History log of /linux-master/include/linux/compiler-gcc.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 9b448bc2 15-Sep-2022 Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>

kmsan: introduce __no_sanitize_memory and __no_kmsan_checks

__no_sanitize_memory is a function attribute that instructs KMSAN to skip
a function during instrumentation. This is needed to e.g. implement the
noinstr functions.

__no_kmsan_checks is a function attribute that makes KMSAN ignore the
uninitialized values coming from the function's inputs, and initialize the
function's outputs.

Functions marked with this attribute can't be inlined into functions not
marked with it, and vice versa. This behavior is overridden by

__SANITIZE_MEMORY__ is a macro that's defined iff the file is instrumented
with KMSAN. This is not the same as CONFIG_KMSAN, which is defined for
every file.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220915150417.722975-8-glider@google.com
Signed-off-by: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@google.com>
Cc: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>
Cc: Ilya Leoshkevich <iii@linux.ibm.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
Cc: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Petr Mladek <pmladek@suse.com>
Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>
Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>
Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>

# 43c249ea 24-Jun-2022 Uros Bizjak <ubizjak@gmail.com>

compiler-gcc.h: remove ancient workaround for gcc PR 58670

The workaround for 'asm goto' miscompilation introduces a compiler barrier
quirk that inhibits many useful compiler optimizations. For example,
__try_cmpxchg_user compiles to:

11375: 41 8b 4d 00 mov 0x0(%r13),%ecx
11379: 41 8b 02 mov (%r10),%eax
1137c: f0 0f b1 0a lock cmpxchg %ecx,(%rdx)
11380: 0f 94 c2 sete %dl
11383: 84 d2 test %dl,%dl
11385: 75 c4 jne 1134b <...>
11387: 41 89 02 mov %eax,(%r10)

where the barrier inhibits flags propagation from asm when compiled with

When the mentioned quirk is removed, the following code is generated:

11553: 41 8b 4d 00 mov 0x0(%r13),%ecx
11557: 41 8b 02 mov (%r10),%eax
1155a: f0 0f b1 0a lock cmpxchg %ecx,(%rdx)
1155e: 74 c9 je 11529 <...>
11560: 41 89 02 mov %eax,(%r10)

The refered compiler bug:


was fixed for gcc-4.8.2.

Current minimum required version of GCC is version 5.1 which has the above
'asm goto' miscompilation fixed, so remove the workaround.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20220624141412.72274-1-ubizjak@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Uros Bizjak <ubizjak@gmail.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>

# 595b893e 03-May-2022 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

randstruct: Reorganize Kconfigs and attribute macros

In preparation for Clang supporting randstruct, reorganize the Kconfigs,
move the attribute macros, and generalize the feature to be named
randomization mode, and CONFIG_RANDSTRUCT_PERFORMANCE for the cache-line
sized mode.

Cc: linux-hardening@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220503205503.3054173-4-keescook@chromium.org

# 4d1ea705 04-Mar-2022 Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>

compiler_types.h: Add unified __diag_ignore_all for GCC/LLVM

Add a __diag_ignore_all macro, to ignore warnings for both GCC and LLVM,
without having to specify the compiler type and version. By default, GCC
8 and clang 11 are used. This will be used by bpf subsystem to ignore
-Wmissing-prototypes warning for functions that are meant to be global
functions so that they are in vmlinux BTF, but don't have a prototype.

Signed-off-by: Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi <memxor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20220304224645.3677453-7-memxor@gmail.com

# afcf5441 03-Mar-2022 Dan Li <ashimida@linux.alibaba.com>

arm64: Add gcc Shadow Call Stack support

Shadow call stacks will be available in GCC >= 12, this patch makes
the corresponding kernel configuration available when compiling
the kernel with the gcc.

Note that the implementation in GCC is slightly different from Clang.
With SCS enabled, functions will only pop x30 once in the epilogue,

str x30, [x18], #8
stp x29, x30, [sp, #-16]!
- ldp x29, x30, [sp], #16 //clang
+ ldr x29, [sp], #16 //GCC
ldr x30, [x18, #-8]!

Link: https://gcc.gnu.org/git/?p=gcc.git;a=commit;h=ce09ab17ddd21f73ff2caf6eec3b0ee9b0e1a11e

Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Dan Li <ashimida@linux.alibaba.com>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220303074323.86282-1-ashimida@linux.alibaba.com

# 86cffecd 05-Nov-2021 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

Compiler Attributes: add __alloc_size() for better bounds checking

GCC and Clang can use the "alloc_size" attribute to better inform the
results of __builtin_object_size() (for compile-time constant values).
Clang can additionally use alloc_size to inform the results of
__builtin_dynamic_object_size() (for run-time values).

Because GCC sees the frequent use of struct_size() as an allocator size
argument, and notices it can return SIZE_MAX (the overflow indication),
it complains about these call sites overflowing (since SIZE_MAX is
greater than the default -Walloc-size-larger-than=PTRDIFF_MAX). This
isn't helpful since we already know a SIZE_MAX will be caught at
run-time (this was an intentional design). To deal with this, we must
disable this check as it is both a false positive and redundant. (Clang
does not have this warning option.)

Unfortunately, just checking the -Wno-alloc-size-larger-than is not
sufficient to make the __alloc_size attribute behave correctly under
older GCC versions. The attribute itself must be disabled in those
situations too, as there appears to be no way to reliably silence the
SIZE_MAX constant expression cases for GCC versions less than 9.1:

In file included from ./include/linux/resource_ext.h:11,
from ./include/linux/pci.h:40,
from drivers/net/ethernet/intel/ixgbe/ixgbe.h:9,
from drivers/net/ethernet/intel/ixgbe/ixgbe_lib.c:4:
In function 'kmalloc_node',
inlined from 'ixgbe_alloc_q_vector' at ./include/linux/slab.h:743:9:
./include/linux/slab.h:618:9: error: argument 1 value '18446744073709551615' exceeds maximum object size 9223372036854775807 [-Werror=alloc-size-larger-than=]
return __kmalloc_node(size, flags, node);
./include/linux/slab.h: In function 'ixgbe_alloc_q_vector':
./include/linux/slab.h:455:7: note: in a call to allocation function '__kmalloc_node' declared here
void *__kmalloc_node(size_t size, gfp_t flags, int node) __assume_slab_alignment __malloc;

'-Wno-alloc-size-larger-than' is not correctly handled by GCC < 9.1
https://godbolt.org/z/hqsfG7q84 (doesn't disable)
https://godbolt.org/z/P9jdrPTYh (doesn't admit to not knowing about option)
https://godbolt.org/z/465TPMWKb (only warns when other warnings appear)

'-Walloc-size-larger-than=18446744073709551615' is not handled by GCC < 8.2
https://godbolt.org/z/73hh1EPxz (ignores numeric value)

Since anything marked with __alloc_size would also qualify for marking
with __malloc, just include __malloc along with it to avoid redundant
markings. (Suggested by Linus Torvalds.)

Finally, make sure checkpatch.pl doesn't get confused about finding the
__alloc_size attribute on functions. (Thanks to Joe Perches.)

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210930222704.2631604-3-keescook@chromium.org
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: Daniel Micay <danielmicay@gmail.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Dennis Zhou <dennis@kernel.org>
Cc: Dwaipayan Ray <dwaipayanray1@gmail.com>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
Cc: Lukas Bulwahn <lukas.bulwahn@gmail.com>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
Cc: Alexandre Bounine <alex.bou9@gmail.com>
Cc: Gustavo A. R. Silva <gustavoars@kernel.org>
Cc: Ira Weiny <ira.weiny@intel.com>
Cc: Jing Xiangfeng <jingxiangfeng@huawei.com>
Cc: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
Cc: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
Cc: Matt Porter <mporter@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Cc: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Cc: Souptick Joarder <jrdr.linux@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 9a48e756 20-Oct-2021 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

compiler-gcc.h: Define __SANITIZE_ADDRESS__ under hwaddress sanitizer

When Clang is using the hwaddress sanitizer, it sets __SANITIZE_ADDRESS__

#if __has_feature(address_sanitizer) || __has_feature(hwaddress_sanitizer)
/* Emulate GCC's __SANITIZE_ADDRESS__ flag */

Once hwaddress sanitizer was added to GCC, however, a separate define
was created, __SANITIZE_HWADDRESS__. The kernel is expecting to find
__SANITIZE_ADDRESS__ in either case, though, and the existing string
macros break on supported architectures:

#if (defined(CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC) || defined(CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS)) && \

where as other architectures (like arm32) have no idea about hwaddress
sanitizer and just check for __SANITIZE_ADDRESS__:

#if defined(CONFIG_KASAN) && !defined(__SANITIZE_ADDRESS__)

This would lead to compiler foritfy self-test warnings when building

warning: unsafe memmove() usage lacked '__read_overflow2' symbol in lib/test_fortify/read_overflow2-memmove.c
warning: unsafe memcpy() usage lacked '__write_overflow' symbol in lib/test_fortify/write_overflow-memcpy.c

Sort this out by also defining __SANITIZE_ADDRESS__ in GCC under the
hwaddress sanitizer.

Suggested-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu>
Cc: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>
Cc: llvm@lists.linux.dev
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211020200039.170424-1-keescook@chromium.org

# c80d92fb 17-Jun-2021 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

compiler_types.h: Remove __compiletime_object_size()

Since all compilers support __builtin_object_size(), and there is only
one user of __compiletime_object_size, remove it to avoid the needless
indirection. This lets Clang reason about check_copy_size() correctly.

Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/1179
Suggested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Cc: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Cc: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Cc: Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu>
Cc: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>
Cc: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Gabriel Krisman Bertazi <krisman@collabora.com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# 4e59869a 10-Sep-2021 Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

compiler-gcc.h: drop checks for older GCC versions

Now that GCC 5.1 is the minimally supported default, drop the values we
don't use.

Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 4eb6bd55 10-Sep-2021 Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

compiler.h: drop fallback overflow checkers

Once upgrading the minimum supported version of GCC to 5.1, we can drop

This is effectively a revert of commit f0907827a8a9 ("compiler.h: enable
builtin overflow checkers and add fallback code")

Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/1438#issuecomment-916745801
Suggested-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b83a9084 02-Aug-2021 Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

compiler_attributes.h: move __compiletime_{error|warning}

Clang 14 will add support for __attribute__((__error__(""))) and
__attribute__((__warning__(""))). To make use of these in
__compiletime_error and __compiletime_warning (as used by BUILD_BUG and
friends) for newer clang and detect/fallback for older versions of
clang, move these to compiler_attributes.h and guard them with
__has_attribute preprocessor guards.

Link: https://reviews.llvm.org/D106030
Link: https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=16428
Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/1173
Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
[Reworded, landed in Clang 14]
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>

# 540540d0 30-Jun-2021 Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

kcov: add __no_sanitize_coverage to fix noinstr for all architectures

Until now no compiler supported an attribute to disable coverage
instrumentation as used by KCOV.

To work around this limitation on x86, noinstr functions have their
coverage instrumentation turned into nops by objtool. However, this
solution doesn't scale automatically to other architectures, such as
arm64, which are migrating to use the generic entry code.

Clang [1] and GCC [2] have added support for the attribute recently.
[1] https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/commit/280333021e9550d80f5c1152a34e33e81df1e178
[2] https://gcc.gnu.org/git/?p=gcc.git;a=commit;h=cec4d4a6782c9bd8d071839c50a239c49caca689
The changes will appear in Clang 13 and GCC 12.

Add __no_sanitize_coverage for both compilers, and add it to noinstr.

Note: In the Clang case, __has_feature(coverage_sanitizer) is only true if
the feature is enabled, and therefore we do not require an additional
defined(CONFIG_KCOV) (like in the GCC case where __has_attribute(..) is
always true) to avoid adding redundant attributes to functions if KCOV is
off. That being said, compilers that support the attribute will not
generate errors/warnings if the attribute is redundantly used; however,
where possible let's avoid it as it reduces preprocessed code size and
associated compile-time overheads.

[elver@google.com: Implement __has_feature(coverage_sanitizer) in Clang]
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210527162655.3246381-1-elver@google.com
[elver@google.com: add comment explaining __has_feature() in Clang]
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210527194448.3470080-1-elver@google.com

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210525175819.699786-1-elver@google.com
Signed-off-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ardb@kernel.org>
Cc: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Cc: Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu>
Cc: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>
Cc: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d991bb1c 29-Apr-2021 Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>

include/linux/compiler-gcc.h: sparse can do constant folding of __builtin_bswap*()

Sparse can do constant folding of __builtin_bswap*() since 2017. Also, a
much recent version of Sparse is needed anyway, see commit 6ec4476ac825
("Raise gcc version requirement to 4.9").

So, remove the comment about sparse not being yet able to constant fold
__builtin_bswap*() and remove the corresponding test of __CHECKER__.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210226092236.99369-1-luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Acked-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# aec6c60a 15-Jan-2021 Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>

kbuild: check the minimum compiler version in Kconfig

Paul Gortmaker reported a regression in the GCC version check. [1]
If you use GCC 4.8, the build breaks before showing the error message
"error Sorry, your version of GCC is too old - please use 4.9 or newer."

I do not want to apply his fix-up since it implies we would not be able
to remove any cc-option test. Anyway, I admit checking the GCC version
in <linux/compiler-gcc.h> is too late.

Almost at the same time, Linus also suggested to move the compiler
version error to Kconfig time. [2]

I unified the two similar scripts, gcc-version.sh and clang-version.sh
into cc-version.sh. The old scripts invoked the compiler multiple times
(3 times for gcc-version.sh, 4 times for clang-version.sh). I refactored
the code so the new one invokes the compiler just once, and also tried
my best to use shell-builtin commands where possible.

The new script runs faster.

$ time ./scripts/clang-version.sh clang

real 0m0.029s
user 0m0.012s
sys 0m0.021s

$ time ./scripts/cc-version.sh clang
Clang 120000

real 0m0.009s
user 0m0.006s
sys 0m0.004s

cc-version.sh also shows an error message if the compiler is too old:

$ make defconfig CC=clang-9
*** Default configuration is based on 'x86_64_defconfig'
*** Compiler is too old.
*** Your Clang version: 9.0.1
*** Minimum Clang version: 10.0.1
scripts/Kconfig.include:46: Sorry, this compiler is not supported.
make[1]: *** [scripts/kconfig/Makefile:81: defconfig] Error 1
make: *** [Makefile:602: defconfig] Error 2

The new script takes care of ICC because we have <linux/compiler-intel.h>
although I am not sure if building the kernel with ICC is well-supported.

[1]: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210110190807.134996-1-paul.gortmaker@windriver.com
[2]: https://lore.kernel.org/r/CAHk-=wh-+TMHPTFo1qs-MYyK7tZh-OQovA=pP3=e06aCVp6_kA@mail.gmail.com

Fixes: 87de84c9140e ("kbuild: remove cc-option test of -Werror=date-time")
Reported-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>
Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
Tested-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>

# dca5244d 12-Jan-2021 Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>

compiler.h: Raise minimum version of GCC to 5.1 for arm64

GCC versions >= 4.9 and < 5.1 have been shown to emit memory references
beyond the stack pointer, resulting in memory corruption if an interrupt
is taken after the stack pointer has been adjusted but before the
reference has been executed. This leads to subtle, infrequent data
corruption such as the EXT4 problems reported by Russell King at the
link below.

Life is too short for buggy compilers, so raise the minimum GCC version
required by arm64 to 5.1.

Reported-by: Russell King <linux@armlinux.org.uk>
Suggested-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Cc: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
Cc: Florian Weimer <fweimer@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210105154726.GD1551@shell.armlinux.org.uk
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210112224832.10980-1-will@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>

# 3347acc6 13-Nov-2020 Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu>

compiler.h: fix barrier_data() on clang

Commit 815f0ddb346c ("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h
mutually exclusive") neglected to copy barrier_data() from
compiler-gcc.h into compiler-clang.h.

The definition in compiler-gcc.h was really to work around clang's more
aggressive optimization, so this broke barrier_data() on clang, and
consequently memzero_explicit() as well.

For example, this results in at least the memzero_explicit() call in
lib/crypto/sha256.c:sha256_transform() being optimized away by clang.

Fix this by moving the definition of barrier_data() into compiler.h.

Also move the gcc/clang definition of barrier() into compiler.h,
__memory_barrier() is icc-specific (and barrier() is already defined
using it in compiler-intel.h) and doesn't belong in compiler.h.

[rdunlap@infradead.org: fix ALPHA builds when SMP is not enabled]

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201101231835.4589-1-rdunlap@infradead.org
Fixes: 815f0ddb346c ("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive")
Signed-off-by: Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu>
Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201014212631.207844-1-nivedita@alum.mit.edu
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 080b6f40 28-Oct-2020 Ard Biesheuvel <ardb@kernel.org>

bpf: Don't rely on GCC __attribute__((optimize)) to disable GCSE

Commit 3193c0836 ("bpf: Disable GCC -fgcse optimization for
___bpf_prog_run()") introduced a __no_fgcse macro that expands to a
function scope __attribute__((optimize("-fno-gcse"))), to disable a
GCC specific optimization that was causing trouble on x86 builds, and
was not expected to have any positive effect in the first place.

However, as the GCC manual documents, __attribute__((optimize))
is not for production use, and results in all other optimization
options to be forgotten for the function in question. This can
cause all kinds of trouble, but in one particular reported case,
it causes -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables to be disregarded,
resulting in .eh_frame info to be emitted for the function.

This reverts commit 3193c0836, and instead, it disables the -fgcse
optimization for the entire source file, but only when building for
X86 using GCC with CONFIG_BPF_JIT_ALWAYS_ON disabled. Note that the
original commit states that CONFIG_RETPOLINE=n triggers the issue,
whereas CONFIG_RETPOLINE=y performs better without the optimization,
so it is kept disabled in both cases.

Fixes: 3193c0836f20 ("bpf: Disable GCC -fgcse optimization for ___bpf_prog_run()")
Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ardb@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert+renesas@glider.be>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/CAMuHMdUg0WJHEcq6to0-eODpXPOywLot6UD2=GFHpzoj_hCoBQ@mail.gmail.com/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/20201028171506.15682-2-ardb@kernel.org

# c8db3b0a 13-Oct-2020 Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

compiler-gcc: improve version error

As Kees suggests, doing so provides developers with two useful pieces of
- The kernel build was attempting to use GCC.
(Maybe they accidentally poked the wrong configs in a CI.)
- They need 4.9 or better.
("Upgrade to what version?" doesn't need to be dug out of documentation,
headers, etc.)

Suggested-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Cc: Fangrui Song <maskray@google.com>
Cc: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>
Cc: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200902225911.209899-8-ndesaulniers@google.com
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 63a0895d 03-Jun-2020 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

compiler: Remove uninitialized_var() macro

Using uninitialized_var() is dangerous as it papers over real bugs[1]
(or can in the future), and suppresses unrelated compiler warnings
(e.g. "unused variable"). If the compiler thinks it is uninitialized,
either simply initialize the variable or make compiler changes.

As recommended[2] by[3] Linus[4], remove the macro. With the recent
change to disable -Wmaybe-uninitialized in v5.7 in commit 78a5255ffb6a
("Stop the ad-hoc games with -Wno-maybe-initialized"), this is likely
the best time to make this treewide change.

[1] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200603174714.192027-1-glider@google.com/
[2] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/CA+55aFw+Vbj0i=1TGqCR5vQkCzWJ0QxK6CernOU6eedsudAixw@mail.gmail.com/
[3] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/CA+55aFwgbgqhbp1fkxvRKEpzyR5J8n1vKT1VZdz9knmPuXhOeg@mail.gmail.com/
[4] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/CA+55aFz2500WfbKXAx8s67wrm9=yVJu65TpLgN_ybYNv0VEOKA@mail.gmail.com/

Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Bart van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
Reviewed-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Tested-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# 6ec4476a 08-Jul-2020 Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

Raise gcc version requirement to 4.9

I realize that we fairly recently raised it to 4.8, but the fact is, 4.9
is a much better minimum version to target.

We have a number of workarounds for actual bugs in pre-4.9 gcc versions
(including things like internal compiler errors on ARM), but we also
have some syntactic workarounds for lacking features.

In particular, raising the minimum to 4.9 means that we can now just
assume _Generic() exists, which is likely the much better replacement
for a lot of very convoluted built-time magic with conditionals on
sizeof and/or __builtin_choose_expr() with same_type() etc.

Using _Generic also means that you will need to have a very recent
version of 'sparse', but thats easy to build yourself, and much less of
a hassle than some old gcc version can be.

The latest (in a long string) of reasons for minimum compiler version
upgrades was commit 5435f73d5c4a ("efi/x86: Fix build with gcc 4").

Ard points out that RHEL 7 uses gcc-4.8, but the people who stay back on
old RHEL versions persumably also don't build their own kernels anyway.
And maybe they should cross-built or just have a little side affair with
a newer compiler?

Acked-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ardb@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 5144f8a8 03-Jun-2020 Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

compiler_types.h: Add __no_sanitize_{address,undefined} to noinstr

Adds the portable definitions for __no_sanitize_address, and
__no_sanitize_undefined, and subsequently changes noinstr to use the
attributes to disable instrumentation via KASAN or UBSAN.

Reported-by: syzbot+dc1fa714cb070b184db5@syzkaller.appspotmail.com
Signed-off-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/000000000000d2474c05a6c938fe@google.com/

# 5429ef62 22-Jan-2020 Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>

compiler/gcc: Raise minimum GCC version for kernel builds to 4.8

It is very rare to see versions of GCC prior to 4.8 being used to build
the mainline kernel. These old compilers are also know to have codegen
issues which can lead to silent miscompilation:


Raise the minimum GCC version for kernel build to 4.8 and remove some
tautological Kconfig dependencies as a consequence.

Cc: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>

# e33f9a16 11-Dec-2019 Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

kcsan: Add __no_kcsan function attribute

Since the use of -fsanitize=thread is an implementation detail of KCSAN,
the name __no_sanitize_thread could be misleading if used widely.
Instead, we introduce the __no_kcsan attribute which is shorter and more
accurate in the context of KCSAN.

This matches the attribute name __no_kcsan_or_inline. The use of
__kcsan_or_inline itself is still required for __always_inline functions
to retain compatibility with older compilers.

Signed-off-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>

# dfd402a4 14-Nov-2019 Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

kcsan: Add Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer infrastructure

Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer (KCSAN) is a dynamic data-race detector for
kernel space. KCSAN is a sampling watchpoint-based data-race detector.
See the included Documentation/dev-tools/kcsan.rst for more details.

This patch adds basic infrastructure, but does not yet enable KCSAN for
any architecture.

Signed-off-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Acked-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>

# 3193c083 17-Jul-2019 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

bpf: Disable GCC -fgcse optimization for ___bpf_prog_run()

On x86-64, with CONFIG_RETPOLINE=n, GCC's "global common subexpression
elimination" optimization results in ___bpf_prog_run()'s jumptable code
changing from this:

jmp *jumptable(, %rax, 8)
jmp *jumptable(, %rax, 8)
jmp *jumptable(, %rax, 8)

to this:

mov jumptable, %r12
jmp *(%r12, %rax, 8)
jmp *(%r12, %rax, 8)
jmp *(%r12, %rax, 8)

The jumptable address is placed in a register once, at the beginning of
the function. The function execution can then go through multiple
indirect jumps which rely on that same register value. This has a few

1) Objtool isn't smart enough to be able to track such a register value
across multiple recursive indirect jumps through the jump table.

2) With CONFIG_RETPOLINE enabled, this optimization actually results in
a small slowdown. I measured a ~4.7% slowdown in the test_bpf
"tcpdump port 22" selftest.

This slowdown is actually predicted by the GCC manual:

Note: When compiling a program using computed gotos, a GCC
extension, you may get better run-time performance if you
disable the global common subexpression elimination pass by
adding -fno-gcse to the command line.

So just disable the optimization for this function.

Fixes: e55a73251da3 ("bpf: Fix ORC unwinding in non-JIT BPF code")
Reported-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/30c3ca29ba037afcbd860a8672eef0021addf9fe.1563413318.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com

# 3e2ffd65 02-Jan-2019 Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>

include/linux/compiler*.h: fix OPTIMIZER_HIDE_VAR

Since commit 815f0ddb346c ("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h
mutually exclusive") clang no longer reuses the OPTIMIZER_HIDE_VAR macro
from compiler-gcc - instead it gets the version in
include/linux/compiler.h. Unfortunately that version doesn't actually
prevent compiler from optimizing out the variable.

Fix up by moving the macro out from compiler-gcc.h to compiler.h.
Compilers without incline asm support will keep working
since it's protected by an ifdef.

Also fix up comments to match reality since we are no longer overriding
any macros.

Build-tested with gcc and clang.

Fixes: 815f0ddb346c ("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive")
Cc: Eli Friedman <efriedma@codeaurora.org>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# e4f35891 10-Dec-2018 WANG Chao <chao.wang@ucloud.cn>

x86, modpost: Replace last remnants of RETPOLINE with CONFIG_RETPOLINE


4cd24de3a098 ("x86/retpoline: Make CONFIG_RETPOLINE depend on compiler support")

replaced the RETPOLINE define with CONFIG_RETPOLINE checks. Remove the
remaining pieces.

[ bp: Massage commit message. ]

Fixes: 4cd24de3a098 ("x86/retpoline: Make CONFIG_RETPOLINE depend on compiler support")
Signed-off-by: WANG Chao <chao.wang@ucloud.cn>
Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de>
Reviewed-by: Zhenzhong Duan <zhenzhong.duan@oracle.com>
Reviewed-by: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: David Woodhouse <dwmw@amazon.co.uk>
Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: Jessica Yu <jeyu@kernel.org>
Cc: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com>
Cc: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Cc: Michal Marek <michal.lkml@markovi.net>
Cc: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>
Cc: linux-kbuild@vger.kernel.org
Cc: srinivas.eeda@oracle.com
Cc: stable <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Cc: x86-ml <x86@kernel.org>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20181210163725.95977-1-chao.wang@ucloud.cn

# 2bd926b4 28-Dec-2018 Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>


This commit splits the current CONFIG_KASAN config option into two:
1. CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC, that enables the generic KASAN mode (the one
that exists now);
2. CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS, that enables the software tag-based KASAN mode.

The name CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS is chosen as in the future we will have
another hardware tag-based KASAN mode, that will rely on hardware memory
tagging support in arm64.

With CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS enabled, compiler options are changed to
instrument kernel files with -fsantize=kernel-hwaddress (except the ones
for which KASAN_SANITIZE := n is set).


This commit also adds empty placeholder (for now) implementation of
tag-based KASAN specific hooks inserted by the compiler and adjusts
common hooks implementation.

While this commit adds the CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS config option, this option
is not selectable, as it depends on HAVE_ARCH_KASAN_SW_TAGS, which we will
enable once all the infrastracture code has been added.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/b2550106eb8a68b10fefbabce820910b115aa853.1544099024.git.andreyknvl@google.com
Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Reviewed-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 163c8d54 04-Nov-2018 Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>

compiler: remove __no_sanitize_address_or_inline again

The __no_sanitize_address_or_inline and __no_kasan_or_inline defines
are almost identical. The only difference is that __no_kasan_or_inline
does not have the 'notrace' attribute.

To be able to replace __no_sanitize_address_or_inline with the older
definition, add 'notrace' to __no_kasan_or_inline and change to two
users of __no_sanitize_address_or_inline in the s390 code.

The 'notrace' option is necessary for e.g. the __load_psw_mask function
in arch/s390/include/asm/processor.h. Without the option it is possible
to trace __load_psw_mask which leads to kernel stack overflow.

Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
Pointed-out-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Acked-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 1ff2fea5 15-Oct-2018 ndesaulniers@google.com <ndesaulniers@google.com>

compiler-gcc: remove comment about gcc 4.5 from unreachable()

Remove the comment about being unable to detect __builtin_unreachable.
__builtin_unreachable was implemented in the GCC 4.5 timeframe. The
kernel's minimum supported version of GCC is 4.6 since commit
cafa0010cd51 ("Raise the minimum required gcc version to 4.6"). Commit
cb984d101b30 ("compiler-gcc: integrate the various compiler-gcc[345].h
files") shows that unreachable() had different guards based on GCC

Suggested-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# dde709d1 20-Nov-2017 Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>

compiler: introduce __no_sanitize_address_or_inline

Due to conflict between kasan instrumentation and inlining
https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=67368 functions which are
defined as inline could not be called from functions defined with

Introduce __no_sanitize_address_or_inline which would expand to
__no_sanitize_address when the kernel is built with kasan support and
to inline otherwise. This helps to avoid disabling kasan
instrumentation for entire files.

Reviewed-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>

# a3f8a30f 30-Aug-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: use feature checks instead of version checks

Instead of using version checks per-compiler to define (or not)
each attribute, use __has_attribute to test for them, following
the cleanup started with commit 815f0ddb346c
("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive"),
which is supported on gcc >= 5, clang >= 2.9 and icc >= 17.
In the meantime, to support 4.6 <= gcc < 5, we implement
__has_attribute by hand.

All the attributes that can be unconditionally defined and directly
map to compiler attribute(s) (even if optional) have been moved
to a new file include/linux/compiler_attributes.h

In an effort to make the file as regular as possible, comments
stating the purpose of attributes have been removed. Instead,
links to the compiler docs have been added (i.e. to gcc and,
if available, to clang as well). In addition, they have been sorted.

Finally, if an attribute is optional (i.e. if it is guarded
by __has_attribute), the reason has been stated for future reference.

Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> # on top of v4.19-rc5, clang 7
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# 989bd500 31-Aug-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: remove unneeded sparse (__CHECKER__) tests

Sparse knows about a few more attributes now, so we can remove
the __CHECKER__ conditions from them (which, in turn, allow us
to move some of them later on to compiler_attributes.h).

* assume_aligned: since sparse's commit ffc860b ("sparse:
ignore __assume_aligned__ attribute"), included in 0.5.1

* error: since sparse's commit 0a04210 ("sparse: Add 'error'
to ignored attributes"), included in 0.5.0

* hotpatch: since sparse's commit 6043210 ("sparse/parse.c:
ignore hotpatch attribute"), included in 0.5.1

* warning: since sparse's commit 977365d ("Avoid "attribute
'warning': unknown attribute" warning"), included in 0.4.2

On top of that, __must_be_array does not need it either because:

* Even ancient versions of sparse do not have a problem

* BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO() is currently disabled for __CHECKER__

Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> # on top of v4.19-rc5, clang 7
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# ec0bbef6 30-Aug-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: homogenize __must_be_array

Different definitions of __must_be_array:

* gcc: disabled for __CHECKER__

* clang: same definition as gcc's, but without __CHECKER__

* intel: the comment claims __builtin_types_compatible_p()
is unsupported; but icc seems to support it since 13.0.1
(released in 2012). See https://godbolt.org/z/S0l6QQ

Therefore, we can remove all of them and have a single definition
in compiler.h

Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> # on top of v4.19-rc5, clang 7
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# 5c67a52f 30-Aug-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: always use the extra-underscores syntax

The attribute syntax optionally allows to surround attribute names
with "__" in order to avoid collisions with macros of the same name
(see https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Attribute-Syntax.html).

This homogenizes all attributes to use the syntax with underscores.
While there are currently only a handful of cases of some TUs defining
macros like "error" which may collide with the attributes,
this should prevent futures surprises.

This has been done only for "standard" attributes supported by
the major compilers. In other words, those of third-party tools
(e.g. sparse, plugins...) have not been changed for the moment.

Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> # on top of v4.19-rc5, clang 7
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# 29efbc6a 30-Aug-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: remove unused attributes

__optimize and __deprecate_for_modules are unused in
the whole kernel tree. Simply drop them.

Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> # on top of v4.19-rc5, clang 7
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

# ae596de1 18-Sep-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: naked can be shared

The naked attribute is supported by at least gcc >= 4.6 (for ARM,
which is the only current user), gcc >= 8 (for x86), clang >= 3.1
and icc >= 13. See https://godbolt.org/z/350Dyc

Therefore, move it out of compiler-gcc.h so that the definition
is shared by all compilers.

This also fixes Clang support for ARM32 --- 815f0ddb346c
("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive").

Fixes: 815f0ddb346c ("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive")
Cc: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Cc: Eli Friedman <efriedma@codeaurora.org>
Cc: Christopher Li <sparse@chrisli.org>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Dominique Martinet <asmadeus@codewreck.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: linux-sparse@vger.kernel.org
Suggested-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Tested-by: Stefan Agner <stefan@agner.ch>
Reviewed-by: Stefan Agner <stefan@agner.ch>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# d124b44f 18-Sep-2018 Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>

Compiler Attributes: naked was fixed in gcc 4.6

Commit 9c695203a7dd ("compiler-gcc.h: gcc-4.5 needs noclone
and noinline on __naked functions") added noinline and noclone
as a workaround for a gcc 4.5 bug, which was resolved in 4.6.0.

Since now the minimum gcc supported version is 4.6,
we can clean it up.

See https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=44290
and https://godbolt.org/z/h6NMIL

Fixes: 815f0ddb346c ("include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive")
Cc: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Cc: Eli Friedman <efriedma@codeaurora.org>
Cc: Christopher Li <sparse@chrisli.org>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Dominique Martinet <asmadeus@codewreck.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: linux-sparse@vger.kernel.org
Tested-by: Stefan Agner <stefan@agner.ch>
Reviewed-by: Stefan Agner <stefan@agner.ch>
Reviewed-by: Luc Van Oostenryck <luc.vanoostenryck@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <miguel.ojeda.sandonis@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# 815f0ddb 22-Aug-2018 Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

include/linux/compiler*.h: make compiler-*.h mutually exclusive

Commit cafa0010cd51 ("Raise the minimum required gcc version to 4.6")
recently exposed a brittle part of the build for supporting non-gcc

Both Clang and ICC define __GNUC__, __GNUC_MINOR__, and
__GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__ for quick compatibility with code bases that haven't
added compiler specific checks for __clang__ or __INTEL_COMPILER.

This is brittle, as they happened to get compatibility by posing as a
certain version of GCC. This broke when upgrading the minimal version
of GCC required to build the kernel, to a version above what ICC and
Clang claim to be.

Rather than always including compiler-gcc.h then undefining or
redefining macros in compiler-intel.h or compiler-clang.h, let's
separate out the compiler specific macro definitions into mutually
exclusive headers, do more proper compiler detection, and keep shared
definitions in compiler_types.h.

Fixes: cafa0010cd51 ("Raise the minimum required gcc version to 4.6")
Reported-by: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com>
Suggested-by: Eli Friedman <efriedma@codeaurora.org>
Suggested-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# cafa0010 20-Aug-2018 Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>

Raise the minimum required gcc version to 4.6

Various architectures fail to build properly with older versions of the
gcc compiler.

An example from Guenter Roeck in thread [1]:
> In file included from ./include/linux/mm.h:17:0,
> from ./include/linux/pid_namespace.h:7,
> from ./include/linux/ptrace.h:10,
> from arch/openrisc/kernel/asm-offsets.c:32:
> ./include/linux/mm_types.h:497:16: error: flexible array member in otherwise empty struct
> This is just an example with gcc 4.5.1 for or32. I have seen the problem
> with gcc 4.4 (for unicore32) as well.

So update the minimum required version of gcc to 4.6.

[1] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20180814170904.GA12768@roeck-us.net/


- Update Documentation/process/changes.rst

- Remove and consolidate version test blocks in compiler-gcc.h for
versions lower than 4.6

Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 771c0353 18-Aug-2018 Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

deprecate the '__deprecated' attribute warnings entirely and for good

We haven't had lots of deprecation warnings lately, but the rdma use of
it made them flare up again.

They are not useful. They annoy everybody, and nobody ever does
anything about them, because it's always "somebody elses problem". And
when people start thinking that warnings are normal, they stop looking
at them, and the real warnings that mean something go unnoticed.

If you want to get rid of a function, just get rid of it. Convert every
user to the new world order.

And if you can't do that, then don't annoy everybody else with your
marking that says "I couldn't be bothered to fix this, so I'll just spam
everybody elses build logs with warnings about my laziness".

Make a kernelnewbies wiki page about things that could be cleaned up,
write a blog post about it, or talk to people on the mailing lists. But
don't add warnings to the kernel build about cleanup that you think
should happen but you aren't doing yourself.

Don't. Just don't.

Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d03db2bc 21-Jun-2018 Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

compiler-gcc.h: Add __attribute__((gnu_inline)) to all inline declarations

Functions marked extern inline do not emit an externally visible
function when the gnu89 C standard is used. Some KBUILD Makefiles
overwrite KBUILD_CFLAGS. This is an issue for GCC 5.1+ users as without
an explicit C standard specified, the default is gnu11. Since c99, the
semantics of extern inline have changed such that an externally visible
function is always emitted. This can lead to multiple definition errors
of extern inline functions at link time of compilation units whose build
files have removed an explicit C standard compiler flag for users of GCC
5.1+ or Clang.

Suggested-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Suggested-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Suggested-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Signed-off-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
Acked-by: Juergen Gross <jgross@suse.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: acme@redhat.com
Cc: akataria@vmware.com
Cc: akpm@linux-foundation.org
Cc: andrea.parri@amarulasolutions.com
Cc: ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org
Cc: aryabinin@virtuozzo.com
Cc: astrachan@google.com
Cc: boris.ostrovsky@oracle.com
Cc: brijesh.singh@amd.com
Cc: caoj.fnst@cn.fujitsu.com
Cc: geert@linux-m68k.org
Cc: ghackmann@google.com
Cc: gregkh@linuxfoundation.org
Cc: jan.kiszka@siemens.com
Cc: jarkko.sakkinen@linux.intel.com
Cc: jpoimboe@redhat.com
Cc: keescook@google.com
Cc: kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com
Cc: kstewart@linuxfoundation.org
Cc: linux-efi@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-kbuild@vger.kernel.org
Cc: manojgupta@google.com
Cc: mawilcox@microsoft.com
Cc: michal.lkml@markovi.net
Cc: mjg59@google.com
Cc: mka@chromium.org
Cc: pombredanne@nexb.com
Cc: rientjes@google.com
Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org
Cc: sedat.dilek@gmail.com
Cc: thomas.lendacky@amd.com
Cc: tstellar@redhat.com
Cc: tweek@google.com
Cc: virtualization@lists.linux-foundation.org
Cc: will.deacon@arm.com
Cc: yamada.masahiro@socionext.com
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180621162324.36656-2-ndesaulniers@google.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 8793bb7f 19-Jun-2018 Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>

kbuild: add macro for controlling warnings to linux/compiler.h

I have occasionally run into a situation where it would make sense to
control a compiler warning from a source file rather than doing so from
a Makefile using the $(cc-disable-warning, ...) or $(cc-option, ...)

The approach here is similar to what glibc uses, using __diag() and
related macros to encapsulate a _Pragma("GCC diagnostic ...") statement
that gets turned into the respective "#pragma GCC diagnostic ..." by
the preprocessor when the macro gets expanded.

Like glibc, I also have an argument to pass the affected compiler
version, but decided to actually evaluate that one. For now, this
supports GCC_4_6, GCC_4_7, GCC_4_8, GCC_4_9, GCC_5, GCC_6, GCC_7,
GCC_8 and GCC_9. Adding support for CLANG_5 and other interesting
versions is straightforward here. GNU compilers starting with gcc-4.2
could support it in principle, but "#pragma GCC diagnostic push"
was only added in gcc-4.6, so it seems simpler to not deal with those
at all. The same versions show a large number of warnings already,
so it seems easier to just leave it at that and not do a more
fine-grained control for them.

The use cases I found so far include:

- turning off the gcc-8 -Wattribute-alias warning inside of the
SYSCALL_DEFINEx() macro without having to do it globally.

- Reducing the build time for a simple re-make after a change,
once we move the warnings from ./Makefile and
./scripts/Makefile.extrawarn into linux/compiler.h

- More control over the warnings based on other configurations,
using preprocessor syntax instead of Makefile syntax. This should make
it easier for the average developer to understand and change things.

- Adding an easy way to turn the W=1 option on unconditionally
for a subdirectory or a specific file. This has been requested
by several developers in the past that want to have their subsystems
W=1 clean.

- Integrating clang better into the build systems. Clang supports
more warnings than GCC, and we probably want to classify them
as default, W=1, W=2 etc, but there are cases in which the
warnings should be classified differently due to excessive false
positives from one or the other compiler.

- Adding a way to turn the default warnings into errors (e.g. using
a new "make E=0" tag) while not also turning the W=1 warnings into

This patch for now just adds the minimal infrastructure in order to
do the first of the list above. As the #pragma GCC diagnostic
takes precedence over command line options, the next step would be
to convert a lot of the individual Makefiles that set nonstandard
options to use __diag() instead.

- Rebase atop current master.
- Add __diag_GCC, or more generally __diag_<compiler>, abstraction to
avoid code outside of linux/compiler-gcc.h needing to duplicate
knowledge about different GCC versions.
- Add a comment argument to __diag_{ignore,warn,error} which isn't
used in the expansion of the macros but serves to push people to
document the reason for using them - per feedback from Kees Cook.
- Translate severity to GCC-specific pragmas in linux/compiler-gcc.h
rather than using GCC-specific in linux/compiler_types.h.
- Drop all but GCC 8 macros, since we only need to define macros for
versions that we need to introduce pragmas for, and as of this
series that's just GCC 8.
- Capitalize comments in linux/compiler-gcc.h to match the style of
the rest of the file.
- Line up macro definitions with tabs in linux/compiler-gcc.h.]

Signed-off-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Signed-off-by: Paul Burton <paul.burton@mips.com>
Tested-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@c-s.fr>
Tested-by: Stafford Horne <shorne@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com>

# f0907827 07-May-2018 Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>

compiler.h: enable builtin overflow checkers and add fallback code

This adds wrappers for the __builtin overflow checkers present in gcc
5.1+ as well as fallback implementations for earlier compilers. It's not
that easy to implement the fully generic __builtin_X_overflow(T1 a, T2
b, T3 *d) in macros, so the fallback code assumes that T1, T2 and T3 are
the same. We obviously don't want the wrappers to have different
semantics depending on $GCC_VERSION, so we also insist on that even when
using the builtins.

There are a few problems with the 'a+b < a' idiom for checking for
overflow: For signed types, it relies on undefined behaviour and is
not actually complete (it doesn't check underflow;
e.g. INT_MIN+INT_MIN == 0 isn't caught). Due to type promotion it
is wrong for all types (signed and unsigned) narrower than
int. Similarly, when a and b does not have the same type, there are
subtle cases like

u32 a;

if (a + sizeof(foo) < a)
return -EOVERFLOW;
a += sizeof(foo);

where the test is always false on 64 bit platforms. Add to that that it
is not always possible to determine the types involved at a glance.

The new overflow.h is somewhat bulky, but that's mostly a result of
trying to be type-generic, complete (e.g. catching not only overflow
but also signed underflow) and not relying on undefined behaviour.

Linus is of course right [1] that for unsigned subtraction a-b, the
right way to check for overflow (underflow) is "b > a" and not
"__builtin_sub_overflow(a, b, &d)", but that's just one out of six cases
covered here, and included mostly for completeness.

So is it worth it? I think it is, if nothing else for the documentation
value of seeing

if (check_add_overflow(a, b, &d))
return -EGOAWAY;

instead of the open-coded (and possibly wrong and/or incomplete and/or

if (a+b < a)
return -EGOAWAY;

While gcc does recognize the 'a+b < a' idiom for testing unsigned add
overflow, it doesn't do nearly as good for unsigned multiplication
(there's also no single well-established idiom). So using
check_mul_overflow in kcalloc and friends may also make gcc generate
slightly better code.

[1] https://lkml.org/lkml/2015/11/2/658

Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# 2cfe0d30 10-Apr-2018 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

task_struct: only use anon struct under randstruct plugin

The original intent for always adding the anonymous struct in
task_struct was to make sure we had compiler coverage.

However, this caused pathological padding of 40 bytes at the start of
task_struct. Instead, move the anonymous struct to being only used when
struct layout randomization is enabled.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180327213609.GA2964@beast
Fixes: 29e48ce87f1e ("task_struct: Allow randomized")
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Reported-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 173a3efd 21-Feb-2018 Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>

bug.h: work around GCC PR82365 in BUG()

Looking at functions with large stack frames across all architectures
led me discovering that BUG() suffers from the same problem as
fortify_panic(), which I've added a workaround for already.

In short, variables that go out of scope by calling a noreturn function
or __builtin_unreachable() keep using stack space in functions

A workaround that was identified is to insert an empty assembler
statement just before calling the function that doesn't return. I'm
adding a macro "barrier_before_unreachable()" to document this, and
insert calls to that in all instances of BUG() that currently suffer
from this problem.

The files that saw the largest change from this had these frame sizes
before, and much less with my patch:

fs/ext4/inode.c:82:1: warning: the frame size of 1672 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
fs/ext4/namei.c:434:1: warning: the frame size of 904 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
fs/ext4/super.c:2279:1: warning: the frame size of 1160 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
fs/ext4/xattr.c:146:1: warning: the frame size of 1168 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
fs/f2fs/inode.c:152:1: warning: the frame size of 1424 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_core.c:1195:1: warning: the frame size of 1068 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_core.c:395:1: warning: the frame size of 1084 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_ftp.c:298:1: warning: the frame size of 928 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_ftp.c:418:1: warning: the frame size of 908 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_lblcr.c:718:1: warning: the frame size of 960 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]
drivers/net/xen-netback/netback.c:1500:1: warning: the frame size of 1088 bytes is larger than 800 bytes [-Wframe-larger-than=]

In case of ARC and CRIS, it turns out that the BUG() implementation
actually does return (or at least the compiler thinks it does),
resulting in lots of warnings about uninitialized variable use and
leaving noreturn functions, such as:

block/cfq-iosched.c: In function 'cfq_async_queue_prio':
block/cfq-iosched.c:3804:1: error: control reaches end of non-void function [-Werror=return-type]
include/linux/dmaengine.h: In function 'dma_maxpq':
include/linux/dmaengine.h:1123:1: error: control reaches end of non-void function [-Werror=return-type]

This makes them call __builtin_trap() instead, which should normally
dump the stack and kill the current process, like some of the other
architectures already do.

I tried adding barrier_before_unreachable() to panic() and
fortify_panic() as well, but that had very little effect, so I'm not
submitting that patch.

Vineet said:

: For ARC, it is double win.
: 1. Fixes 3 -Wreturn-type warnings
: | ../net/core/ethtool.c:311:1: warning: control reaches end of non-void function
: [-Wreturn-type]
: | ../kernel/sched/core.c:3246:1: warning: control reaches end of non-void function
: [-Wreturn-type]
: | ../include/linux/sunrpc/svc_xprt.h:180:1: warning: control reaches end of
: non-void function [-Wreturn-type]
: 2. bloat-o-meter reports code size improvements as gcc elides the
: generated code for stack return.

Link: https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=82365
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171219114112.939391-1-arnd@arndb.de
Signed-off-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Acked-by: Vineet Gupta <vgupta@synopsys.com> [arch/arc]
Tested-by: Vineet Gupta <vgupta@synopsys.com> [arch/arc]
Cc: Mikael Starvik <starvik@axis.com>
Cc: Jesper Nilsson <jesper.nilsson@axis.com>
Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
Cc: Fenghua Yu <fenghua.yu@intel.com>
Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net>
Cc: Christopher Li <sparse@chrisli.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: "Steven Rostedt (VMware)" <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 87358710 19-Feb-2018 David Woodhouse <dwmw@amazon.co.uk>

x86/retpoline: Support retpoline builds with Clang

Signed-off-by: David Woodhouse <dwmw@amazon.co.uk>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: arjan.van.de.ven@intel.com
Cc: bp@alien8.de
Cc: dave.hansen@intel.com
Cc: jmattson@google.com
Cc: karahmed@amazon.de
Cc: kvm@vger.kernel.org
Cc: pbonzini@redhat.com
Cc: rkrcmar@redhat.com
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1519037457-7643-5-git-send-email-dwmw@amazon.co.uk
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# d9afaaa4 01-Feb-2018 Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>

compiler-gcc.h: __nostackprotector needs gcc-4.4 and up

Gcc versions before 4.4 do not recognize the __optimize__ compiler

warning: ‘__optimize__’ attribute directive ignored

Fixes: 7375ae3a0b79ea07 ("compiler-gcc.h: Introduce __nostackprotector function attribute")
Signed-off-by: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Signed-off-by: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>

# df5d45aa 01-Feb-2018 Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>

compiler-gcc.h: Introduce __optimize function attribute

Create a new function attribute __optimize, which allows to specify an
optimization level on a per-function basis.

Signed-off-by: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Acked-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
Signed-off-by: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>

# a3d6c976 18-Jan-2018 Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>

sparse doesn't support struct randomization

Without this patch, I drown in a sea of unknown attribute warnings

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180117024539.27354-1-willy@infradead.org
Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox <mawilcox@microsoft.com>
Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# b2441318 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license

Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne.

How this work was done:

Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.

The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5

All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.

- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.

For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 11139

and resulted in the first patch in this series.

If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930

and resulted in the second patch in this series.

- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1

and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).

- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
in time.

In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.

Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.

In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
correct identifier.

Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct

This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.

These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# d1515582 24-Oct-2017 Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>

linux/compiler.h: Split into compiler.h and compiler_types.h

linux/compiler.h is included indirectly by linux/types.h via
uapi/linux/types.h -> uapi/linux/posix_types.h -> linux/stddef.h
-> uapi/linux/stddef.h and is needed to provide a proper definition of

Unfortunately, compiler.h requires a definition of
smp_read_barrier_depends() for defining lockless_dereference() and soon
for defining READ_ONCE(), which means that all
users of READ_ONCE() will need to include asm/barrier.h to avoid splats
such as:

In file included from include/uapi/linux/stddef.h:1:0,
from include/linux/stddef.h:4,
from arch/h8300/kernel/asm-offsets.c:11:
include/linux/list.h: In function 'list_empty':
>> include/linux/compiler.h:343:2: error: implicit declaration of function 'smp_read_barrier_depends' [-Werror=implicit-function-declaration]
smp_read_barrier_depends(); /* Enforce dependency ordering from x */ \

A better alternative is to include asm/barrier.h in linux/compiler.h,
but this requires a type definition for "bool" on some architectures
(e.g. x86), which is defined later by linux/types.h. Type "bool" is also
used directly in linux/compiler.h, so the whole thing is pretty fragile.

This patch splits compiler.h in two: compiler_types.h contains type
annotations, definitions and the compiler-specific parts, whereas
compiler.h #includes compiler-types.h and additionally defines macros

uapi/linux/stddef.h and linux/linkage.h are then moved over to include
linux/compiler_types.h, which fixes the build for h8 and blackfin.

Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1508840570-22169-2-git-send-email-will.deacon@arm.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 649ea4d5 27-Jul-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

objtool: Assume unannotated UD2 instructions are dead ends

Arnd reported some false positive warnings with GCC 7:

drivers/hid/wacom_wac.o: warning: objtool: wacom_bpt3_touch()+0x2a5: stack state mismatch: cfa1=7+8 cfa2=6+16
drivers/iio/adc/vf610_adc.o: warning: objtool: vf610_adc_calculate_rates() falls through to next function vf610_adc_sample_set()
drivers/pwm/pwm-hibvt.o: warning: objtool: hibvt_pwm_get_state() falls through to next function hibvt_pwm_remove()
drivers/pwm/pwm-mediatek.o: warning: objtool: mtk_pwm_config() falls through to next function mtk_pwm_enable()
drivers/spi/spi-bcm2835.o: warning: objtool: .text: unexpected end of section
drivers/spi/spi-bcm2835aux.o: warning: objtool: .text: unexpected end of section
drivers/watchdog/digicolor_wdt.o: warning: objtool: dc_wdt_get_timeleft() falls through to next function dc_wdt_restart()

When GCC 7 detects a potential divide-by-zero condition, it sometimes
inserts a UD2 instruction for the case where the divisor is zero,
instead of letting the hardware trap on the divide instruction.

Objtool doesn't consider UD2 to be fatal unless it's annotated with
unreachable(). So it considers the GCC-generated UD2 to be non-fatal,
and it tries to follow the control flow past the UD2 and gets

Previously, objtool *did* assume UD2 was always a dead end. That
changed with the following commit:

d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")

The motivation behind that change was that Peter was planning on using
UD2 for __WARN(), which is *not* a dead end. However, it turns out
that some emulators rely on UD2 being fatal, so he ended up using
'ud0' instead:

9a93848fe787 ("x86/debug: Implement __WARN() using UD0")

For GCC 4.5+, it should be safe to go back to the previous assumption
that UD2 is fatal, even when it's not annotated with unreachable().

But for pre-4.5 versions of GCC, the unreachable() macro isn't
supported, so such cases of UD2 need to be explicitly annotated as

Reported-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/e57fa9dfede25f79487da8126ee9cdf7b856db65.1501188854.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 1ee6f00d1 25-Jul-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

x86/asm: Make objtool unreachable macros independent from GCC version

The ASM_UNREACHABLE macro isn't GCC version-specific, so move it outside
the GCC 4.5+ check. Otherwise the 0-day robot will report objtool
warnings for uses of ASM_UNREACHABLE with GCC 4.4.

Also move the annotate_unreachable() macro so the related macros can
stay together.

Reported-by: kbuild test robot <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: aa5d1b81500e ("x86/asm: Add ASM_UNREACHABLE")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/fb18337dbf230fd36450d9faf19a2b2533dbcba1.1500993873.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# aa5d1b81 24-Jul-2017 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>


This creates an unreachable annotation in asm for CONFIG_STACK_VALIDATION=y.
While here, adjust earlier uses of \t\n into \n\t.

Suggested-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
Cc: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
Cc: Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@intel.com>
Cc: Eric Biggers <ebiggers3@gmail.com>
Cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Hans Liljestrand <ishkamiel@gmail.com>
Cc: James Bottomley <James.Bottomley@hansenpartnership.com>
Cc: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: arozansk@redhat.com
Cc: axboe@kernel.dk
Cc: kernel-hardening@lists.openwall.com
Cc: linux-arch <linux-arch@vger.kernel.org>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1500921349-10803-3-git-send-email-keescook@chromium.org
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 7375ae3a 17-Jul-2017 Tom Lendacky <thomas.lendacky@amd.com>

compiler-gcc.h: Introduce __nostackprotector function attribute

Create a new function attribute, __nostackprotector, that can used to turn off
stack protection on a per function basis.

Signed-off-by: Tom Lendacky <thomas.lendacky@amd.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Brijesh Singh <brijesh.singh@amd.com>
Cc: Dave Young <dyoung@redhat.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Matt Fleming <matt@codeblueprint.co.uk>
Cc: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
Cc: Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Radim Krčmář <rkrcmar@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Toshimitsu Kani <toshi.kani@hpe.com>
Cc: kasan-dev@googlegroups.com
Cc: kvm@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-arch@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-doc@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-efi@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/0576fd5c74440ad0250f16ac6609ecf587812456.1500319216.git.thomas.lendacky@amd.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 9a04dbcf 06-Jul-2017 David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>

compiler, clang: always inline when CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_INLINING is disabled

The motivation for commit abb2ea7dfd82 ("compiler, clang: suppress
warning for unused static inline functions") was to suppress clang's
warnings about unused static inline functions.

For configs without CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_INLINING enabled, such as any non-x86
architecture, `inline' in the kernel implies that
__attribute__((always_inline)) is used.

Some code depends on that behavior, see

net/built-in.o: In function `__xchg_mb':
arch/arm64/include/asm/cmpxchg.h:99: undefined reference to `__compiletime_assert_99'
arch/arm64/include/asm/cmpxchg.h:99: undefined reference to `__compiletime_assert_99

The full fix would be to identify these breakages and annotate the
functions with __always_inline instead of `inline'. But since we are
late in the 4.12-rc cycle, simply carry forward the forced inlining
behavior and work toward moving arm64, and other architectures, toward

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/alpine.DEB.2.10.1706261552200.1075@chino.kir.corp.google.com
Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Reported-by: Sodagudi Prasad <psodagud@codeaurora.org>
Tested-by: Sodagudi Prasad <psodagud@codeaurora.org>
Tested-by: Matthias Kaehlcke <mka@chromium.org>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 29e48ce8 05-Apr-2017 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

task_struct: Allow randomized layout

This marks most of the layout of task_struct as randomizable, but leaves
thread_info and scheduler state untouched at the start, and thread_struct
untouched at the end.

Other parts of the kernel use unnamed structures, but the 0-day builder
using gcc-4.4 blows up on static initializers. Officially, it's documented
as only working on gcc 4.6 and later, which further confuses me:
The structure layout randomization already requires gcc 4.7, but instead
of depending on the plugin being enabled, just check the gcc versions
for wider build testing. At Linus's suggestion, the marking is hidden
in a macro to reduce how ugly it looks. Additionally, indenting is left
unchanged since it would make things harder to read.

Randomization of task_struct is modified from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's
code in the last public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on my understanding
of the code. Changes or omissions from the original code are mine and
don't reflect the original grsecurity/PaX code.

Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# 313dd1b6 06-May-2017 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

gcc-plugins: Add the randstruct plugin

This randstruct plugin is modified from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's code
in the last public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on my understanding
of the code. Changes or omissions from the original code are mine and
don't reflect the original grsecurity/PaX code.

The randstruct GCC plugin randomizes the layout of selected structures
at compile time, as a probabilistic defense against attacks that need to
know the layout of structures within the kernel. This is most useful for
"in-house" kernel builds where neither the randomization seed nor other
build artifacts are made available to an attacker. While less useful for
distribution kernels (where the randomization seed must be exposed for
third party kernel module builds), it still has some value there since now
all kernel builds would need to be tracked by an attacker.

In more performance sensitive scenarios, GCC_PLUGIN_RANDSTRUCT_PERFORMANCE
can be selected to make a best effort to restrict randomization to
cacheline-sized groups of elements, and will not randomize bitfields. This
comes at the cost of reduced randomization.

Two annotations are defined,__randomize_layout and __no_randomize_layout,
which respectively tell the plugin to either randomize or not to
randomize instances of the struct in question. Follow-on patches enable
the auto-detection logic for selecting structures for randomization
that contain only function pointers. It is disabled here to assist with

Since any randomized structs must be initialized using designated
initializers, __randomize_layout includes the __designated_init annotation
even when the plugin is disabled so that all builds will require
the needed initialization. (With the plugin enabled, annotations for
automatically chosen structures are marked as well.)

The main differences between this implemenation and grsecurity are:
- disable automatic struct selection (to be enabled in follow-up patch)
- add designated_init attribute at runtime and for manual marking
- clarify debugging output to differentiate bad cast warnings
- add whitelisting infrastructure
- support gcc 7's DECL_ALIGN and DECL_MODE changes (Laura Abbott)
- raise minimum required GCC version to 4.7

Earlier versions of this patch series were ported by Michael Leibowitz.

Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# 0aa5e49c 05-Apr-2017 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

compiler: Add __designated_init annotation

This allows structure annotations for requiring designated initialization
in GCC 5.1.0 and later:

The structure randomization layout plugin will be using this to help
identify structures that need this form of initialization.

Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# e390f9a9 28-Feb-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

objtool, modules: Discard objtool annotation sections for modules

The '__unreachable' and '__func_stack_frame_non_standard' sections are
only used at compile time. They're discarded for vmlinux but they
should also be discarded for modules.

Since this is a recurring pattern, prefix the section names with
".discard.". It's a nice convention and vmlinux.lds.h already discards
such sections.

Also remove the 'a' (allocatable) flag from the __unreachable section
since it doesn't make sense for a discarded section.

Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Jessica Yu <jeyu@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170301180444.lhd53c5tibc4ns77@treble
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 55149d06 28-Feb-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

objtool, compiler.h: Fix __unreachable section relocation size

Linus reported the following commit broke module loading on his laptop:

d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")

It showed errors like the following:

module: overflow in relocation type 10 val ffffffffc02afc81
module: 'nvme' likely not compiled with -mcmodel=kernel

The problem is that the __unreachable section addresses are stored using
the '.long' asm directive, which isn't big enough for .text section
kernel addresses. Use relative addresses instead:

".long %c0b - .\t\n"

Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Reported-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170301060504.oltm3iws6fmubnom@treble
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 4e4636cf 27-Feb-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

objtool: Enclose contents of unreachable() macro in a block

Guenter Roeck reported a boot failure in mips64. It was bisected to the
following commit:

d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")

The unreachable() macro was formerly only composed of a single
statement. The above commit added a second statement, but neglected to
enclose the statements in a block.

Suggested-by: Guenter Roeck <linux@roeck-us.net>
Reported-by: Guenter Roeck <linux@roeck-us.net>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170228042116.glmwmwiohcix7o4a@treble
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# 3d1e2360 24-Feb-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

objtool: Prevent GCC from merging annotate_unreachable()

0-day bot reported some new objtool warnings which were caused by the
new annotate_unreachable() macro:

fs/afs/flock.o: warning: objtool: afs_do_unlk()+0x0: duplicate frame pointer save
fs/afs/flock.o: warning: objtool: afs_do_unlk()+0x0: frame pointer state mismatch
fs/btrfs/delayed-inode.o: warning: objtool: btrfs_delete_delayed_dir_index()+0x0: duplicate frame pointer save
fs/btrfs/delayed-inode.o: warning: objtool: btrfs_delete_delayed_dir_index()+0x0: frame pointer state mismatch
fs/dlm/lock.o: warning: objtool: _grant_lock()+0x0: duplicate frame pointer save
fs/dlm/lock.o: warning: objtool: _grant_lock()+0x0: frame pointer state mismatch
fs/ocfs2/alloc.o: warning: objtool: ocfs2_mv_path()+0x0: duplicate frame pointer save
fs/ocfs2/alloc.o: warning: objtool: ocfs2_mv_path()+0x0: frame pointer state mismatch

It turns out that, for older versions of GCC, if a function has multiple
BUG() incantations, GCC will sometimes merge the corresponding
annotate_unreachable() inline asm statements into a single block. That
has the undesirable effect of removing one of the entries in the
__unreachable section, confusing objtool greatly.

A workaround for this issue is to ensure that each instance of the
inline asm statement uses a different label, so that GCC sees the
statements are unique and leaves them alone. The inline asm ‘%=’ token
could be used for that, but unfortunately older versions of GCC don't
support it. So I implemented a poor man's version of it with the
__LINE__ macro.

Reported-by: kbuild test robot <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: d1091c7fa3d5 ("objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/0c14b00baf9f68d1b0221ddb6c88b925181c8be8.1487997036.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# a3f0825e 24-Feb-2017 Gideon Israel Dsouza <gidisrael@gmail.com>

compiler-gcc.h: add a new macro to wrap gcc attribute

Add __mode(x) into compiler-gcc.h as part of a cleanup task I've taken
up, to replace gcc specific attributes with macros.

The next patch is a cleanup of the m68k subsystem and it requires a new
macro to wrap __attribute__ ((mode (...)))

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1485540901-1988-2-git-send-email-gidisrael@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Gideon Israel Dsouza <gidisrael@gmail.com>
Cc: Greg Ungerer <gerg@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <geert@linux-m68k.org>
Cc: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d1091c7f 21-Feb-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

objtool: Improve detection of BUG() and other dead ends

The BUG() macro's use of __builtin_unreachable() via the unreachable()
macro tells gcc that the instruction is a dead end, and that it's safe
to assume the current code path will not execute past the previous

On x86, the BUG() macro is implemented with the 'ud2' instruction. When
objtool's branch analysis sees that instruction, it knows the current
code path has come to a dead end.

Peter Zijlstra has been working on a patch to change the WARN macros to
use 'ud2'. That patch will break objtool's assumption that 'ud2' is
always a dead end.

Generally it's best for objtool to avoid making those kinds of
assumptions anyway. The more ignorant it is of kernel code internals,
the better.

So create a more generic way for objtool to detect dead ends by adding
an annotation to the unreachable() macro. The annotation stores a
pointer to the end of the unreachable code path in an '__unreachable'
section. Objtool can read that section to find the dead ends.

Tested-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/41a6d33971462ebd944a1c60ad4bf5be86c17b77.1487712920.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# d8c34b94 31-Dec-2016 Gideon Israel Dsouza <gidisrael@gmail.com>

crypto: Replaced gcc specific attributes with macros from compiler.h

Continuing from this commit: 52f5684c8e1e
("kernel: use macros from compiler.h instead of __attribute__((...))")

I submitted 4 total patches. They are part of task I've taken up to
increase compiler portability in the kernel. I've cleaned up the
subsystems under /kernel /mm /block and /security, this patch targets

There is <linux/compiler.h> which provides macros for various gcc specific
constructs. Eg: __weak for __attribute__((weak)). I've cleaned all
instances of gcc specific attributes with the right macros for the crypto

I had to make one additional change into compiler-gcc.h for the case when
one wants to use this: __attribute__((aligned) and not specify an alignment
factor. From the gcc docs, this will result in the largest alignment for
that data type on the target machine so I've named the macro
__aligned_largest. Please advise if another name is more appropriate.

Signed-off-by: Gideon Israel Dsouza <gidisrael@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>

# 8e8780a5 12-Dec-2016 Benjamin Peterson <bp@benjamin.pe>

compiler-gcc.h: use "proved" instead of "proofed"

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1477894241.1103202.772260161.1B0A5995@webmail.messagingengine.com
Signed-off-by: Benjamin Peterson <bp@benjamin.pe>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 045d599a 30-Nov-2016 Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>

kasan: update kasan_global for gcc 7

kasan_global struct is part of compiler/runtime ABI. gcc revision
241983 has added a new field to kasan_global struct. Update kernel
definition of kasan_global struct to include the new field.

Without this patch KASAN is broken with gcc 7.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1479219743-28682-1-git-send-email-dvyukov@google.com
Signed-off-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Acked-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [4.0+]
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 0766f788 20-Jun-2016 Emese Revfy <re.emese@gmail.com>

latent_entropy: Mark functions with __latent_entropy

The __latent_entropy gcc attribute can be used only on functions and
variables. If it is on a function then the plugin will instrument it for
gathering control-flow entropy. If the attribute is on a variable then
the plugin will initialize it with random contents. The variable must
be an integer, an integer array type or a structure with integer fields.

These specific functions have been selected because they are init
functions (to help gather boot-time entropy), are called at unpredictable
times, or they have variable loops, each of which provide some level of
latent entropy.

Signed-off-by: Emese Revfy <re.emese@gmail.com>
[kees: expanded commit message]
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# 0d025d27 30-Aug-2016 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>


There are three usercopy warnings which are currently being silenced for
gcc 4.6 and newer:

1) "copy_from_user() buffer size is too small" compile warning/error

This is a static warning which happens when object size and copy size
are both const, and copy size > object size. I didn't see any false
positives for this one. So the function warning attribute seems to
be working fine here.

Note this scenario is always a bug and so I think it should be
changed to *always* be an error, regardless of

2) "copy_from_user() buffer size is not provably correct" compile warning

This is another static warning which happens when I enable
__compiletime_object_size() for new compilers (and
CONFIG_DEBUG_STRICT_USER_COPY_CHECKS). It happens when object size
is const, but copy size is *not*. In this case there's no way to
compare the two at build time, so it gives the warning. (Note the
warning is a byproduct of the fact that gcc has no way of knowing
whether the overflow function will be called, so the call isn't dead
code and the warning attribute is activated.)

So this warning seems to only indicate "this is an unusual pattern,
maybe you should check it out" rather than "this is a bug".

I get 102(!) of these warnings with allyesconfig and the
__compiletime_object_size() gcc check removed. I don't know if there
are any real bugs hiding in there, but from looking at a small
sample, I didn't see any. According to Kees, it does sometimes find
real bugs. But the false positive rate seems high.

3) "Buffer overflow detected" runtime warning

This is a runtime warning where object size is const, and copy size >
object size.

All three warnings (both static and runtime) were completely disabled
for gcc 4.6 with the following commit:

2fb0815c9ee6 ("gcc4: disable __compiletime_object_size for GCC 4.6+")

That commit mistakenly assumed that the false positives were caused by a
gcc bug in __compiletime_object_size(). But in fact,
__compiletime_object_size() seems to be working fine. The false
positives were instead triggered by #2 above. (Though I don't have an
explanation for why the warnings supposedly only started showing up in
gcc 4.6.)

So remove warning #2 to get rid of all the false positives, and re-enable
warnings #1 and #3 by reverting the above commit.

Furthermore, since #1 is a real bug which is detected at compile time,
upgrade it to always be an error.

Having done all that, CONFIG_DEBUG_STRICT_USER_COPY_CHECKS is no longer

Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: "H . Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Cc: Brian Gerst <brgerst@gmail.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com>
Cc: Byungchul Park <byungchul.park@lge.com>
Cc: Nilay Vaish <nilayvaish@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 101b29a2 25-Aug-2016 Johannes Berg <johannes.berg@intel.com>

byteswap: don't use __builtin_bswap*() with sparse

Although sparse declares __builtin_bswap*(), it can't actually do
constant folding inside them (yet). As such, things like

switch (protocol) {
case htons(ETH_P_IP):

which we do all over the place cause sparse to warn that it expects a
constant instead of a function call.

Disable __HAVE_BUILTIN_BSWAP*__ if __CHECKER__ is defined to avoid this.

Fixes: 7322dd755e7d ("byteswap: try to avoid __builtin_constant_p gcc bug")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1470914102-26389-1-git-send-email-johannes@sipsolutions.net
Signed-off-by: Johannes Berg <johannes.berg@intel.com>
Acked-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# d64e85d3 19-May-2016 Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>

compiler.h: add support for malloc attribute

gcc as far back as at least 3.04 documents the function attribute
__malloc__. Add a shorthand for attaching that to a function
declaration. This was also suggested by Andi Kleen way back in 2002
[1], but didn't get applied, perhaps because gcc at that time generated
the exact same code with and without this attribute.

This attribute tells the compiler that the return value (if non-NULL)
can be assumed not to alias any other valid pointers at the time of the

Please note that the documentation for a range of gcc versions (starting
from around 4.7) contained a somewhat confusing and self-contradicting

The malloc attribute is used to tell the compiler that a function may
be treated as if any non-NULL pointer it returns cannot alias any other
pointer valid when the function returns and *that the memory has
undefined content*. [...] Standard functions with this property include
malloc and *calloc*.

(emphasis mine). The intended meaning has later been clarified [2]:

This tells the compiler that a function is malloc-like, i.e., that the
pointer P returned by the function cannot alias any other pointer valid
when the function returns, and moreover no pointers to valid objects
occur in any storage addressed by P.

What this means is that we can apply the attribute to kmalloc and
friends, and it is ok for the returned memory to have well-defined
contents (__GFP_ZERO). But it is not ok to apply it to kmemdup(), nor
to other functions which both allocate and possibly initialize the
memory with existing pointers. So unless someone is doing something
pretty perverted kstrdup() should also be a fine candidate.

[1] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/57172
[2] https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=56955

Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 8634de6d 06-May-2016 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

compiler-gcc: require gcc 4.8 for powerpc __builtin_bswap16()

gcc support for __builtin_bswap16() was supposedly added for powerpc in
gcc 4.6, and was then later added for other architectures in gcc 4.8.

However, Stephen Rothwell reported that attempting to use it on powerpc
in gcc 4.6 fails with:

lib/vsprintf.c:160:2: error: initializer element is not constant
lib/vsprintf.c:160:2: error: (near initialization for 'decpair[0]')
lib/vsprintf.c:160:2: error: initializer element is not constant
lib/vsprintf.c:160:2: error: (near initialization for 'decpair[1]')

I'm not entirely sure what those errors mean, but I don't see them on
gcc 4.8. So let's consider gcc 4.8 to be the official starting point
for __builtin_bswap16().

Arnd Bergmann adds:
"I found the commit in gcc-4.8 that replaced the powerpc-specific
implementation of __builtin_bswap16 with an architecture-independent
one. Apparently the powerpc version (gcc-4.6 and 4.7) just mapped to
the lhbrx/sthbrx instructions, so it ended up not being a constant,
though the intent of the patch was mainly to add support for the
builtin to x86:


has the patch that went into gcc-4.8 and more information."

Fixes: 7322dd755e7d ("byteswap: try to avoid __builtin_constant_p gcc bug")
Reported-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Tested-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Acked-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 95272c29 31-Mar-2016 Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com>

compiler-gcc: disable -ftracer for __noclone functions

-ftracer can duplicate asm blocks causing compilation to fail in
noclone functions. For example, KVM declares a global variable
in an asm like

asm("2: ... \n
.pushsection data \n
.global vmx_return \n
vmx_return: .long 2b");

and -ftracer causes a double declaration.

Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
Cc: kvm@vger.kernel.org
Reported-by: Linda Walsh <lkml@tlinx.org>
Signed-off-by: Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com>

# 9add850c 06-Nov-2015 Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>

include/linux/compiler-gcc.h: improve __visible documentation

Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 8748dd5c 05-Nov-2015 Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>

include/linux/compiler-gcc.h: hide assume_aligned attribute from sparse

The patch "slab.h: sprinkle __assume_aligned attributes" causes *tons* of
whinges if you do 'make C=2' with sparse 0.5.0:

CHECK drivers/media/usb/pwc/pwc-if.c
include/linux/slab.h:307:43: error: attribute '__assume_aligned__': unknown attribute
include/linux/slab.h:308:58: error: attribute '__assume_aligned__': unknown attribute
include/linux/slab.h:337:73: error: attribute '__assume_aligned__': unknown attribute
include/linux/slab.h:375:74: error: attribute '__assume_aligned__': unknown attribute
include/linux/slab.h:378:80: error: attribute '__assume_aligned__': unknown attribute

sparse apparently pretends to be gcc >= 4.9, yet isn't prepared to handle
all the function attributes supported by those gccs and complains loudly.
So hide the definition of __assume_aligned from it (so that the generic
one in compiler.h gets used).

Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Reported-by: Valdis Kletnieks <Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu>
Tested-By: Valdis Kletnieks <valdis.kletnieks@vt.edu>
Cc: Christopher Li <sparse@chrisli.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# a744fd17 05-Nov-2015 Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>

compiler.h: add support for function attribute assume_aligned

gcc 4.9 added the function attribute assume_aligned, indicating to the
caller that the returned pointer may be assumed to have a certain minimal
alignment. This is useful if, for example, the return value is passed to
memset(). Add a shorthand macro for that.

Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 1e0d69a9 28-Oct-2015 Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org>

Revert "Merge branch 'ipv6-overflow-arith'"

Linus dislikes these changes. To not hold up the net-merge let's revert
it for now and fix the bug like Linus suggested.

This reverts commit ec3661b42257d9a06cf0d318175623ac7a660113, reversing
changes made to c80dbe04612986fd6104b4a1be21681b113b5ac9.

Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

# 79907146 16-Oct-2015 Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org>

overflow-arith: begin to add support for overflow builtin functions

The idea of the overflow-arith.h header is to collect overflow checking
functions in one central place.

If gcc compiler supports the __builtin_overflow_* builtins we use them
because they might give better performance, otherwise the code falls
back to normal overflow checking functions.

The builtin_overflow functions are supported by gcc-5 and clang. The
matter of supporting clang is to just provide a corresponding
CC_HAVE_BUILTIN_OVERFLOW, because the specific overflow checking builtins
don't differ between gcc and clang.

I just provide overflow_usub function here as I intend this to get merged
into net, more functions will definitely follow as they are needed.

Signed-off-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

# d976441f 19-Oct-2015 Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>

compiler, atomics, kasan: Provide READ_ONCE_NOCHECK()

Some code may perform racy by design memory reads. This could be
harmless, yet such code may produce KASAN warnings.

To hide such accesses from KASAN this patch introduces
READ_ONCE_NOCHECK() macro. KASAN will not check the memory
accessed by READ_ONCE_NOCHECK(). The KernelThreadSanitizer
(KTSAN) is going to ignore it as well.

This patch creates __read_once_size_nocheck() a clone of
__read_once_size(). The only difference between them is
'no_sanitized_address' attribute appended to '*_nocheck'
function. This attribute tells the compiler that instrumentation
of memory accesses should not be applied to that function. We
declare it as static '__maybe_unsed' because GCC is not capable
to inline such function:

With KASAN=n READ_ONCE_NOCHECK() is just a clone of READ_ONCE().

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Denys Vlasenko <dvlasenk@redhat.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Kostya Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Wolfram Gloger <wmglo@dent.med.uni-muenchen.de>
Cc: kasan-dev <kasan-dev@googlegroups.com>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1445243838-17763-2-git-send-email-aryabinin@virtuozzo.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# cb984d10 25-Jun-2015 Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>

compiler-gcc: integrate the various compiler-gcc[345].h files

As gcc major version numbers are going to advance rather rapidly in the
future, there's no real value in separate files for each compiler

Deduplicate some of the macros #defined in each file too.

Neaten comments using normal kernel commenting style.

Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
Cc: Segher Boessenkool <segher@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: Sasha Levin <levinsasha928@gmail.com>
Cc: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org>
Cc: Alan Modra <amodra@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# f6d133f8 25-Jun-2015 Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>

compiler-gcc.h: neatening

- Move the inline and noinline blocks together

- Comment neatening

- Alignment of __attribute__ uses

- Consistent naming of __must_be_array macro argument

- Multiline macro neatening

Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
Cc: Segher Boessenkool <segher@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: Sasha Levin <levinsasha928@gmail.com>
Cc: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org>
Cc: Alan Modra <amodra@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 7829fb09 29-Apr-2015 Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

lib: make memzero_explicit more robust against dead store elimination

In commit 0b053c951829 ("lib: memzero_explicit: use barrier instead
of OPTIMIZER_HIDE_VAR"), we made memzero_explicit() more robust in
case LTO would decide to inline memzero_explicit() and eventually
find out it could be elimiated as dead store.

While using barrier() works well for the case of gcc, recent efforts
from LLVMLinux people suggest to use llvm as an alternative to gcc,
and there, Stephan found in a simple stand-alone user space example
that llvm could nevertheless optimize and thus elimitate the memset().
A similar issue has been observed in the referenced llvm bug report,
which is regarded as not-a-bug.

Based on some experiments, icc is a bit special on its own, while it
doesn't seem to eliminate the memset(), it could do so with an own
implementation, and then result in similar findings as with llvm.

The fix in this patch now works for all three compilers (also tested
with more aggressive optimization levels). Arguably, in the current
kernel tree it's more of a theoretical issue, but imho, it's better
to be pedantic about it.

It's clearly visible with gcc/llvm though, with the below code: if we
would have used barrier() only here, llvm would have omitted clearing,
not so with barrier_data() variant:

static inline void memzero_explicit(void *s, size_t count)
memset(s, 0, count);

int main(void)
char buff[20];
memzero_explicit(buff, sizeof(buff));
return 0;

$ gcc -O2 test.c
$ gdb a.out
(gdb) disassemble main
Dump of assembler code for function main:
0x0000000000400400 <+0>: lea -0x28(%rsp),%rax
0x0000000000400405 <+5>: movq $0x0,-0x28(%rsp)
0x000000000040040e <+14>: movq $0x0,-0x20(%rsp)
0x0000000000400417 <+23>: movl $0x0,-0x18(%rsp)
0x000000000040041f <+31>: xor %eax,%eax
0x0000000000400421 <+33>: retq
End of assembler dump.

$ clang -O2 test.c
$ gdb a.out
(gdb) disassemble main
Dump of assembler code for function main:
0x00000000004004f0 <+0>: xorps %xmm0,%xmm0
0x00000000004004f3 <+3>: movaps %xmm0,-0x18(%rsp)
0x00000000004004f8 <+8>: movl $0x0,-0x8(%rsp)
0x0000000000400500 <+16>: lea -0x18(%rsp),%rax
0x0000000000400505 <+21>: xor %eax,%eax
0x0000000000400507 <+23>: retq
End of assembler dump.

As gcc, clang, but also icc defines __GNUC__, it's sufficient to define
this in compiler-gcc.h only to be picked up. For a fallback or otherwise
unsupported compiler, we define it as a barrier. Similarly, for ecc which
does not support gcc inline asm.

Reference: https://llvm.org/bugs/show_bug.cgi?id=15495
Reported-by: Stephan Mueller <smueller@chronox.de>
Tested-by: Stephan Mueller <smueller@chronox.de>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Cc: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
Cc: Stephan Mueller <smueller@chronox.de>
Cc: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org>
Cc: mancha security <mancha1@zoho.com>
Cc: Mark Charlebois <charlebm@gmail.com>
Cc: Behan Webster <behanw@converseincode.com>
Signed-off-by: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>

# cb4188ac 13-Feb-2015 Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>

compiler: introduce __alias(symbol) shortcut

To be consistent with other compiler attributes introduce __alias(symbol)
macro expanding into __attribute__((alias(#symbol)))

Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com>
Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com>
Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# fe8c8a12 25-Nov-2013 Cesar Eduardo Barros <cesarb@cesarb.eti.br>

crypto: more robust crypto_memneq

Disabling compiler optimizations can be fragile, since a new
optimization could be added to -O0 or -Os that breaks the assumptions
the code is making.

Instead of disabling compiler optimizations, use a dummy inline assembly
(based on RELOC_HIDE) to block the problematic kinds of optimization,
while still allowing other optimizations to be applied to the code.

The dummy inline assembly is added after every OR, and has the
accumulator variable as its input and output. The compiler is forced to
assume that the dummy inline assembly could both depend on the
accumulator variable and change the accumulator variable, so it is
forced to compute the value correctly before the inline assembly, and
cannot assume anything about its value after the inline assembly.

This change should be enough to make crypto_memneq work correctly (with
data-independent timing) even if it is inlined at its call sites. That
can be done later in a followup patch.

Compile-tested on x86_64.

Signed-off-by: Cesar Eduardo Barros <cesarb@cesarb.eti.br>
Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>

# 3f3f8d2f 21-Feb-2013 Daniel Santos <daniel.santos@pobox.com>

compiler-gcc.h: Add gcc-recommended GCC_VERSION macro

Throughout compiler*.h, many version checks are made. These can be
simplified by using the macro that gcc's documentation recommends.
However, my primary reason for adding this is that I need bug-check
macros that are enabled at certain gcc versions and it's cleaner to use
this macro than the tradition method:

#if __GNUC__ > 4 || (__GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ => 2)

If you add patch level, it gets this ugly:

#if __GNUC__ > 4 || (__GNUC__ == 4 && (__GNUC_MINOR__ > 2 || \
__GNUC_MINOR__ == 2 __GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__ >= 1))

As opposed to:

#if GCC_VERSION >= 40201

While having separate headers for gcc 3 & 4 eliminates some of this
verbosity, they can still be cleaned up by this.

See also:


Signed-off-by: Daniel Santos <daniel.santos@pobox.com>
Acked-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Cc: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
Cc: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 93b3cca1 14-Jun-2012 Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>

ftrace: Make all inline tags also include notrace

Commit 5963e317b1e9d2a ("ftrace/x86: Do not change stacks in DEBUG when
calling lockdep") prevented lockdep calls from the int3 breakpoint handler
from reseting the stack if a function that was called was in the process
of being converted for tracing and had a breakpoint on it. The idea is,
before calling the lockdep code, do a load_idt() to the special IDT that
kept the breakpoint stack from reseting. This worked well as a quick fix
for this kernel release, until a certain config caused a lockup in the
function tracer start up tests.

Investigating it, I found that the load_idt that was used to prevent
the int3 from changing stacks was itself being traced!

Even though the config had CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_INLINING disabled, and
all 'inline' tags were set to always inline, there were still cases that
it did not inline! This was caused by CONFIG_PARAVIRT_GUEST, where it
would add a pointer to the native_load_idt() which made that function
to be traced.

Commit 45959ee7aa645815a ("ftrace: Do not function trace inlined functions")
only touched the 'inline' tags when CONFIG_OPMITIZE_INLINING was enabled.
PARAVIRT_GUEST shows that this was not enough and we need to also
mark always_inline with notrace as well.

Reported-by: Fengguang Wu <wfg@linux.intel.com>
Tested-by: Fengguang Wu <wfg@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>

# 6061d949 23-Mar-2012 Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>

include/ and checkpatch: prefer __scanf to __attribute__((format(scanf,...)

It's equivalent to __printf, so prefer __scanf.

Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 45959ee7 12-Dec-2011 Steven Rostedt <srostedt@redhat.com>

ftrace: Do not function trace inlined functions

When gcc inlines a function, it does not mark it with the mcount
prologue, which in turn means that inlined functions are not traced
by the function tracer. But if CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_INLINING is set, then
gcc is allowed not to inline a function that is marked inline.

Depending on the options and the compiler, a function may or may
not be traced by the function tracer, depending on whether gcc
decides to inline a function or not. This has caused several
problems in the pass becaues gcc is not always consistent with
what it decides to inline between different gcc versions.

Some places should not be traced (like paravirt native_* functions)
and these are mostly marked as inline. When gcc decides not to
inline the function, and if that function should not be traced, then
the ftrace function tracer will suddenly break when it use to work
fine. This becomes even harder to debug when different versions of
gcc will not inline that function, making the same kernel and config
work for some gcc versions and not work for others.

By making all functions marked inline to not be traced will remove
the ambiguity that gcc adds when it comes to tracing functions marked
inline. All gcc versions will be consistent with what functions are
traced and having volatile working code will be removed.

Note, only the inline macro when CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_INLINING is set needs
to have notrace added, as the attribute __always_inline will force
the function to be inlined and then not traced.

Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>

# 5bd7e6a3 24-May-2011 KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>

sparse: define __must_be_array() for __CHECKER__

commit c5e631cf65f ("ARRAY_SIZE: check for type") added __must_be_array().
But sparse can't parse this gcc extention.

Now make C=2 makes following sparse errors a lot.

kernel/futex.c:2699:25: error: No right hand side of '+'-expression

Because __must_be_array() is used for ARRAY_SIZE() macro and it is
used very widely.

This patch fixes it.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# c837fb37 22-Mar-2011 Borislav Petkov <borislav.petkov@amd.com>

include/linux/compiler-gcc*.h: unify macro definitions

Unify identical gcc3.x and gcc4.x macros.

Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <borislav.petkov@amd.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# ea6b101d 09-Aug-2010 Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>

include/linux/compiler-gcc.h: use __same_type() in __must_be_array()

We should use the __same_type() helper in __must_be_array().

Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
Reported-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 9c695203 29-Jun-2010 Mikael Pettersson <mikpe@it.uu.se>

compiler-gcc.h: gcc-4.5 needs noclone and noinline on __naked functions

A __naked function is defined in C but with a body completely implemented
by asm(), including any prologue and epilogue. These asm() bodies expect
standard calling conventions for parameter passing. Older GCCs implement
that correctly, but 4.[56] currently do not, see GCC PR44290. In the
Linux kernel this breaks ARM, causing most arch/arm/mm/copypage-*.c
modules to get miscompiled, resulting in kernel crashes during bootup.

Part of the kernel fix is to augment the __naked function attribute to
also imply noinline and noclone. This patch implements that, and has been
verified to fix boot failures with gcc-4.5 compiled 2.6.34 and 2.6.35-rc1
kernels. The patch is a no-op with older GCCs.

Signed-off-by: Mikael Pettersson <mikpe@it.uu.se>
Signed-off-by: Khem Raj <raj.khem@gmail.com>
Cc: Russell King <rmk@arm.linux.org.uk>
Cc: <stable@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 7b2a3513 01-Nov-2009 Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com>

compiler: Introduce __always_unused

I wrote some code which is used as compile-time checker, and the
code should be elided after compile.

So I need to annotate the code as "always unused", compared to
"maybe unused".

Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
LKML-Reference: <4AEE2CEC.8040206@cn.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 446c92b2 12-Mar-2009 Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de>

[ARM] 5421/1: ftrace: fix crash due to tracing of __naked functions

This is a fix for the following crash observed in 2.6.29-rc3:

On ARM it doesn't make sense to trace a naked function because then
mcount is called without stack and frame pointer being set up and there
is no chance to restore the lr register to the value before mcount was

Reported-by: Matthias Kaehlcke <matthias@kaehlcke.net>
Tested-by: Matthias Kaehlcke <matthias@kaehlcke.net>

Cc: Abhishek Sagar <sagar.abhishek@gmail.com>
Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@home.goodmis.org>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Signed-off-by: Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel@arm.linux.org.uk>

# 85c210ed 09-Jan-2009 Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>

compiler-gcc.h: add more comments to RELOC_HIDE

Requested by C. Lameter

Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Cc: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Cc: Mike Travis <travis@sgi.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# f153b821 02-Jan-2009 Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

Sanitize gcc version header includes

- include the gcc version-dependent header files from the generic gcc
header file, rather than the other way around (iow: don't make the
non-gcc header file have to know about gcc versions)

- don't include compiler-gcc4.h for gcc 5 (for whenever it gets
released). That's just confusing and made us do odd things in the
gcc4 header file (testing that we really had version 4!)

- generate the name from the __GNUC__ version directly, rather than
having a mess of #if conditionals.

Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# ae3a0064 29-Apr-2008 Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

inlining: do not allow gcc below version 4 to optimize inlining

fix the condition to match intention: always use the old inlining
behavior on all gcc versions below 4.

this should solve the UML build problem.

Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 765c68bd 09-Apr-2008 Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

generic: make optimized inlining arch-opt-in

Stephen Rothwell reported that linux-next did not build on powerpc64.

make optimized inlining dependent on architecture opt-in.

Reported-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# 60a3cdd0 02-Mar-2008 Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

x86: add optimized inlining


allow gcc to optimize the kernel image's size by uninlining
functions that have been marked 'inline'. Previously gcc was
forced by Linux to always-inline these functions via a gcc

#define inline inline __attribute__((always_inline))

Especially when the user has already selected
CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE=y this can make a huge difference in
kernel image size (using a standard Fedora .config):

text data bss dec hex filename
5613924 562708 3854336 10030968 990f78 vmlinux.before
5486689 562708 3854336 9903733 971e75 vmlinux.after

that's a 2.3% text size reduction (!).

Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

# e8c44319 18-Oct-2007 Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>

Replace __attribute_pure__ with __pure

To be consistent with the use of attributes in the rest of the kernel
replace all use of __attribute_pure__ with __pure and delete the definition
of __attribute_pure__.

Signed-off-by: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
Cc: Russell King <rmk@arm.linux.org.uk>
Acked-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@infradead.org>
Cc: Bryan Wu <bryan.wu@analog.com>
Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>
Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 94f582f8 17-Oct-2007 Robert P. J. Day <rpjday@mindspring.com>

Force erroneous inclusions of compiler-*.h files to be errors

Replace worthless comments with actual preprocessor errors when including
the wrong versions of the compiler.h files.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: make it work]
Signed-off-by: Robert P. J. Day <rpjday@mindspring.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 0d7ebbbc 09-May-2007 David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>

compiler: introduce __used and __maybe_unused

__used is defined to be __attribute__((unused)) for all pre-3.3 gcc
compilers to suppress warnings for unused functions because perhaps they
are referenced only in inline assembly. It is defined to be
__attribute__((used)) for gcc 3.3 and later so that the code is still
emitted for such functions.

__maybe_unused is defined to be __attribute__((unused)) for both function
and variable use if it could possibly be unreferenced due to the evaluation
of preprocessor macros. Function prototypes shall be marked with
__maybe_unused if the actual definition of the function is dependant on
preprocessor macros.

No update to compiler-intel.h is necessary because ICC supports both
__attribute__((used)) and __attribute__((unused)) as specified by the gcc

__attribute_used__ is deprecated and will be removed once all current
code is converted to using __used.

Cc: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
Cc: Adrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>
Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# c5e631cf 06-May-2007 Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>

ARRAY_SIZE: check for type

We can use a gcc extension to ensure that ARRAY_SIZE() is handed an array,
not a pointer. This is especially important when code is changed from a
fixed array to a pointer. I assume the Intel compiler doesn't support

[jdike@addtoit.com: uml: update UML definition of ARRAY_SIZE]
Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Jeff Dike <jdike@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# 82ddcb04 10-Feb-2007 Robert P. J. Day <rpjday@mindspring.com>

[PATCH] extend the set of "__attribute__" shortcut macros

Extend the set of "__attribute__" shortcut macros, and remove identical
(and now superfluous) definitions from a couple of source files.

based on a page at robert love's blog:


extend the set of shortcut macros defined in compiler-gcc.h with the

#define __packed __attribute__((packed))
#define __weak __attribute__((weak))
#define __naked __attribute__((naked))
#define __noreturn __attribute__((noreturn))
#define __pure __attribute__((pure))
#define __aligned(x) __attribute__((aligned(x)))
#define __printf(a,b) __attribute__((format(printf,a,b)))

Once these are in place, it's up to subsystem maintainers to decide if they
want to take advantage of them. there is already a strong precedent for
using shortcuts like this in the source tree.

The ones that might give people pause are "__aligned" and "__printf", but
shortcuts for both of those are already in use, and in some ways very
confusingly. note the two very different definitions for a macro named

drivers/net/sgiseeq.c:#define ALIGNED(x) ((((unsigned long)(x)) + 0xf) & ~(0xf))
drivers/scsi/ultrastor.c:#define ALIGNED(x) __attribute__((aligned(x)))


#define ACPI_PRINTF_LIKE(c) __attribute__ ((__format__ (__printf__, c, c+1)))

Given the precedent, then, it seems logical to at least standardize on a
consistent set of these macros.

Signed-off-by: Robert P. J. Day <rpjday@mindspring.com>
Acked-by: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

# c8d52465 10-Jan-2006 Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org>

[PATCH] Work around ppc64 compiler bug

In the process of optimising our per cpu data code, I found a ppc64
compiler bug that has been around forever. Basically the current
RELOC_HIDE can end up trashing r30. Details of the bug can be found at


This bug is present in all compilers before 4.1. It is masked by the
fact that our current per cpu data code is inefficient and causes
other loads that end up marking r30 as used.

A workaround identified by Alan Modra is to use the =r asm constraint
instead of =g.

Signed-off-by: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org>
[ Verified that this makes no real difference on x86[-64] */
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# a1365647 08-Jan-2006 Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>

[PATCH] remove gcc-2 checks

Remove various things which were checking for gcc-1.x and gcc-2.x compilers.

From: Adrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>

Some documentation updates and removes some code paths for gcc < 3.2.

Acked-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel@arm.linux.org.uk>
Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

# 1da177e4 16-Apr-2005 Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>


Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history,
even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git
archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about
3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early
git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good
infrastructure for it.

Let it rip!