make all these .c depend on sched.h which is not that
good. On the other hand the knowledge about the namespaces stuff is required
in 4 .c files only.

Besides, this patch compiles out some auxiliary functions from ipc/sem.c,
msg.c and shm.c files. It turned out that moving these functions into
namespaces.c is not that easy because they use many other calls and macros
from the original file. Moving them would make this patch complicated. On
the other hand all these functions can be consolidated, so I will send a
separate patch doing this a bit later.

Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@openvz.org>
Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Cedric Le Goater <clg@fr.ibm.com>
Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at>
Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru>
Cc: Sukadev Bhattiprolu <sukadev@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>