History log of /linux-master/fs/fscache/internal.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 16a96bdf 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Provide a function to resize a cookie

Provide a function to change the size of the storage attached to a cookie,
to match the size of the file being cached when it's changed by truncate or
fallocate:

void fscache_resize_cookie(struct fscache_cookie *cookie,
loff_t new_size);

This acts synchronously and is expected to run under the inode lock of the
caller.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819621839.215744.7895597119803515402.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906922387.143852.16394459879816147793.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967128998.1823006.10740669081985775576.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021527861.640689.3466382085497236267.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# d64f4554 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Provide a means to begin an operation

Provide a function to begin a read operation:

int fscache_begin_read_operation(
struct netfs_cache_resources *cres,
struct fscache_cookie *cookie)

This is primarily intended to be called by network filesystems on behalf of
netfslib, but may also be called to use the I/O access functions directly.
It attaches the resources required by the cache to cres struct from the
supplied cookie.

This holds access to the cache behind the cookie for the duration of the
operation and forces cache withdrawal and cookie invalidation to perform
synchronisation on the operation. cres->inval_counter is set from the
cookie at this point so that it can be compared at the end of the
operation.

Note that this does not guarantee that the cache state is fully set up and
able to perform I/O immediately; looking up and creation may be left in
progress in the background. The operations intended to be called by the
network filesystem, such as reading and writing, are expected to wait for
the cookie to move to the correct state.

This will, however, potentially sleep, waiting for a certain minimum state
to be set or for operations such as invalidate to advance far enough that
I/O can resume.


Also provide a function for the cache to call to wait for the cache object
to get to a state where it can be used for certain things:

bool fscache_wait_for_operation(struct netfs_cache_resources *cres,
enum fscache_want_stage stage);

This looks at the cache resources provided by the begin function and waits
for them to get to an appropriate stage. There's a choice of wanting just
some parameters (FSCACHE_WANT_PARAM) or the ability to do I/O
(FSCACHE_WANT_READ or FSCACHE_WANT_WRITE).

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819603692.215744.146724961588817028.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906910672.143852.13856103384424986357.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967110245.1823006.2239170567540431836.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021513617.640689.16627329360866150606.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# d24af13e 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement cookie invalidation

Add a function to invalidate the cache behind a cookie:

void fscache_invalidate(struct fscache_cookie *cookie,
const void *aux_data,
loff_t size,
unsigned int flags)

This causes any cached data for the specified cookie to be discarded. If
the cookie is marked as being in use, a new cache object will be created if
possible and future I/O will use that instead. In-flight I/O should be
abandoned (writes) or reconsidered (reads). Each time it is called
cookie->inval_counter is incremented and this can be used to detect
invalidation at the end of an I/O operation.

The coherency data attached to the cookie can be updated and the cookie
size should be reset. One flag is available, FSCACHE_INVAL_DIO_WRITE,
which should be used to indicate invalidation due to a DIO write on a
file. This will temporarily disable caching for this cookie.

Changes
=======
ver #2:
- Should only change to inval state if can get access to cache.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819602231.215744.11206598147269491575.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906909707.143852.18056070560477964891.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967107447.1823006.5945029409592119962.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021512640.640689.11418616313147754172.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 12bb21a2 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement cookie user counting and resource pinning

Provide a pair of functions to count the number of users of a cookie (open
files, writeback, invalidation, resizing, reads, writes), to obtain and pin
resources for the cookie and to prevent culling for the whilst there are
users.

The first function marks a cookie as being in use:

void fscache_use_cookie(struct fscache_cookie *cookie,
bool will_modify);

The caller should indicate the cookie to use and whether or not the caller
is in a context that may modify the cookie (e.g. a file open O_RDWR).

If the cookie is not already resourced, fscache will ask the cache backend
in the background to do whatever it needs to look up, create or otherwise
obtain the resources necessary to access data. This is pinned to the
cookie and may not be culled, though it may be withdrawn if the cache as a
whole is withdrawn.

The second function removes the in-use mark from a cookie and, optionally,
updates the coherency data:

void fscache_unuse_cookie(struct fscache_cookie *cookie,
const void *aux_data,
const loff_t *object_size);

If non-NULL, the aux_data buffer and/or the object_size will be saved into
the cookie and will be set on the backing store when the object is
committed.

If this removes the last usage on a cookie, the cookie is placed onto an
LRU list from which it will be removed and closed after a couple of seconds
if it doesn't get reused. This prevents resource overload in the cache -
in particular it prevents it from holding too many files open.

Changes
=======
ver #2:
- Fix fscache_unuse_cookie() to use atomic_dec_and_lock() to avoid a
potential race if the cookie gets reused before it completes the
unusement.
- Added missing transition to LRU_DISCARDING state.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819600612.215744.13678350304176542741.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906907567.143852.16979631199380722019.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967106467.1823006.6790864931048582667.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021511674.640689.10084988363699111860.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# a7733fb6 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement cookie-level access helpers

Add a number of helper functions to manage access to a cookie, pinning the
cache object in place for the duration to prevent cache withdrawal from
removing it:

(1) void fscache_init_access_gate(struct fscache_cookie *cookie);

This function initialises the access count when a cache binds to a
cookie. An extra ref is taken on the access count to prevent wakeups
while the cache is active. We're only interested in the wakeup when a
cookie is being withdrawn and we're waiting for it to quiesce - at
which point the counter will be decremented before the wait.

The FSCACHE_COOKIE_NACC_ELEVATED flag is set on the cookie to keep
track of the extra ref in order to handle a race between
relinquishment and withdrawal both trying to drop the extra ref.

(2) bool fscache_begin_cookie_access(struct fscache_cookie *cookie,
enum fscache_access_trace why);

This function attempts to begin access upon a cookie, pinning it in
place if it's cached. If successful, it returns true and leaves a the
access count incremented.

(3) void fscache_end_cookie_access(struct fscache_cookie *cookie,
enum fscache_access_trace why);

This function drops the access count obtained by (2), permitting
object withdrawal to take place when it reaches zero.

A tracepoint is provided to track changes to the access counter on a
cookie.

Changes
=======
ver #2:
- Don't hold n_accesses elevated whilst cache is bound to a cookie, but
rather add a flag that prevents the state machine from being queued when
n_accesses reaches 0.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819595085.215744.1706073049250505427.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906895313.143852.10141619544149102193.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967095980.1823006.1133648159424418877.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021503063.640689.8870918985269528670.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# e6acd329 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement volume-level access helpers

Add a pair of helper functions to manage access to a volume, pinning the
volume in place for the duration to prevent cache withdrawal from removing
it:

bool fscache_begin_volume_access(struct fscache_volume *volume,
enum fscache_access_trace why);
void fscache_end_volume_access(struct fscache_volume *volume,
enum fscache_access_trace why);

The way the access gate on the volume works/will work is:

(1) If the cache tests as not live (state is not FSCACHE_CACHE_IS_ACTIVE),
then we return false to indicate access was not permitted.

(2) If the cache tests as live, then we increment the volume's n_accesses
count and then recheck the cache liveness, ending the access if it
ceased to be live.

(3) When we end the access, we decrement the volume's n_accesses and wake
up the any waiters if it reaches 0.

(4) Whilst the cache is caching, the volume's n_accesses is kept
artificially incremented to prevent wakeups from happening.

(5) When the cache is taken offline, the state is changed to prevent new
accesses, the volume's n_accesses is decremented and we wait for it to
become 0.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819594158.215744.8285859817391683254.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906894315.143852.5454793807544710479.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967095028.1823006.9173132503876627466.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021501546.640689.9631510472149608443.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 23e12e28 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement cache-level access helpers

Add a pair of functions to pin/unpin a cache that we're wanting to do a
high-level access to (such as creating or removing a volume):

bool fscache_begin_cache_access(struct fscache_cache *cache,
enum fscache_access_trace why);
void fscache_end_cache_access(struct fscache_cache *cache,
enum fscache_access_trace why);

The way the access gate works/will work is:

(1) If the cache tests as not live (state is not FSCACHE_CACHE_IS_ACTIVE),
then we return false to indicate access was not permitted.

(2) If the cache tests as live, then we increment the n_accesses count and
then recheck the liveness, ending the access if it ceased to be live.

(3) When we end the access, we decrement n_accesses and wake up the any
waiters if it reaches 0.

(4) Whilst the cache is caching, n_accesses is kept artificially
incremented to prevent wakeups from happening.

(5) When the cache is taken offline, the state is changed to prevent new
accesses, n_accesses is decremented and we wait for n_accesses to
become 0.

Note that some of this is implemented in a later patch.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819593239.215744.7537428720603638088.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906893368.143852.14164004598465617981.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967093977.1823006.6967886507023056409.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021499995.640689.18286203753480287850.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 7f3283ab 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement cookie registration

Add functions to the fscache API to allow data file cookies to be acquired
and relinquished by the network filesystem. It is intended that the
filesystem will create such cookies per-inode under a volume.

To request a cookie, the filesystem should call:

struct fscache_cookie *
fscache_acquire_cookie(struct fscache_volume *volume,
u8 advice,
const void *index_key,
size_t index_key_len,
const void *aux_data,
size_t aux_data_len,
loff_t object_size)


The filesystem must first have created a volume cookie, which is passed in
here. If it passes in NULL then the function will just return a NULL
cookie.

A binary key should be passed in index_key and is of size index_key_len.
This is saved in the cookie and is used to locate the associated data in
the cache.

A coherency data buffer of size aux_data_len will be allocated and
initialised from the buffer pointed to by aux_data. This is used to
validate cache objects when they're opened and is stored on disk with them
when they're committed. The data is stored in the cookie and will be
updateable by various functions in later patches.

The object_size must also be given. This is also used to perform a
coherency check and to size the backing storage appropriately.

This function disallows a cookie from being acquired twice in parallel,
though it will cause the second user to wait if the first is busy
relinquishing its cookie.


When a network filesystem has finished with a cookie, it should call:

void
fscache_relinquish_cookie(struct fscache_volume *volume,
bool retire)

If retire is true, any backing data will be discarded immediately.

Changes
=======
ver #3:
- fscache_hash()'s size parameter is now in bytes. Use __le32 as the unit
to round up to.
- When comparing cookies, simply see if the attributes are the same rather
than subtracting them to produce a strcmp-style return[1].
- Add a check to see if the cookie is still hashed at the point of
freeing.

ver #2:
- Don't hold n_accesses elevated whilst cache is bound to a cookie, but
rather add a flag that prevents the state machine from being queued when
n_accesses reaches 0.
- Remove the unused cookie pointer field from the fscache_acquire
tracepoint.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/CAHk-=whtkzB446+hX0zdLsdcUJsJ=8_-0S1mE_R+YurThfUbLA@mail.gmail.com/ [1]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819590658.215744.14934902514281054323.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906891983.143852.6219772337558577395.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967088507.1823006.12659006350221417165.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021498432.640689.12743483856927722772.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 62ab6335 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement volume registration

Add functions to the fscache API to allow volumes to be acquired and
relinquished by the network filesystem. A volume is an index of data
storage cache objects. A volume is represented by a volume cookie in the
API. A filesystem would typically create a volume for a superblock and
then create per-inode cookies within it.

To request a volume, the filesystem calls:

struct fscache_volume *
fscache_acquire_volume(const char *volume_key,
const char *cache_name,
const void *coherency_data,
size_t coherency_len)

The volume_key is a printable string used to match the volume in the cache.
It should not contain any '/' characters. For AFS, for example, this would
be "afs,<cellname>,<volume_id>", e.g. "afs,example.com,523001".

The cache_name can be NULL, but if not it should be a string indicating the
name of the cache to use if there's more than one available.

The coherency data, if given, is an arbitrarily-sized blob that's attached
to the volume and is compared when the volume is looked up. If it doesn't
match, the old volume is judged to be out of date and it and everything
within it is discarded.

Acquiring a volume twice concurrently is disallowed, though the function
will wait if an old volume cookie is being relinquishing.


When a network filesystem has finished with a volume, it should return the
volume cookie by calling:

void
fscache_relinquish_volume(struct fscache_volume *volume,
const void *coherency_data,
bool invalidate)

If invalidate is true, the entire volume will be discarded; if false, the
volume will be synced and the coherency data will be updated.

Changes
=======
ver #4:
- Removed an extraneous param from kdoc on fscache_relinquish_volume()[3].

ver #3:
- fscache_hash()'s size parameter is now in bytes. Use __le32 as the unit
to round up to.
- When comparing cookies, simply see if the attributes are the same rather
than subtracting them to produce a strcmp-style return[2].
- Make the coherency data an arbitrary blob rather than a u64, but don't
store it for the moment.

ver #2:
- Fix error check[1].
- Make a fscache_acquire_volume() return errors, including EBUSY if a
conflicting volume cookie already exists. No error is printed now -
that's left to the netfs.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211203095608.GC2480@kili/ [1]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/CAHk-=whtkzB446+hX0zdLsdcUJsJ=8_-0S1mE_R+YurThfUbLA@mail.gmail.com/ [2]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211220224646.30e8205c@canb.auug.org.au/ [3]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819588944.215744.1629085755564865996.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906890630.143852.13972180614535611154.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967086836.1823006.8191672796841981763.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021495816.640689.4403156093668590217.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 9549332d 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement cache registration

Implement a register of caches and provide functions to manage it.

Two functions are provided for the cache backend to use:

(1) Acquire a cache cookie:

struct fscache_cache *fscache_acquire_cache(const char *name)

This gets the cache cookie for a cache of the specified name and moves
it to the preparation state. If a nameless cache cookie exists, that
will be given this name and used.

(2) Relinquish a cache cookie:

void fscache_relinquish_cache(struct fscache_cache *cache);

This relinquishes a cache cookie, cleans it and makes it available if
it's still referenced by a network filesystem.

Note that network filesystems don't deal with cache cookies directly, but
rather go straight to the volume registration.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819587157.215744.13523139317322503286.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906889665.143852.10378009165231294456.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967085081.1823006.2218944206363626210.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021494847.640689.10109692261640524343.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# e8a07c9d 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Implement a hash function

Implement a function to generate hashes. It needs to be stable over time
and endianness-independent as the hashes will appear on disk in future
patches. It can assume that its input is a multiple of four bytes in size
and alignment.

This is borrowed from the VFS and simplified. le32_to_cpu() is added to
make it endianness-independent.

Changes
=======
ver #3:
- Read the data being hashed in an endianness-independent way[1].
- Change the size parameter to be in bytes rather than words.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/CAHk-=whtkzB446+hX0zdLsdcUJsJ=8_-0S1mE_R+YurThfUbLA@mail.gmail.com [1]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819586113.215744.1699465806130102367.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906888735.143852.10944614318596881429.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967082342.1823006.8915671045444488742.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021493624.640689.9990442668811178628.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 1e1236b8 20-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Introduce new driver

Introduce basic skeleton of the new, rewritten fscache driver.

Changes
=======
ver #3:
- Use remove_proc_subtree(), not remove_proc_entry() to remove a populated
dir.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819584034.215744.4290533472390439030.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906887770.143852.3577888294989185666.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967080039.1823006.5702921801104057922.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021491014.640689.4292699878317589512.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 2cee6fbb 25-Oct-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Remove the contents of the fscache driver, pending rewrite

Remove the code that comprises the fscache driver as it's going to be
substantially rewritten, with the majority of the code being erased in the
rewrite.

A small piece of linux/fscache.h is left as that is #included by a bunch of
network filesystems.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819578724.215744.18210619052245724238.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906884814.143852.6727245089843862889.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163967077097.1823006.1377665951499979089.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/164021485548.640689.13876080567388696162.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4


# 20ec197b 29-Mar-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Use refcount_t for the cookie refcount instead of atomic_t

Use refcount_t for the fscache_cookie refcount instead of atomic_t and
rename the 'usage' member to 'ref' in such cases. The tracepoints that
reference it change from showing "u=%d" to "r=%d".

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431204358.2908479.8006938388213098079.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/


# 33cba859 18-Jun-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Fix fscache_cookie_put() to not deref after dec

fscache_cookie_put() accesses the cookie it has just put inside the
tracepoint that monitors the change - but this is something it's not
allowed to do if we didn't reduce the count to zero.

Fix this by dropping most of those values from the tracepoint and grabbing
the cookie debug ID before doing the dec.

Also take the opportunity to switch over the usage and where arguments on
the tracepoint to put the reason last.

Fixes: a18feb55769b ("fscache: Add tracepoints")
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431203107.2908479.3259582550347000088.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/


# 35b72573 17-Jun-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Fix cookie key hashing

The current hash algorithm used for hashing cookie keys is really bad,
producing almost no dispersion (after a test kernel build, ~30000 files
were split over just 18 out of the 32768 hash buckets).

Borrow the full_name_hash() hash function into fscache to do the hashing
for cookie keys and, in the future, volume keys.

I don't want to use full_name_hash() as-is because I want the hash value to
be consistent across arches and over time as the hash value produced may
get used on disk.

I can also optimise parts of it away as the key will always be a padded
array of aligned 32-bit words.

Fixes: ec0328e46d6e ("fscache: Maintain a catalogue of allocated cookies")
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431201844.2908479.8293647220901514696.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/


# 58f386a7 12-May-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Remove the object list procfile

Remove the object list procfile from fscache as objects will become
entirely internal to the cache.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431198332.2908479.5847286163455099669.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/


# 6ae9bd8b 12-May-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache, cachefiles: Remove the histogram stuff

Remove the histogram stuff as it's mostly going to be outdated.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431195953.2908479.16770977195634296638.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/


# 884a7688 10-Feb-2020 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Procfile to display cookies

Add /proc/fs/fscache/cookies to display active cookies.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/158861211871.340223.7223853943667440807.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # rfc
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/159465771021.1376105.6933857529128238020.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/160588460994.3465195.16963417803501149328.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # rfc
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431194785.2908479.786917990782538164.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/


# 26aaeffc 22-Feb-2021 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache, cachefiles: Add alternate API to use kiocb for read/write to cache

Add an alternate API by which the cache can be accessed through a kiocb,
doing async DIO, rather than using the current API that tells the cache
where all the pages are.

The new API is intended to be used in conjunction with the netfs helper
library. A filesystem must pick one or the other and not mix them.

Filesystems wanting to use the new API must #define FSCACHE_USE_NEW_IO_API
before #including the header. This prevents them from continuing to use
the old API at the same time as there are incompatibilities in how the
PG_fscache page bit is used.

Changes:
v6:
- Provide a routine to shape a write so that the start and length can be
aligned for DIO[3].

v4:
- Use the vfs_iocb_iter_read/write() helpers[1]
- Move initial definition of fscache_begin_read_operation() here.
- Remove a commented-out line[2]
- Combine ki->term_func calls in cachefiles_read_complete()[2].
- Remove explicit NULL initialiser[2].
- Remove extern on func decl[2].
- Put in param names on func decl[2].
- Remove redundant else[2].
- Fill out the kdoc comment for fscache_begin_read_operation().
- Rename fs/fscache/page2.c to io.c to match later patches.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-and-tested-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Dave Wysochanski <dwysocha@redhat.com>
Tested-By: Marc Dionne <marc.dionne@auristor.com>
cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
cc: linux-afs@lists.infradead.org
cc: linux-nfs@vger.kernel.org
cc: linux-cifs@vger.kernel.org
cc: ceph-devel@vger.kernel.org
cc: v9fs-developer@lists.sourceforge.net
cc: linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210216102614.GA27555@lst.de/ [1]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210216084230.GA23669@lst.de/ [2]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161781047695.463527.7463536103593997492.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ [3]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161118142558.1232039.17993829899588971439.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # rfc
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161161037850.2537118.8819808229350326503.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161340402057.1303470.8038373593844486698.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161539545919.286939.14573472672781434757.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161653801477.2770958.10543270629064934227.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v5
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161789084517.6155.12799689829859169640.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v6


# 97a32539 03-Feb-2020 Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>

proc: convert everything to "struct proc_ops"

The most notable change is DEFINE_SHOW_ATTRIBUTE macro split in
seq_file.h.

Conversion rule is:

llseek => proc_lseek
unlocked_ioctl => proc_ioctl

xxx => proc_xxx

delete ".owner = THIS_MODULE" line

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix drivers/isdn/capi/kcapi_proc.c]
[sfr@canb.auug.org.au: fix kernel/sched/psi.c]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200122180545.36222f50@canb.auug.org.au
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20191225172546.GB13378@avx2
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 2874c5fd 27-May-2019 Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

treewide: Replace GPLv2 boilerplate/reference with SPDX - rule 152

Based on 1 normalized pattern(s):

this program is free software you can redistribute it and or modify
it under the terms of the gnu general public license as published by
the free software foundation either version 2 of the license or at
your option any later version

extracted by the scancode license scanner the SPDX license identifier

GPL-2.0-or-later

has been chosen to replace the boilerplate/reference in 3029 file(s).

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Reviewed-by: Allison Randal <allison@lohutok.net>
Cc: linux-spdx@vger.kernel.org
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190527070032.746973796@linutronix.de
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>


# 1ff22883 17-Oct-2018 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Fix incomplete initialisation of inline key space

The inline key in struct rxrpc_cookie is insufficiently initialized,
zeroing only 3 of the 4 slots, therefore an index_key_len between 13 and 15
bytes will end up hashing uninitialized memory because the memcpy only
partially fills the last buf[] element.

Fix this by clearing fscache_cookie objects on allocation rather than using
the slab constructor to initialise them. We're going to pretty much fill
in the entire struct anyway, so bringing it into our dcache writably
shouldn't incur much overhead.

This removes the need to do clearance in fscache_set_key() (where we aren't
doing it correctly anyway).

Also, we don't need to set cookie->key_len in fscache_set_key() as we
already did it in the only caller, so remove that.

Fixes: ec0328e46d6e ("fscache: Maintain a catalogue of allocated cookies")
Reported-by: syzbot+a95b989b2dde8e806af8@syzkaller.appspotmail.com
Reported-by: Eric Sandeen <sandeen@redhat.com>
Cc: stable <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>


# 3f3942ac 15-May-2018 Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>

proc: introduce proc_create_single{,_data}

Variants of proc_create{,_data} that directly take a seq_file show
callback and drastically reduces the boilerplate code in the callers.

All trivial callers converted over.

Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>


# fddda2b7 13-Apr-2018 Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>

proc: introduce proc_create_seq{,_data}

Variants of proc_create{,_data} that directly take a struct seq_operations
argument and drastically reduces the boilerplate code in the callers.

All trivial callers converted over.

Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>


# ec0328e4 04-Apr-2018 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Maintain a catalogue of allocated cookies

Maintain a catalogue of allocated cookies so that cookie collisions can be
handled properly. For the moment, this just involves printing a warning
and returning a NULL cookie to the caller of fscache_acquire_cookie(), but
in future it might make sense to wait for the old cookie to finish being
cleaned up.

This requires the cookie key to be stored attached to the cookie so that we
still have the key available if the netfs relinquishes the cookie. This is
done by an earlier patch.

The catalogue also renders redundant fscache_netfs_list (used for checking
for duplicates), so that can be removed.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Anna Schumaker <anna.schumaker@netapp.com>
Tested-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>


# 402cb8dd 04-Apr-2018 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Attach the index key and aux data to the cookie

Attach copies of the index key and auxiliary data to the fscache cookie so
that:

(1) The callbacks to the netfs for this stuff can be eliminated. This
can simplify things in the cache as the information is still
available, even after the cache has relinquished the cookie.

(2) Simplifies the locking requirements of accessing the information as we
don't have to worry about the netfs object going away on us.

(3) The cache can do lazy updating of the coherency information on disk.
As long as the cache is flushed before reboot/poweroff, there's no
need to update the coherency info on disk every time it changes.

(4) Cookies can be hashed or put in a tree as the index key is easily
available. This allows:

(a) Checks for duplicate cookies can be made at the top fscache layer
rather than down in the bowels of the cache backend.

(b) Caching can be added to a netfs object that has a cookie if the
cache is brought online after the netfs object is allocated.

A certain amount of space is made in the cookie for inline copies of the
data, but if it won't fit there, extra memory will be allocated for it.

The downside of this is that live cache operation requires more memory.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Anna Schumaker <anna.schumaker@netapp.com>
Tested-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>


# a18feb55 04-Apr-2018 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

fscache: Add tracepoints

Add some tracepoints to fscache:

(*) fscache_cookie - Tracks a cookie's usage count.

(*) fscache_netfs - Logs registration of a network filesystem, including
the pointer to the cookie allocated.

(*) fscache_acquire - Logs cookie acquisition.

(*) fscache_relinquish - Logs cookie relinquishment.

(*) fscache_enable - Logs enablement of a cookie.

(*) fscache_disable - Logs disablement of a cookie.

(*) fscache_osm - Tracks execution of states in the object state machine.

and cachefiles:

(*) cachefiles_ref - Tracks a cachefiles object's usage count.

(*) cachefiles_lookup - Logs result of lookup_one_len().

(*) cachefiles_mkdir - Logs result of vfs_mkdir().

(*) cachefiles_create - Logs result of vfs_create().

(*) cachefiles_unlink - Logs calls to vfs_unlink().

(*) cachefiles_rename - Logs calls to vfs_rename().

(*) cachefiles_mark_active - Logs an object becoming active.

(*) cachefiles_wait_active - Logs a wait for an old object to be
destroyed.

(*) cachefiles_mark_inactive - Logs an object becoming inactive.

(*) cachefiles_mark_buried - Logs the burial of an object.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 5e4def20 02-Nov-2017 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

Pass mode to wait_on_atomic_t() action funcs and provide default actions

Make wait_on_atomic_t() pass the TASK_* mode onto its action function as an
extra argument and make it 'unsigned int throughout.

Also, consolidate a bunch of identical action functions into a default
function that can do the appropriate thing for the mode.

Also, change the argument name in the bit_wait*() function declarations to
reflect the fact that it's the mode and not the bit number.

[Peter Z gives this a grudging ACK, but thinks that the whole atomic_t wait
should be done differently, though he's not immediately sure as to how]

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# d3b97ca4 24-Feb-2015 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: The operation cancellation method needs calling in more places

Any time an incomplete operation is cancelled, the operation cancellation
function needs to be called to clean up. This is currently being passed
directly to some of the functions that might want to call it, but not all.

Instead, pass the cancellation method pointer to the fscache_operation_init()
and have that cache it in the operation struct. Further, plug in a dummy
cancellation handler if the caller declines to set one as this allows us to
call the function unconditionally (the extra overhead isn't worth bothering
about as we don't expect to be calling this typically).

The cancellation method must thence be called everywhere the CANCELLED state
is set. Note that we call it *before* setting the CANCELLED state such that
the method can use the old state value to guide its operation.

fscache_do_cancel_retrieval() needs moving higher up in the sources so that
the init function can use it now.

Without this, the following oops may be seen:

FS-Cache: Assertion failed
FS-Cache: 3 == 0 is false
------------[ cut here ]------------
kernel BUG at ../fs/fscache/page.c:261!
...
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffffa0089c1b>] fscache_release_retrieval_op+0x77/0x100
[<ffffffffa008853d>] fscache_put_operation+0x114/0x2da
[<ffffffffa008b8c2>] __fscache_read_or_alloc_pages+0x358/0x3b3
[<ffffffffa00b761f>] __nfs_readpages_from_fscache+0x59/0xbf [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00b06c5>] nfs_readpages+0x10c/0x185 [nfs]
[<ffffffff81124925>] ? alloc_pages_current+0x119/0x13e
[<ffffffff810ee5fd>] ? __page_cache_alloc+0xfb/0x10a
[<ffffffff810f87f8>] __do_page_cache_readahead+0x188/0x22c
[<ffffffff810f8b3a>] ondemand_readahead+0x29e/0x2af
[<ffffffff810f8c92>] page_cache_sync_readahead+0x38/0x3a
[<ffffffff810ef337>] generic_file_read_iter+0x1a2/0x55a
[<ffffffffa00a9dff>] ? nfs_revalidate_mapping+0xd6/0x288 [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00a6a23>] nfs_file_read+0x49/0x70 [nfs]
[<ffffffff811363be>] new_sync_read+0x78/0x9c
[<ffffffff81137164>] __vfs_read+0x13/0x38
[<ffffffff8113721e>] vfs_read+0x95/0x121
[<ffffffff811372f6>] SyS_read+0x4c/0x8a
[<ffffffff81557a52>] system_call_fastpath+0x12/0x17

The assertion is showing that the remaining number of pages (n_pages) is not 0
when the operation is being released.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jeff.layton@primarydata.com>


# 03cdd0e4 25-Feb-2015 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Count the number of initialised operations

Count and display through /proc/fs/fscache/stats the number of initialised
operations.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jeff.layton@primarydata.com>


# 418b7eb9 24-Feb-2015 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Permit fscache_cancel_op() to cancel in-progress operations too

Currently, fscache_cancel_op() only cancels pending operations - attempts to
cancel in-progress operations are ignored. This leads to a problem in
fscache_wait_for_operation_activation() whereby the wait is terminated, but
the object has been killed.

The check at the end of the function now triggers because it's no longer
contingent on the cache having produced an I/O error since the commit that
fixed the logic error in fscache_object_is_dead().

The result of the check is that it tries to cancel the operation - but since
the object may not be pending by this point, the cancellation request may be
ignored - with the result that the the object is just put by the caller and
fscache_put_operation has an assertion failure because the operation isn't in
either the COMPLETE or the CANCELLED states.

To fix this, we permit in-progress ops to be cancelled under some
circumstances.

The bug results in an oops that looks something like this:

FS-Cache: fscache_wait_for_operation_activation() = -ENOBUFS [obj dead 3]
FS-Cache:
FS-Cache: Assertion failed
FS-Cache: 3 == 5 is false
------------[ cut here ]------------
kernel BUG at ../fs/fscache/operation.c:432!
...
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffffa0088574>] fscache_put_operation+0xf2/0x2cd
Call Trace:
[<ffffffffa008b92a>] __fscache_read_or_alloc_pages+0x2ec/0x3b3
[<ffffffffa00b761f>] __nfs_readpages_from_fscache+0x59/0xbf [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00b06c5>] nfs_readpages+0x10c/0x185 [nfs]
[<ffffffff81124925>] ? alloc_pages_current+0x119/0x13e
[<ffffffff810ee5fd>] ? __page_cache_alloc+0xfb/0x10a
[<ffffffff810f87f8>] __do_page_cache_readahead+0x188/0x22c
[<ffffffff810f8b3a>] ondemand_readahead+0x29e/0x2af
[<ffffffff810f8c92>] page_cache_sync_readahead+0x38/0x3a
[<ffffffff810ef337>] generic_file_read_iter+0x1a2/0x55a
[<ffffffffa00a9dff>] ? nfs_revalidate_mapping+0xd6/0x288 [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00a6a23>] nfs_file_read+0x49/0x70 [nfs]
[<ffffffff811363be>] new_sync_read+0x78/0x9c
[<ffffffff81137164>] __vfs_read+0x13/0x38
[<ffffffff8113721e>] vfs_read+0x95/0x121
[<ffffffff811372f6>] SyS_read+0x4c/0x8a
[<ffffffff81557a52>] system_call_fastpath+0x12/0x17

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jeff.layton@primarydata.com>


# 182d919b 19-Feb-2015 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Count culled objects and objects rejected due to lack of space

Count the number of objects that get culled by the cache backend and the
number of objects that the cache backend declines to instantiate due to lack
of space in the cache.

These numbers are made available through /proc/fs/fscache/stats

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jeff.layton@primarydata.com>


# 74316201 06-Jul-2014 NeilBrown <neilb@suse.de>

sched: Remove proliferation of wait_on_bit() action functions

The current "wait_on_bit" interface requires an 'action'
function to be provided which does the actual waiting.
There are over 20 such functions, many of them identical.
Most cases can be satisfied by one of just two functions, one
which uses io_schedule() and one which just uses schedule().

So:
Rename wait_on_bit and wait_on_bit_lock to
wait_on_bit_action and wait_on_bit_lock_action
to make it explicit that they need an action function.

Introduce new wait_on_bit{,_lock} and wait_on_bit{,_lock}_io
which are *not* given an action function but implicitly use
a standard one.
The decision to error-out if a signal is pending is now made
based on the 'mode' argument rather than being encoded in the action
function.

All instances of the old wait_on_bit and wait_on_bit_lock which
can use the new version have been changed accordingly and their
action functions have been discarded.
wait_on_bit{_lock} does not return any specific error code in the
event of a signal so the caller must check for non-zero and
interpolate their own error code as appropriate.

The wait_on_bit() call in __fscache_wait_on_invalidate() was
ambiguous as it specified TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE but used
fscache_wait_bit_interruptible as an action function.
David Howells confirms this should be uniformly
"uninterruptible"

The main remaining user of wait_on_bit{,_lock}_action is NFS
which needs to use a freezer-aware schedule() call.

A comment in fs/gfs2/glock.c notes that having multiple 'action'
functions is useful as they display differently in the 'wchan'
field of 'ps'. (and /proc/$PID/wchan).
As the new bit_wait{,_io} functions are tagged "__sched", they
will not show up at all, but something higher in the stack. So
the distinction will still be visible, only with different
function names (gds2_glock_wait versus gfs2_glock_dq_wait in the
gfs2/glock.c case).

Since first version of this patch (against 3.15) two new action
functions appeared, on in NFS and one in CIFS. CIFS also now
uses an action function that makes the same freezer aware
schedule call as NFS.

Signed-off-by: NeilBrown <neilb@suse.de>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> (fscache, keys)
Acked-by: Steven Whitehouse <swhiteho@redhat.com> (gfs2)
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Steve French <sfrench@samba.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20140707051603.28027.72349.stgit@notabene.brown
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>


# 36dfd116 04-Jun-2014 Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be>

fs/fscache: convert printk to pr_foo()

All printk converted to pr_foo() except internal.h: printk(KERN_DEBUG

Coalesce formats.

Add pr_fmt

Signed-off-by: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# da9803bc 21-Aug-2013 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add interface to check consistency of a cached object

Extend the fscache netfs API so that the netfs can ask as to whether a cache
object is up to date with respect to its corresponding netfs object:

int fscache_check_consistency(struct fscache_cookie *cookie)

This will call back to the netfs to check whether the auxiliary data associated
with a cookie is correct. It returns 0 if it is and -ESTALE if it isn't; it
may also return -ENOMEM and -ERESTARTSYS.

The backends now have to implement a mandatory operation pointer:

int (*check_consistency)(struct fscache_object *object)

that corresponds to the above API call. FS-Cache takes care of pinning the
object and the cookie in memory and managing this call with respect to the
object state.

Original-author: Hongyi Jia <jiayisuse@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: Hongyi Jia <jiayisuse@gmail.com>
cc: Milosz Tanski <milosz@adfin.com>


# 1362729b 10-May-2013 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Simplify cookie retention for fscache_objects, fixing oops

Simplify the way fscache cache objects retain their cookie. The way I
implemented the cookie storage handling made synchronisation a pain (ie. the
object state machine can't rely on the cookie actually still being there).

Instead of the the object being detached from the cookie and the cookie being
freed in __fscache_relinquish_cookie(), we defer both operations:

(*) The detachment of the object from the list in the cookie now takes place
in fscache_drop_object() and is thus governed by the object state machine
(fscache_detach_from_cookie() has been removed).

(*) The release of the cookie is now in fscache_object_destroy() - which is
called by the cache backend just before it frees the object.

This means that the fscache_cookie struct is now available to the cache all the
way through from ->alloc_object() to ->drop_object() and ->put_object() -
meaning that it's no longer necessary to take object->lock to guarantee access.

However, __fscache_relinquish_cookie() doesn't wait for the object to go all
the way through to destruction before letting the netfs proceed. That would
massively slow down the netfs. Since __fscache_relinquish_cookie() leaves the
cookie around, in must therefore break all attachments to the netfs - which
includes ->def, ->netfs_data and any outstanding page read/writes.

To handle this, struct fscache_cookie now has an n_active counter:

(1) This starts off initialised to 1.

(2) Any time the cache needs to get at the netfs data, it calls
fscache_use_cookie() to increment it - if it is not zero. If it was zero,
then access is not permitted.

(3) When the cache has finished with the data, it calls fscache_unuse_cookie()
to decrement it. This does a wake-up on it if it reaches 0.

(4) __fscache_relinquish_cookie() decrements n_active and then waits for it to
reach 0. The initialisation to 1 in step (1) ensures that we only get
wake ups when we're trying to get rid of the cookie.

This leaves __fscache_relinquish_cookie() a lot simpler.


***
This fixes a problem in the current code whereby if fscache_invalidate() is
followed sufficiently quickly by fscache_relinquish_cookie() then it is
possible for __fscache_relinquish_cookie() to have detached the cookie from the
object and cleared the pointer before a thread is dispatched to process the
invalidation state in the object state machine.

Since the pending write clearance was deferred to the invalidation state to
make it asynchronous, we need to either wait in relinquishment for the stores
tree to be cleared in the invalidation state or we need to handle the clearance
in relinquishment.

Further, if the relinquishment code does clear the tree, then the invalidation
state need to make the clearance contingent on still having the cookie to hand
(since that's where the tree is rooted) and we have to prevent the cookie from
disappearing for the duration.

This can lead to an oops like the following:

BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 000000000000000c
...
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8151023e>] _spin_lock+0xe/0x30
...
CR2: 000000000000000c ...
...
Process kslowd002 (...)
....
Call Trace:
[<ffffffffa01c3278>] fscache_invalidate_writes+0x38/0xd0 [fscache]
[<ffffffff810096f0>] ? __switch_to+0xd0/0x320
[<ffffffff8105e759>] ? find_busiest_queue+0x69/0x150
[<ffffffff8110ddd4>] ? slow_work_enqueue+0x104/0x180
[<ffffffffa01c1303>] fscache_object_slow_work_execute+0x5e3/0x9d0 [fscache]
[<ffffffff81096b67>] ? bit_waitqueue+0x17/0xd0
[<ffffffff8110e233>] slow_work_execute+0x233/0x310
[<ffffffff8110e515>] slow_work_thread+0x205/0x360
[<ffffffff81096ca0>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x40
[<ffffffff8110e310>] ? slow_work_thread+0x0/0x360
[<ffffffff81096936>] kthread+0x96/0xa0
[<ffffffff8100c0ca>] child_rip+0xa/0x20
[<ffffffff810968a0>] ? kthread+0x0/0xa0
[<ffffffff8100c0c0>] ? child_rip+0x0/0x20

The parameter to fscache_invalidate_writes() was object->cookie which is NULL.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Tested-By: Milosz Tanski <milosz@adfin.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>


# caaef690 10-May-2013 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Fix object state machine to have separate work and wait states

Fix object state machine to have separate work and wait states as that makes
it easier to envision.

There are now three kinds of state:

(1) Work state. This is an execution state. No event processing is performed
by a work state. The function attached to a work state returns a pointer
indicating the next state to which the OSM should transition. Returning
NO_TRANSIT repeats the current state, but goes back to the scheduler
first.

(2) Wait state. This is an event processing state. No execution is
performed by a wait state. Wait states are just tables of "if event X
occurs, clear it and transition to state Y". The dispatcher returns to
the scheduler if none of the events in which the wait state has an
interest are currently pending.

(3) Out-of-band state. This is a special work state. Transitions to normal
states can be overridden when an unexpected event occurs (eg. I/O error).
Instead the dispatcher disables and clears the OOB event and transits to
the specified work state. This then acts as an ordinary work state,
though object->state points to the overridden destination. Returning
NO_TRANSIT resumes the overridden transition.

In addition, the states have names in their definitions, so there's no need for
tables of state names. Further, the EV_REQUEUE event is no longer necessary as
that is automatic for work states.

Since the states are now separate structs rather than values in an enum, it's
not possible to use comparisons other than (non-)equality between them, so use
some object->flags to indicate what phase an object is in.

The EV_RELEASE, EV_RETIRE and EV_WITHDRAW events have been squished into one
(EV_KILL). An object flag now carries the information about retirement.

Similarly, the RELEASING, RECYCLING and WITHDRAWING states have been merged
into an KILL_OBJECT state and additional states have been added for handling
waiting dependent objects (JUMPSTART_DEPS and KILL_DEPENDENTS).

A state has also been added for synchronising with parent object initialisation
(WAIT_FOR_PARENT) and another for initiating look up (PARENT_READY).

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Tested-By: Milosz Tanski <milosz@adfin.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>


# 91c7fbbf 14-Dec-2012 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Clear remaining page count on retrieval cancellation

Provide fscache_cancel_op() with a pointer to a function it should invoke under
lock if it cancels an operation.

Use this to clear the remaining page count upon cancellation of a pending
retrieval operation so that fscache_release_retrieval_op() doesn't get an
assertion failure (see below). This can happen when a signal occurs, say from
CTRL-C being pressed during data retrieval.

FS-Cache: Assertion failed
3 == 0 is false
------------[ cut here ]------------
kernel BUG at fs/fscache/page.c:237!
invalid opcode: 0000 [#641] SMP
Modules linked in: cachefiles(F) nfsv4(F) nfsv3(F) nfsv2(F) nfs(F) fscache(F) auth_rpcgss(F) nfs_acl(F) lockd(F) sunrpc(F)
CPU 0
Pid: 6075, comm: slurp-q Tainted: GF D 3.7.0-rc8-fsdevel+ #411 /DG965RY
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffffa007f328>] [<ffffffffa007f328>] fscache_release_retrieval_op+0x75/0xff [fscache]
RSP: 0000:ffff88001c6d7988 EFLAGS: 00010296
RAX: 000000000000000f RBX: ffff880014cdfe00 RCX: ffffffff6c102000
RDX: ffffffff8102d1ad RSI: ffffffff6c102000 RDI: ffffffff8102d1d6
RBP: ffff88001c6d7998 R08: 0000000000000002 R09: 0000000000000000
R10: 0000000000000000 R11: 0000000000000000 R12: 00000000fffffe00
R13: ffff88001c6d7ab4 R14: ffff88001a8638a0 R15: ffff88001552b190
FS: 00007f877aaf0700(0000) GS:ffff88003bc00000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b
CR2: 00007fff11378fd2 CR3: 000000001c6c6000 CR4: 00000000000007f0
DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000
DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400
Process slurp-q (pid: 6075, threadinfo ffff88001c6d6000, task ffff88001c6c4080)
Stack:
ffffffffa007ec07 ffff880014cdfe00 ffff88001c6d79c8 ffffffffa007db4d
ffffffffa007ec07 ffff880014cdfe00 00000000fffffe00 ffff88001c6d7ab4
ffff88001c6d7a38 ffffffffa008116d 0000000000000000 ffff88001c6c4080
Call Trace:
[<ffffffffa007ec07>] ? fscache_cancel_op+0x194/0x1cf [fscache]
[<ffffffffa007db4d>] fscache_put_operation+0x135/0x2ed [fscache]
[<ffffffffa007ec07>] ? fscache_cancel_op+0x194/0x1cf [fscache]
[<ffffffffa008116d>] __fscache_read_or_alloc_pages+0x413/0x4bc [fscache]
[<ffffffff810ac8ae>] ? __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x195/0x75c
[<ffffffffa00aab0f>] __nfs_readpages_from_fscache+0x86/0x13d [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00a5fe0>] nfs_readpages+0x186/0x1bd [nfs]
[<ffffffff810d23c8>] ? alloc_pages_current+0xc7/0xe4
[<ffffffff810a68b5>] ? __page_cache_alloc+0x84/0x91
[<ffffffff810af912>] ? __do_page_cache_readahead+0xa6/0x2e0
[<ffffffff810afaa3>] __do_page_cache_readahead+0x237/0x2e0
[<ffffffff810af912>] ? __do_page_cache_readahead+0xa6/0x2e0
[<ffffffff810afe3e>] ra_submit+0x1c/0x20
[<ffffffff810b019b>] ondemand_readahead+0x359/0x382
[<ffffffff810b0279>] page_cache_sync_readahead+0x38/0x3a
[<ffffffff810a77b5>] generic_file_aio_read+0x26b/0x637
[<ffffffffa00f1852>] ? nfs_mark_delegation_referenced+0xb/0xb [nfsv4]
[<ffffffffa009cc85>] nfs_file_read+0xaa/0xcf [nfs]
[<ffffffff810db5b3>] do_sync_read+0x91/0xd1
[<ffffffff810dbb8b>] vfs_read+0x9b/0x144
[<ffffffff810dbc78>] sys_read+0x44/0x75
[<ffffffff81422892>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 8c209ce7 05-Dec-2012 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

NFS: nfs_migrate_page() does not wait for FS-Cache to finish with a page

nfs_migrate_page() does not wait for FS-Cache to finish with a page, probably
leading to the following bad-page-state:

BUG: Bad page state in process python-bin pfn:17d39b
page:ffffea00053649e8 flags:004000000000100c count:0 mapcount:0 mapping:(null)
index:38686 (Tainted: G B ---------------- )
Pid: 31053, comm: python-bin Tainted: G B ----------------
2.6.32-71.24.1.el6.x86_64 #1
Call Trace:
[<ffffffff8111bfe7>] bad_page+0x107/0x160
[<ffffffff8111ee69>] free_hot_cold_page+0x1c9/0x220
[<ffffffff8111ef19>] __pagevec_free+0x59/0xb0
[<ffffffff8104b988>] ? flush_tlb_others_ipi+0x128/0x130
[<ffffffff8112230c>] release_pages+0x21c/0x250
[<ffffffff8115b92a>] ? remove_migration_pte+0x28a/0x2b0
[<ffffffff8115f3f8>] ? mem_cgroup_get_reclaim_stat_from_page+0x18/0x70
[<ffffffff81122687>] ____pagevec_lru_add+0x167/0x180
[<ffffffff811226f8>] __lru_cache_add+0x58/0x70
[<ffffffff81122731>] lru_cache_add_lru+0x21/0x40
[<ffffffff81123f49>] putback_lru_page+0x69/0x100
[<ffffffff8115c0bd>] migrate_pages+0x13d/0x5d0
[<ffffffff81122687>] ? ____pagevec_lru_add+0x167/0x180
[<ffffffff81152ab0>] ? compaction_alloc+0x0/0x370
[<ffffffff8115255c>] compact_zone+0x4cc/0x600
[<ffffffff8111cfac>] ? get_page_from_freelist+0x15c/0x820
[<ffffffff810672f4>] ? check_preempt_wakeup+0x1c4/0x3c0
[<ffffffff8115290e>] compact_zone_order+0x7e/0xb0
[<ffffffff81152a49>] try_to_compact_pages+0x109/0x170
[<ffffffff8111e94d>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x5ed/0x850
[<ffffffff814c9136>] ? thread_return+0x4e/0x778
[<ffffffff81150d43>] alloc_pages_vma+0x93/0x150
[<ffffffff81167ea5>] do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page+0x135/0x340
[<ffffffff814cb6f6>] ? rwsem_down_read_failed+0x26/0x30
[<ffffffff81136755>] handle_mm_fault+0x245/0x2b0
[<ffffffff814ce383>] do_page_fault+0x123/0x3a0
[<ffffffff814cbdf5>] page_fault+0x25/0x30

nfs_migrate_page() calls nfs_fscache_release_page() which doesn't actually wait
- even if __GFP_WAIT is set. The reason that doesn't wait is that
fscache_maybe_release_page() might deadlock the allocator as the work threads
writing to the cache may all end up sleeping on memory allocation.

However, I wonder if that is actually a problem. There are a number of things
I can do to deal with this:

(1) Make nfs_migrate_page() wait.

(2) Make fscache_maybe_release_page() honour the __GFP_WAIT flag.

(3) Set a timeout around the wait.

(4) Make nfs_migrate_page() return an error if the page is still busy.

For the moment, I'll select (2) and (4).

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com>


# 8d76349d 05-Dec-2012 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Exclusive op submission can BUG if there's been an I/O error

The function to submit an exclusive op (fscache_submit_exclusive_op()) can BUG
if there's been an I/O error because it may see the parent cache object in an
unexpected state. It should only BUG if there hasn't been an I/O error.

In this case the problem was produced by remounting the cache partition to be
R/O. The EROFS state was detected and the cache was aborted, but not
everything handled the aborting correctly.

SysRq : Emergency Remount R/O
EXT4-fs (sda6): re-mounted. Opts: (null)
Emergency Remount complete
CacheFiles: I/O Error: Failed to update xattr with error -30
FS-Cache: Cache cachefiles stopped due to I/O error
------------[ cut here ]------------
kernel BUG at fs/fscache/operation.c:128!
invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] SMP
CPU 0
Modules linked in: cachefiles nfs fscache auth_rpcgss nfs_acl lockd sunrpc

Pid: 6612, comm: kworker/u:2 Not tainted 3.1.0-rc8-fsdevel+ #1093 /DG965RY
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffffa00739c0>] [<ffffffffa00739c0>] fscache_submit_exclusive_op+0x2ad/0x2c2 [fscache]
RSP: 0018:ffff880000853d40 EFLAGS: 00010206
RAX: ffff880038ac72a8 RBX: ffff8800181f2260 RCX: ffffffff81f2b2b0
RDX: 0000000000000001 RSI: ffffffff8179a478 RDI: ffff8800181f2280
RBP: ffff880000853d60 R08: 0000000000000002 R09: 0000000000000000
R10: 0000000000000001 R11: 0000000000000001 R12: ffff880038ac7268
R13: ffff8800181f2280 R14: ffff88003a359190 R15: 000000010122b162
FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff88003bc00000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b
CR2: 00000034cc4a77f0 CR3: 0000000010e96000 CR4: 00000000000006f0
DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000
DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400
Process kworker/u:2 (pid: 6612, threadinfo ffff880000852000, task ffff880014c3c040)
Stack:
ffff8800181f2260 ffff8800181f2310 ffff880038ac7268 ffff8800181f2260
ffff880000853dc0 ffffffffa0072375 ffff880037ecfe00 ffff88003a359198
ffff880000853dc0 0000000000000246 0000000000000000 ffff88000a91d308
Call Trace:
[<ffffffffa0072375>] fscache_object_work_func+0x792/0xe65 [fscache]
[<ffffffff81047e44>] process_one_work+0x1eb/0x37f
[<ffffffff81047de6>] ? process_one_work+0x18d/0x37f
[<ffffffffa0071be3>] ? fscache_enqueue_dependents+0xd8/0xd8 [fscache]
[<ffffffff810482e4>] worker_thread+0x15a/0x21a
[<ffffffff8104818a>] ? rescuer_thread+0x188/0x188
[<ffffffff8104bf96>] kthread+0x7f/0x87
[<ffffffff813ad6f4>] kernel_thread_helper+0x4/0x10
[<ffffffff81026b98>] ? finish_task_switch+0x45/0xc0
[<ffffffff813abd1d>] ? retint_restore_args+0xe/0xe
[<ffffffff8104bf17>] ? __init_kthread_worker+0x53/0x53
[<ffffffff813ad6f0>] ? gs_change+0xb/0xb


Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# ef778e7a 20-Dec-2012 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Provide proper invalidation

Provide a proper invalidation method rather than relying on the netfs retiring
the cookie it has and getting a new one. The problem with this is that isn't
easy for the netfs to make sure that it has completed/cancelled all its
outstanding storage and retrieval operations on the cookie it is retiring.

Instead, have the cache provide an invalidation method that will cancel or wait
for all currently outstanding operations before invalidating the cache, and
will cause new operations to queue up behind that. Whilst invalidation is in
progress, some requests will be rejected until the cache can stack a barrier on
the operation queue to cause new operations to be deferred behind it.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 12fdff3f 12-Aug-2010 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

Add a dummy printk function for the maintenance of unused printks

Add a dummy printk function for the maintenance of unused printks through gcc
format checking, and also so that side-effect checking is maintained too.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# 8af7c124 20-Jul-2010 Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>

fscache: convert operation to use workqueue instead of slow-work

Make fscache operation to use only workqueue instead of combination of
workqueue and slow-work. FSCACHE_OP_SLOW is dropped and
FSCACHE_OP_FAST is renamed to FSCACHE_OP_ASYNC and uses newly added
fscache_op_wq workqueue to execute op->processor().
fscache_operation_init_slow() is dropped and fscache_operation_init()
now takes @processor argument directly.

* Unbound workqueue is used.

* fscache_retrieval_work() is no longer necessary as OP_ASYNC now does
the equivalent thing.

* sysctl fscache.operation_max_active added to control concurrency.
The default value is nr_cpus clamped between 2 and
WQ_UNBOUND_MAX_ACTIVE.

* debugfs support is dropped for now. Tracing API based debug
facility is planned to be added.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 8b8edefa 20-Jul-2010 Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>

fscache: convert object to use workqueue instead of slow-work

Make fscache object state transition callbacks use workqueue instead
of slow-work. New dedicated unbound CPU workqueue fscache_object_wq
is created. get/put callbacks are renamed and modified to take
@object and called directly from the enqueue wrapper and the work
function. While at it, make all open coded instances of get/put to
use fscache_get/put_object().

* Unbound workqueue is used.

* work_busy() output is printed instead of slow-work flags in object
debugging outputs. They mean basically the same thing bit-for-bit.

* sysctl fscache.object_max_active added to control concurrency. The
default value is nr_cpus clamped between 4 and
WQ_UNBOUND_MAX_ACTIVE.

* slow_work_sleep_till_thread_needed() is replaced with fscache
private implementation fscache_object_sleep_till_congested() which
waits on fscache_object_wq congestion.

* debugfs support is dropped for now. Tracing API based debug
facility is planned to be added.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 4fa9f4ed 20-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Provide nop fscache_stat_d() if CONFIG_FSCACHE_STATS=n

Provide nop fscache_stat_d() macro if CONFIG_FSCACHE_STATS=n lest errors like
the following occur:

fs/fscache/cache.c: In function 'fscache_withdraw_cache':
fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: implicit declaration of function 'fscache_stat_d'
fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: 'fscache_n_cop_sync_cache' undeclared (first use in this function)
fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: (Each undeclared identifier is reported only once
fs/fscache/cache.c:386: error: for each function it appears in.)
fs/fscache/cache.c:392: error: 'fscache_n_cop_dissociate_pages' undeclared (first use in this function)

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# fee096de 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

CacheFiles: Catch an overly long wait for an old active object

Catch an overly long wait for an old, dying active object when we want to
replace it with a new one. The probability is that all the slow-work threads
are hogged, and the delete can't get a look in.

What we do instead is:

(1) if there's nothing in the slow work queue, we sleep until either the dying
object has finished dying or there is something in the slow work queue
behind which we can queue our object.

(2) if there is something in the slow work queue, we return ETIMEDOUT to
fscache_lookup_object(), which then puts us back on the slow work queue,
presumably behind the deletion that we're blocked by. We are then
deferred for a while until we work our way back through the queue -
without blocking a slow-work thread unnecessarily.

A backtrace similar to the following may appear in the log without this patch:

INFO: task kslowd004:5711 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
kslowd004 D 0000000000000000 0 5711 2 0x00000080
ffff88000340bb80 0000000000000046 ffff88002550d000 0000000000000000
ffff88002550d000 0000000000000007 ffff88000340bfd8 ffff88002550d2a8
000000000000ddf0 00000000000118c0 00000000000118c0 ffff88002550d2a8
Call Trace:
[<ffffffff81058e21>] ? trace_hardirqs_on+0xd/0xf
[<ffffffffa011c4d8>] ? cachefiles_wait_bit+0x0/0xd [cachefiles]
[<ffffffffa011c4e1>] cachefiles_wait_bit+0x9/0xd [cachefiles]
[<ffffffff81353153>] __wait_on_bit+0x43/0x76
[<ffffffff8111ae39>] ? ext3_xattr_get+0x1ec/0x270
[<ffffffff813531ef>] out_of_line_wait_on_bit+0x69/0x74
[<ffffffffa011c4d8>] ? cachefiles_wait_bit+0x0/0xd [cachefiles]
[<ffffffff8104c125>] ? wake_bit_function+0x0/0x2e
[<ffffffffa011bc79>] cachefiles_mark_object_active+0x203/0x23b [cachefiles]
[<ffffffffa011c209>] cachefiles_walk_to_object+0x558/0x827 [cachefiles]
[<ffffffffa011a429>] cachefiles_lookup_object+0xac/0x12a [cachefiles]
[<ffffffffa00aa1e9>] fscache_lookup_object+0x1c7/0x214 [fscache]
[<ffffffffa00aafc5>] fscache_object_state_machine+0xa5/0x52d [fscache]
[<ffffffffa00ab4ac>] fscache_object_slow_work_execute+0x5f/0xa0 [fscache]
[<ffffffff81082093>] slow_work_execute+0x18f/0x2d1
[<ffffffff8108239a>] slow_work_thread+0x1c5/0x308
[<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
[<ffffffff810821d5>] ? slow_work_thread+0x0/0x308
[<ffffffff8104be91>] kthread+0x7a/0x82
[<ffffffff8100beda>] child_rip+0xa/0x20
[<ffffffff8100b87c>] ? restore_args+0x0/0x30
[<ffffffff8104be17>] ? kthread+0x0/0x82
[<ffffffff8100bed0>] ? child_rip+0x0/0x20
1 lock held by kslowd004/5711:
#0: (&sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#7/1){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffffa011be64>] cachefiles_walk_to_object+0x1b3/0x827 [cachefiles]

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 60d543ca 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Start processing an object's operations on that object's death

Start processing an object's operations when that object moves into the DYING
state as the object cannot be destroyed until all its outstanding operations
have completed.

Furthermore, make sure that read and allocation operations handle being woken
up on a dead object. Such events are recorded in the Allocs.abt and
Retrvls.abt statistics as viewable through /proc/fs/fscache/stats.

The code for waiting for object activation for the read and allocation
operations is also extracted into its own function as it is much the same in
all cases, differing only in the stats incremented.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 2175bb06 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add a retirement stat counter

Add a stat counter to count retirement events rather than ordinary release
events (the retire argument to fscache_relinquish_cookie()).

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 201a1542 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Handle pages pending storage that get evicted under OOM conditions

Handle netfs pages that the vmscan algorithm wants to evict from the pagecache
under OOM conditions, but that are waiting for write to the cache. Under these
conditions, vmscan calls the releasepage() function of the netfs, asking if a
page can be discarded.

The problem is typified by the following trace of a stuck process:

kslowd005 D 0000000000000000 0 4253 2 0x00000080
ffff88001b14f370 0000000000000046 ffff880020d0d000 0000000000000007
0000000000000006 0000000000000001 ffff88001b14ffd8 ffff880020d0d2a8
000000000000ddf0 00000000000118c0 00000000000118c0 ffff880020d0d2a8
Call Trace:
[<ffffffffa00782d8>] __fscache_wait_on_page_write+0x8b/0xa7 [fscache]
[<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
[<ffffffffa0078240>] ? __fscache_check_page_write+0x63/0x70 [fscache]
[<ffffffffa00b671d>] nfs_fscache_release_page+0x4e/0xc4 [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00927f0>] nfs_release_page+0x3c/0x41 [nfs]
[<ffffffff810885d3>] try_to_release_page+0x32/0x3b
[<ffffffff81093203>] shrink_page_list+0x316/0x4ac
[<ffffffff8109372b>] shrink_inactive_list+0x392/0x67c
[<ffffffff813532fa>] ? __mutex_unlock_slowpath+0x100/0x10b
[<ffffffff81058df0>] ? trace_hardirqs_on_caller+0x10c/0x130
[<ffffffff8135330e>] ? mutex_unlock+0x9/0xb
[<ffffffff81093aa2>] shrink_list+0x8d/0x8f
[<ffffffff81093d1c>] shrink_zone+0x278/0x33c
[<ffffffff81052d6c>] ? ktime_get_ts+0xad/0xba
[<ffffffff81094b13>] try_to_free_pages+0x22e/0x392
[<ffffffff81091e24>] ? isolate_pages_global+0x0/0x212
[<ffffffff8108e743>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x3dc/0x5cf
[<ffffffff81089529>] grab_cache_page_write_begin+0x65/0xaa
[<ffffffff8110f8c0>] ext3_write_begin+0x78/0x1eb
[<ffffffff81089ec5>] generic_file_buffered_write+0x109/0x28c
[<ffffffff8103cb69>] ? current_fs_time+0x22/0x29
[<ffffffff8108a509>] __generic_file_aio_write+0x350/0x385
[<ffffffff8108a588>] ? generic_file_aio_write+0x4a/0xae
[<ffffffff8108a59e>] generic_file_aio_write+0x60/0xae
[<ffffffff810b2e82>] do_sync_write+0xe3/0x120
[<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
[<ffffffff810b18e1>] ? __dentry_open+0x1a5/0x2b8
[<ffffffff810b1a76>] ? dentry_open+0x82/0x89
[<ffffffffa00e693c>] cachefiles_write_page+0x298/0x335 [cachefiles]
[<ffffffffa0077147>] fscache_write_op+0x178/0x2c2 [fscache]
[<ffffffffa0075656>] fscache_op_execute+0x7a/0xd1 [fscache]
[<ffffffff81082093>] slow_work_execute+0x18f/0x2d1
[<ffffffff8108239a>] slow_work_thread+0x1c5/0x308
[<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
[<ffffffff810821d5>] ? slow_work_thread+0x0/0x308
[<ffffffff8104be91>] kthread+0x7a/0x82
[<ffffffff8100beda>] child_rip+0xa/0x20
[<ffffffff8100b87c>] ? restore_args+0x0/0x30
[<ffffffff8102ef83>] ? tg_shares_up+0x171/0x227
[<ffffffff8104be17>] ? kthread+0x0/0x82
[<ffffffff8100bed0>] ? child_rip+0x0/0x20

In the above backtrace, the following is happening:

(1) A page storage operation is being executed by a slow-work thread
(fscache_write_op()).

(2) FS-Cache farms the operation out to the cache to perform
(cachefiles_write_page()).

(3) CacheFiles is then calling Ext3 to perform the actual write, using Ext3's
standard write (do_sync_write()) under KERNEL_DS directly from the netfs
page.

(4) However, for Ext3 to perform the write, it must allocate some memory, in
particular, it must allocate at least one page cache page into which it
can copy the data from the netfs page.

(5) Under OOM conditions, the memory allocator can't immediately come up with
a page, so it uses vmscan to find something to discard
(try_to_free_pages()).

(6) vmscan finds a clean netfs page it might be able to discard (possibly the
one it's trying to write out).

(7) The netfs is called to throw the page away (nfs_release_page()) - but it's
called with __GFP_WAIT, so the netfs decides to wait for the store to
complete (__fscache_wait_on_page_write()).

(8) This blocks a slow-work processing thread - possibly against itself.

The system ends up stuck because it can't write out any netfs pages to the
cache without allocating more memory.

To avoid this, we make FS-Cache cancel some writes that aren't in the middle of
actually being performed. This means that some data won't make it into the
cache this time. To support this, a new FS-Cache function is added
fscache_maybe_release_page() that replaces what the netfs releasepage()
functions used to do with respect to the cache.

The decisions fscache_maybe_release_page() makes are counted and displayed
through /proc/fs/fscache/stats on a line labelled "VmScan". There are four
counters provided: "nos=N" - pages that weren't pending storage; "gon=N" -
pages that were pending storage when we first looked, but weren't by the time
we got the object lock; "bsy=N" - pages that we ignored as they were actively
being written when we looked; and "can=N" - pages that we cancelled the storage
of.

What I'd really like to do is alter the behaviour of the cancellation
heuristics, depending on how necessary it is to expel pages. If there are
plenty of other pages that aren't waiting to be written to the cache that
could be ejected first, then it would be nice to hold up on immediate
cancellation of cache writes - but I don't see a way of doing that.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# e3d4d28b 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Handle read request vs lookup, creation or other cache failure

FS-Cache doesn't correctly handle the netfs requesting a read from the cache
on an object that failed or was withdrawn by the cache. A trace similar to
the following might be seen:

CacheFiles: Lookup failed error -105
[exe ] unexpected submission OP165afe [OBJ6cac OBJECT_LC_DYING]
[exe ] objstate=OBJECT_LC_DYING [OBJECT_LC_DYING]
[exe ] objflags=0
[exe ] objevent=9 [fffffffffffffffb]
[exe ] ops=0 inp=0 exc=0
Pid: 6970, comm: exe Not tainted 2.6.32-rc6-cachefs #50
Call Trace:
[<ffffffffa0076477>] fscache_submit_op+0x3ff/0x45a [fscache]
[<ffffffffa0077997>] __fscache_read_or_alloc_pages+0x187/0x3c4 [fscache]
[<ffffffffa00b6480>] ? nfs_readpage_from_fscache_complete+0x0/0x66 [nfs]
[<ffffffffa00b6388>] __nfs_readpages_from_fscache+0x7e/0x176 [nfs]
[<ffffffff8108e483>] ? __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x11c/0x5cf
[<ffffffffa009d796>] nfs_readpages+0x114/0x1d7 [nfs]
[<ffffffff81090314>] __do_page_cache_readahead+0x15f/0x1ec
[<ffffffff81090228>] ? __do_page_cache_readahead+0x73/0x1ec
[<ffffffff810903bd>] ra_submit+0x1c/0x20
[<ffffffff810906bb>] ondemand_readahead+0x227/0x23a
[<ffffffff81090762>] page_cache_sync_readahead+0x17/0x19
[<ffffffff8108a99e>] generic_file_aio_read+0x236/0x5a0
[<ffffffffa00937bd>] nfs_file_read+0xe4/0xf3 [nfs]
[<ffffffff810b2fa2>] do_sync_read+0xe3/0x120
[<ffffffff81354cc3>] ? _spin_unlock_irq+0x2b/0x31
[<ffffffff8104c0f1>] ? autoremove_wake_function+0x0/0x34
[<ffffffff811848e5>] ? selinux_file_permission+0x5d/0x10f
[<ffffffff81352bdb>] ? thread_return+0x3e/0x101
[<ffffffff8117d7b0>] ? security_file_permission+0x11/0x13
[<ffffffff810b3b06>] vfs_read+0xaa/0x16f
[<ffffffff81058df0>] ? trace_hardirqs_on_caller+0x10c/0x130
[<ffffffff810b3c84>] sys_read+0x45/0x6c
[<ffffffff8100ae2b>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b

The object state might also be OBJECT_DYING or OBJECT_WITHDRAWING.

This should be handled by simply rejecting the new operation with ENOBUFS.
There's no need to log an error for it. Events of this type now appear in the
stats file under Ops:rej.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 1bccf513 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Fix lock misorder in fscache_write_op()

FS-Cache has two structs internally for keeping track of the internal state of
a cached file: the fscache_cookie struct, which represents the netfs's state,
and fscache_object struct, which represents the cache's state. Each has a
pointer that points to the other (when both are in existence), and each has a
spinlock for pointer maintenance.

Since netfs operations approach these structures from the cookie side, they get
the cookie lock first, then the object lock. Cache operations, on the other
hand, approach from the object side, and get the object lock first. It is not
then permitted for a cache operation to get the cookie lock whilst it is
holding the object lock lest deadlock occur; instead, it must do one of two
things:

(1) increment the cookie usage counter, drop the object lock and then get both
locks in order, or

(2) simply hold the object lock as certain parts of the cookie may not be
altered whilst the object lock is held.

It is also not permitted to follow either pointer without holding the lock at
the end you start with. To break the pointers between the cookie and the
object, both locks must be held.

fscache_write_op(), however, violates the locking rules: It attempts to get the
cookie lock without (a) checking that the cookie pointer is a valid pointer,
and (b) holding the object lock to protect the cookie pointer whilst it follows
it. This is so that it can access the pending page store tree without
interference from __fscache_write_page().

This is fixed by splitting the cookie lock, such that the page store tracking
tree is protected by its own lock, and checking that the cookie pointer is
non-NULL before we attempt to follow it whilst holding the object lock.

The new lock is subordinate to both the cookie lock and the object lock, and so
should be taken after those.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 5753c441 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Permit cache retrieval ops to be interrupted in the initial wait phase

Permit the operations to retrieve data from the cache or to allocate space in
the cache for future writes to be interrupted whilst they're waiting for
permission for the operation to proceed. Typically this wait occurs whilst the
cache object is being looked up on disk in the background.

If an interruption occurs, and the operation has not yet been given the
go-ahead to run, the operation is dequeued and cancelled, and control returns
to the read operation of the netfs routine with none of the requested pages
having been read or in any way marked as known by the cache.

This means that the initial wait is done interruptibly rather than
uninterruptibly.

In addition, extra stats values are made available to show the number of ops
cancelled and the number of cache space allocations interrupted.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 52bd75fd 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add counters for entry/exit to/from cache operation functions

Count entries to and exits from cache operation table functions. Maintain
these as a single counter that's added to or removed from as appropriate.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 4fbf4291 19-Nov-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Allow the current state of all objects to be dumped

Allow the current state of all fscache objects to be dumped by doing:

cat /proc/fs/fscache/objects

By default, all objects and all fields will be shown. This can be restricted
by adding a suitable key to one of the caller's keyrings (such as the session
keyring):

keyctl add user fscache:objlist "<restrictions>" @s

The <restrictions> are:

K Show hexdump of object key (don't show if not given)
A Show hexdump of object aux data (don't show if not given)

And paired restrictions:

C Show objects that have a cookie
c Show objects that don't have a cookie
B Show objects that are busy
b Show objects that aren't busy
W Show objects that have pending writes
w Show objects that don't have pending writes
R Show objects that have outstanding reads
r Show objects that don't have outstanding reads
S Show objects that have slow work queued
s Show objects that don't have slow work queued

If neither side of a restriction pair is given, then both are implied. For
example:

keyctl add user fscache:objlist KB @s

shows objects that are busy, and lists their object keys, but does not dump
their auxiliary data. It also implies "CcWwRrSs", but as 'B' is given, 'b' is
not implied.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>


# 348ca102 27-May-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Fixup renamed filenames in comments in internal.h

Fix up renamed filenames in comments in fs/fscache/internal.h.

Originally, the files were all called fsc-xxx.c, but they got renamed to
just xxx.c.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>


# b5108822 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Implement data I/O part of netfs API

Implement the data I/O part of the FS-Cache netfs API. The documentation and
API header file were added in a previous patch.

This patch implements the following functions for the netfs to call:

(*) fscache_attr_changed().

Indicate that the object has changed its attributes. The only attribute
currently recorded is the file size. Only pages within the set file size
will be stored in the cache.

This operation is submitted for asynchronous processing, and will return
immediately. It will return -ENOMEM if an out of memory error is
encountered, -ENOBUFS if the object is not actually cached, or 0 if the
operation is successfully queued.

(*) fscache_read_or_alloc_page().
(*) fscache_read_or_alloc_pages().

Request data be fetched from the disk, and allocate internal metadata to
track the netfs pages and reserve disk space for unknown pages.

These operations perform semi-asynchronous data reads. Upon returning
they will indicate which pages they think can be retrieved from disk, and
will have set in progress attempts to retrieve those pages.

These will return, in order of preference, -ENOMEM on memory allocation
error, -ERESTARTSYS if a signal interrupted proceedings, -ENODATA if one
or more requested pages are not yet cached, -ENOBUFS if the object is not
actually cached or if there isn't space for future pages to be cached on
this object, or 0 if successful.

In the case of the multipage function, the pages for which reads are set
in progress will be removed from the list and the page count decreased
appropriately.

If any read operations should fail, the completion function will be given
an error, and will also be passed contextual information to allow the
netfs to fall back to querying the server for the absent pages.

For each successful read, the page completion function will also be
called.

Any pages subsequently tracked by the cache will have PG_fscache set upon
them on return. fscache_uncache_page() must be called for such pages.

If supplied by the netfs, the mark_pages_cached() cookie op will be
invoked for any pages now tracked.

(*) fscache_alloc_page().

Allocate internal metadata to track a netfs page and reserve disk space.

This will return -ENOMEM on memory allocation error, -ERESTARTSYS on
signal, -ENOBUFS if the object isn't cached, or there isn't enough space
in the cache, or 0 if successful.

Any pages subsequently tracked by the cache will have PG_fscache set upon
them on return. fscache_uncache_page() must be called for such pages.

If supplied by the netfs, the mark_pages_cached() cookie op will be
invoked for any pages now tracked.

(*) fscache_write_page().

Request data be stored to disk. This may only be called on pages that
have been read or alloc'd by the above three functions and have not yet
been uncached.

This will return -ENOMEM on memory allocation error, -ERESTARTSYS on
signal, -ENOBUFS if the object isn't cached, or there isn't immediately
enough space in the cache, or 0 if successful.

On a successful return, this operation will have queued the page for
asynchronous writing to the cache. The page will be returned with
PG_fscache_write set until the write completes one way or another. The
caller will not be notified if the write fails due to an I/O error. If
that happens, the object will become available and all pending writes will
be aborted.

Note that the cache may batch up page writes, and so it may take a while
to get around to writing them out.

The caller must assume that until PG_fscache_write is cleared the page is
use by the cache. Any changes made to the page may be reflected on disk.
The page may even be under DMA.

(*) fscache_uncache_page().

Indicate that the cache should stop tracking a page previously read or
alloc'd from the cache. If the page was alloc'd only, but unwritten, it
will not appear on disk.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 952efe7b 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add and document asynchronous operation handling

Add and document asynchronous operation handling for use by FS-Cache's data
storage and retrieval routines.

The following documentation is added to:

Documentation/filesystems/caching/operations.txt

================================
ASYNCHRONOUS OPERATIONS HANDLING
================================

========
OVERVIEW
========

FS-Cache has an asynchronous operations handling facility that it uses for its
data storage and retrieval routines. Its operations are represented by
fscache_operation structs, though these are usually embedded into some other
structure.

This facility is available to and expected to be be used by the cache backends,
and FS-Cache will create operations and pass them off to the appropriate cache
backend for completion.

To make use of this facility, <linux/fscache-cache.h> should be #included.

===============================
OPERATION RECORD INITIALISATION
===============================

An operation is recorded in an fscache_operation struct:

struct fscache_operation {
union {
struct work_struct fast_work;
struct slow_work slow_work;
};
unsigned long flags;
fscache_operation_processor_t processor;
...
};

Someone wanting to issue an operation should allocate something with this
struct embedded in it. They should initialise it by calling:

void fscache_operation_init(struct fscache_operation *op,
fscache_operation_release_t release);

with the operation to be initialised and the release function to use.

The op->flags parameter should be set to indicate the CPU time provision and
the exclusivity (see the Parameters section).

The op->fast_work, op->slow_work and op->processor flags should be set as
appropriate for the CPU time provision (see the Parameters section).

FSCACHE_OP_WAITING may be set in op->flags prior to each submission of the
operation and waited for afterwards.

==========
PARAMETERS
==========

There are a number of parameters that can be set in the operation record's flag
parameter. There are three options for the provision of CPU time in these
operations:

(1) The operation may be done synchronously (FSCACHE_OP_MYTHREAD). A thread
may decide it wants to handle an operation itself without deferring it to
another thread.

This is, for example, used in read operations for calling readpages() on
the backing filesystem in CacheFiles. Although readpages() does an
asynchronous data fetch, the determination of whether pages exist is done
synchronously - and the netfs does not proceed until this has been
determined.

If this option is to be used, FSCACHE_OP_WAITING must be set in op->flags
before submitting the operation, and the operating thread must wait for it
to be cleared before proceeding:

wait_on_bit(&op->flags, FSCACHE_OP_WAITING,
fscache_wait_bit, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);

(2) The operation may be fast asynchronous (FSCACHE_OP_FAST), in which case it
will be given to keventd to process. Such an operation is not permitted
to sleep on I/O.

This is, for example, used by CacheFiles to copy data from a backing fs
page to a netfs page after the backing fs has read the page in.

If this option is used, op->fast_work and op->processor must be
initialised before submitting the operation:

INIT_WORK(&op->fast_work, do_some_work);

(3) The operation may be slow asynchronous (FSCACHE_OP_SLOW), in which case it
will be given to the slow work facility to process. Such an operation is
permitted to sleep on I/O.

This is, for example, used by FS-Cache to handle background writes of
pages that have just been fetched from a remote server.

If this option is used, op->slow_work and op->processor must be
initialised before submitting the operation:

fscache_operation_init_slow(op, processor)

Furthermore, operations may be one of two types:

(1) Exclusive (FSCACHE_OP_EXCLUSIVE). Operations of this type may not run in
conjunction with any other operation on the object being operated upon.

An example of this is the attribute change operation, in which the file
being written to may need truncation.

(2) Shareable. Operations of this type may be running simultaneously. It's
up to the operation implementation to prevent interference between other
operations running at the same time.

=========
PROCEDURE
=========

Operations are used through the following procedure:

(1) The submitting thread must allocate the operation and initialise it
itself. Normally this would be part of a more specific structure with the
generic op embedded within.

(2) The submitting thread must then submit the operation for processing using
one of the following two functions:

int fscache_submit_op(struct fscache_object *object,
struct fscache_operation *op);

int fscache_submit_exclusive_op(struct fscache_object *object,
struct fscache_operation *op);

The first function should be used to submit non-exclusive ops and the
second to submit exclusive ones. The caller must still set the
FSCACHE_OP_EXCLUSIVE flag.

If successful, both functions will assign the operation to the specified
object and return 0. -ENOBUFS will be returned if the object specified is
permanently unavailable.

The operation manager will defer operations on an object that is still
undergoing lookup or creation. The operation will also be deferred if an
operation of conflicting exclusivity is in progress on the object.

If the operation is asynchronous, the manager will retain a reference to
it, so the caller should put their reference to it by passing it to:

void fscache_put_operation(struct fscache_operation *op);

(3) If the submitting thread wants to do the work itself, and has marked the
operation with FSCACHE_OP_MYTHREAD, then it should monitor
FSCACHE_OP_WAITING as described above and check the state of the object if
necessary (the object might have died whilst the thread was waiting).

When it has finished doing its processing, it should call
fscache_put_operation() on it.

(4) The operation holds an effective lock upon the object, preventing other
exclusive ops conflicting until it is released. The operation can be
enqueued for further immediate asynchronous processing by adjusting the
CPU time provisioning option if necessary, eg:

op->flags &= ~FSCACHE_OP_TYPE;
op->flags |= ~FSCACHE_OP_FAST;

and calling:

void fscache_enqueue_operation(struct fscache_operation *op)

This can be used to allow other things to have use of the worker thread
pools.

=====================
ASYNCHRONOUS CALLBACK
=====================

When used in asynchronous mode, the worker thread pool will invoke the
processor method with a pointer to the operation. This should then get at the
container struct by using container_of():

static void fscache_write_op(struct fscache_operation *_op)
{
struct fscache_storage *op =
container_of(_op, struct fscache_storage, op);
...
}

The caller holds a reference on the operation, and will invoke
fscache_put_operation() when the processor function returns. The processor
function is at liberty to call fscache_enqueue_operation() or to take extra
references.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 36c95590 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Object management state machine

Implement the cache object management state machine.

The following documentation is added to illuminate the working of this state
machine. It will also be added as:

Documentation/filesystems/caching/object.txt

====================================================
IN-KERNEL CACHE OBJECT REPRESENTATION AND MANAGEMENT
====================================================

==============
REPRESENTATION
==============

FS-Cache maintains an in-kernel representation of each object that a netfs is
currently interested in. Such objects are represented by the fscache_cookie
struct and are referred to as cookies.

FS-Cache also maintains a separate in-kernel representation of the objects that
a cache backend is currently actively caching. Such objects are represented by
the fscache_object struct. The cache backends allocate these upon request, and
are expected to embed them in their own representations. These are referred to
as objects.

There is a 1:N relationship between cookies and objects. A cookie may be
represented by multiple objects - an index may exist in more than one cache -
or even by no objects (it may not be cached).

Furthermore, both cookies and objects are hierarchical. The two hierarchies
correspond, but the cookies tree is a superset of the union of the object trees
of multiple caches:

NETFS INDEX TREE : CACHE 1 : CACHE 2
: :
: +-----------+ :
+----------->| IObject | :
+-----------+ | : +-----------+ :
| ICookie |-------+ : | :
+-----------+ | : | : +-----------+
| +------------------------------>| IObject |
| : | : +-----------+
| : V : |
| : +-----------+ : |
V +----------->| IObject | : |
+-----------+ | : +-----------+ : |
| ICookie |-------+ : | : V
+-----------+ | : | : +-----------+
| +------------------------------>| IObject |
+-----+-----+ : | : +-----------+
| | : | : |
V | : V : |
+-----------+ | : +-----------+ : |
| ICookie |------------------------->| IObject | : |
+-----------+ | : +-----------+ : |
| V : | : V
| +-----------+ : | : +-----------+
| | ICookie |-------------------------------->| IObject |
| +-----------+ : | : +-----------+
V | : V : |
+-----------+ | : +-----------+ : |
| DCookie |------------------------->| DObject | : |
+-----------+ | : +-----------+ : |
| : : |
+-------+-------+ : : |
| | : : |
V V : : V
+-----------+ +-----------+ : : +-----------+
| DCookie | | DCookie |------------------------>| DObject |
+-----------+ +-----------+ : : +-----------+
: :

In the above illustration, ICookie and IObject represent indices and DCookie
and DObject represent data storage objects. Indices may have representation in
multiple caches, but currently, non-index objects may not. Objects of any type
may also be entirely unrepresented.

As far as the netfs API goes, the netfs is only actually permitted to see
pointers to the cookies. The cookies themselves and any objects attached to
those cookies are hidden from it.

===============================
OBJECT MANAGEMENT STATE MACHINE
===============================

Within FS-Cache, each active object is managed by its own individual state
machine. The state for an object is kept in the fscache_object struct, in
object->state. A cookie may point to a set of objects that are in different
states.

Each state has an action associated with it that is invoked when the machine
wakes up in that state. There are four logical sets of states:

(1) Preparation: states that wait for the parent objects to become ready. The
representations are hierarchical, and it is expected that an object must
be created or accessed with respect to its parent object.

(2) Initialisation: states that perform lookups in the cache and validate
what's found and that create on disk any missing metadata.

(3) Normal running: states that allow netfs operations on objects to proceed
and that update the state of objects.

(4) Termination: states that detach objects from their netfs cookies, that
delete objects from disk, that handle disk and system errors and that free
up in-memory resources.

In most cases, transitioning between states is in response to signalled events.
When a state has finished processing, it will usually set the mask of events in
which it is interested (object->event_mask) and relinquish the worker thread.
Then when an event is raised (by calling fscache_raise_event()), if the event
is not masked, the object will be queued for processing (by calling
fscache_enqueue_object()).

PROVISION OF CPU TIME
---------------------

The work to be done by the various states is given CPU time by the threads of
the slow work facility (see Documentation/slow-work.txt). This is used in
preference to the workqueue facility because:

(1) Threads may be completely occupied for very long periods of time by a
particular work item. These state actions may be doing sequences of
synchronous, journalled disk accesses (lookup, mkdir, create, setxattr,
getxattr, truncate, unlink, rmdir, rename).

(2) Threads may do little actual work, but may rather spend a lot of time
sleeping on I/O. This means that single-threaded and 1-per-CPU-threaded
workqueues don't necessarily have the right numbers of threads.

LOCKING SIMPLIFICATION
----------------------

Because only one worker thread may be operating on any particular object's
state machine at once, this simplifies the locking, particularly with respect
to disconnecting the netfs's representation of a cache object (fscache_cookie)
from the cache backend's representation (fscache_object) - which may be
requested from either end.

=================
THE SET OF STATES
=================

The object state machine has a set of states that it can be in. There are
preparation states in which the object sets itself up and waits for its parent
object to transit to a state that allows access to its children:

(1) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_INIT.

Initialise the object and wait for the parent object to become active. In
the cache, it is expected that it will not be possible to look an object
up from the parent object, until that parent object itself has been looked
up.

There are initialisation states in which the object sets itself up and accesses
disk for the object metadata:

(2) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_LOOKING_UP.

Look up the object on disk, using the parent as a starting point.
FS-Cache expects the cache backend to probe the cache to see whether this
object is represented there, and if it is, to see if it's valid (coherency
management).

The cache should call fscache_object_lookup_negative() to indicate lookup
failure for whatever reason, and should call fscache_obtained_object() to
indicate success.

At the completion of lookup, FS-Cache will let the netfs go ahead with
read operations, no matter whether the file is yet cached. If not yet
cached, read operations will be immediately rejected with ENODATA until
the first known page is uncached - as to that point there can be no data
to be read out of the cache for that file that isn't currently also held
in the pagecache.

(3) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_CREATING.

Create an object on disk, using the parent as a starting point. This
happens if the lookup failed to find the object, or if the object's
coherency data indicated what's on disk is out of date. In this state,
FS-Cache expects the cache to create

The cache should call fscache_obtained_object() if creation completes
successfully, fscache_object_lookup_negative() otherwise.

At the completion of creation, FS-Cache will start processing write
operations the netfs has queued for an object. If creation failed, the
write ops will be transparently discarded, and nothing recorded in the
cache.

There are some normal running states in which the object spends its time
servicing netfs requests:

(4) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_AVAILABLE.

A transient state in which pending operations are started, child objects
are permitted to advance from FSCACHE_OBJECT_INIT state, and temporary
lookup data is freed.

(5) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_ACTIVE.

The normal running state. In this state, requests the netfs makes will be
passed on to the cache.

(6) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_UPDATING.

The state machine comes here to update the object in the cache from the
netfs's records. This involves updating the auxiliary data that is used
to maintain coherency.

And there are terminal states in which an object cleans itself up, deallocates
memory and potentially deletes stuff from disk:

(7) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_LC_DYING.

The object comes here if it is dying because of a lookup or creation
error. This would be due to a disk error or system error of some sort.
Temporary data is cleaned up, and the parent is released.

(8) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_DYING.

The object comes here if it is dying due to an error, because its parent
cookie has been relinquished by the netfs or because the cache is being
withdrawn.

Any child objects waiting on this one are given CPU time so that they too
can destroy themselves. This object waits for all its children to go away
before advancing to the next state.

(9) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_ABORT_INIT.

The object comes to this state if it was waiting on its parent in
FSCACHE_OBJECT_INIT, but its parent died. The object will destroy itself
so that the parent may proceed from the FSCACHE_OBJECT_DYING state.

(10) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_RELEASING.
(11) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_RECYCLING.

The object comes to one of these two states when dying once it is rid of
all its children, if it is dying because the netfs relinquished its
cookie. In the first state, the cached data is expected to persist, and
in the second it will be deleted.

(12) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_WITHDRAWING.

The object transits to this state if the cache decides it wants to
withdraw the object from service, perhaps to make space, but also due to
error or just because the whole cache is being withdrawn.

(13) State FSCACHE_OBJECT_DEAD.

The object transits to this state when the in-memory object record is
ready to be deleted. The object processor shouldn't ever see an object in
this state.

THE SET OF EVENTS
-----------------

There are a number of events that can be raised to an object state machine:

(*) FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_UPDATE

The netfs requested that an object be updated. The state machine will ask
the cache backend to update the object, and the cache backend will ask the
netfs for details of the change through its cookie definition ops.

(*) FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_CLEARED

This is signalled in two circumstances:

(a) when an object's last child object is dropped and

(b) when the last operation outstanding on an object is completed.

This is used to proceed from the dying state.

(*) FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_ERROR

This is signalled when an I/O error occurs during the processing of some
object.

(*) FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_RELEASE
(*) FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_RETIRE

These are signalled when the netfs relinquishes a cookie it was using.
The event selected depends on whether the netfs asks for the backing
object to be retired (deleted) or retained.

(*) FSCACHE_OBJECT_EV_WITHDRAW

This is signalled when the cache backend wants to withdraw an object.
This means that the object will have to be detached from the netfs's
cookie.

Because the withdrawing releasing/retiring events are all handled by the object
state machine, it doesn't matter if there's a collision with both ends trying
to sever the connection at the same time. The state machine can just pick
which one it wants to honour, and that effects the other.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 2868cbea 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Bit waiting helpers

Add helpers for use with wait_on_bit().

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 955d0091 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Provide a slab for cookie allocation

Provide a slab from which can be allocated the FS-Cache cookies that will be
presented to the netfs.

Also provide a slab constructor and a function to recursively discard a cookie
and its ancestor chain.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 0e04d4ce 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add cache tag handling

Implement two features of FS-Cache:

(1) The ability to request and release cache tags - names by which a cache may
be known to a netfs, and thus selected for use.

(2) An internal function by which a cache is selected by consulting the netfs,
if the netfs wishes to be consulted.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# a6891645 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Root index definition

Add a description of the root index of the cache for later patches to make use
of.

The root index is owned by FS-Cache itself. When a netfs requests caching
facilities, FS-Cache will, if one doesn't already exist, create an entry in
the root index with the key being the name of the netfs ("AFS" for example),
and the auxiliary data holding the index structure version supplied by the
netfs:

FSDEF
|
+-----------+
| |
NFS AFS
[v=1] [v=1]

If an entry with the appropriate name does already exist, the version is
compared. If the version is different, the entire subtree from that entry
will be discarded and a new entry created.

The new entry will be an index, and a cookie referring to it will be passed to
the netfs. This is then the root handle by which the netfs accesses the
cache. It can create whatever objects it likes in that index, including
further indices.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 7394daa8 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add use of /proc and presentation of statistics

Make FS-Cache create its /proc interface and present various statistical
information through it. Also provide the functions for updating this
information.

These features are enabled by:

CONFIG_FSCACHE_PROC
CONFIG_FSCACHE_STATS
CONFIG_FSCACHE_HISTOGRAM

The /proc directory for FS-Cache is also exported so that caching modules can
add their own statistics there too.

The FS-Cache module is loadable at this point, and the statistics files can be
examined by userspace:

cat /proc/fs/fscache/stats
cat /proc/fs/fscache/histogram

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>


# 06b3db1b 03-Apr-2009 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

FS-Cache: Add main configuration option, module entry points and debugging

Add the main configuration option, allowing FS-Cache to be selected; the
module entry and exit functions and the debugging stuff used by these patches.

The two configuration options added are:

CONFIG_FSCACHE
CONFIG_FSCACHE_DEBUG

The first enables the facility, and the second makes the debugging statements
enableable through the "debug" module parameter. The value of this parameter
is a bitmask as described in:

Documentation/filesystems/caching/fscache.txt

The module can be loaded at this point, but all it will do at this point in
the patch series is to start up the slow work facility and shut it down again.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com>
Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>