History log of /linux-master/arch/powerpc/include/asm/bug.h
Revision Date Author Comments
# 69505e3d 12-May-2022 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@kernel.org>

bug: Use normal relative pointers in 'struct bug_entry'

pointers are calculated weirdly: based on the beginning of the bug_entry
struct address, rather than their respective pointer addresses.

Make the relative pointers less surprising to both humans and tools by
calculating them the normal way.

Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Reviewed-by: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Acked-by: Sven Schnelle <svens@linux.ibm.com> # s390
Acked-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au> (powerpc)
Acked-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Tested-by: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com> [arm64]
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/f0e05be797a16f4fc2401eeb88c8450dcbe61df6.1652362951.git.jpoimboe@kernel.org

# 38a17568 13-Feb-2022 Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>

powerpc: Don't allow the use of EMIT_BUG_ENTRY with BUGFLAG_WARNING

Warnings in assembly must use EMIT_WARN_ENTRY in order to generate
the necessary entry in exception table.

Check in EMIT_BUG_ENTRY that flags don't include BUGFLAG_WARNING.

This change avoids problems like the one fixed by
commit fd1eaaaaa686 ("powerpc/64s: Use EMIT_WARN_ENTRY for SRR debug

Signed-off-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/ddcb422102a37eb45f57694c7ef0ec6187964dff.1644742951.git.christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu

# e432fe97 27-Aug-2021 Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>

powerpc/bug: Cast to unsigned long before passing to inline asm

In commit 1e688dd2a3d6 ("powerpc/bug: Provide better flexibility to
WARN_ON/__WARN_FLAGS() with asm goto") we changed WARN_ON(). Previously
it would take the warning condition, x, and double negate it before
converting the result to int, and passing that int to the underlying
inline asm. ie:

#define WARN_ON(x) ({
int __ret_warn_on = !!(x);
if (__builtin_constant_p(__ret_warn_on)) {
} else {
"r" (__ret_warn_on));

The asm then does a full register width comparison with zero and traps
if it is non-zero (PPC_TLNEI).

The new code instead passes the full expression, x, with some arbitrary
type, to the inline asm:

#define WARN_ON(x) ({
do {
if (__builtin_constant_p((x))) {
} else {
__label_warn_on, "r" (x));

As reported[1] by Nathan, when building with clang this can cause
spurious warnings to fire repeatedly at boot:

WARNING: CPU: 0 PID: 1 at lib/klist.c:62 .klist_add_tail+0x3c/0x110
Modules linked in:
CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Tainted: G W 5.14.0-rc7-next-20210825 #1
NIP: c0000000007ff81c LR: c00000000090a038 CTR: 0000000000000000
REGS: c0000000073c32a0 TRAP: 0700 Tainted: G W (5.14.0-rc7-next-20210825)
MSR: 8000000002029032 <SF,VEC,EE,ME,IR,DR,RI> CR: 22000a40 XER: 00000000
CFAR: c00000000090a034 IRQMASK: 0
GPR00: c00000000090a038 c0000000073c3540 c000000001be3200 0000000000000001
GPR04: c0000000072d65c0 0000000000000000 c0000000091ba798 c0000000091bb0a0
GPR08: 0000000000000001 0000000000000000 c000000008581918 fffffffffffffc00
GPR12: 0000000044000240 c000000001dd0000 c000000000012300 0000000000000000
GPR16: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR20: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR24: 0000000000000000 c0000000017e3200 0000000000000000 c000000001a0e778
GPR28: c0000000072d65b0 c0000000072d65a8 c000000007de72c8 c0000000073c35d0
NIP .klist_add_tail+0x3c/0x110
LR .bus_add_driver+0x148/0x290
Call Trace:
0xc0000000073c35d0 (unreliable)
Instruction dump:
fba10078 7c7d1b78 38600001 fb810070 3b9d0008 fbc10080 7c9e2378 389d0018
fb9d0008 fb9d0010 90640000 fbdd0000 <0b1e0000> e87e0018 28230000 41820024

The instruction dump shows that we are trapping because r30 is not zero:
tdnei r30,0

Where r30 = c000000007de72c8

The WARN_ON() comes from:

static void knode_set_klist(struct klist_node *knode, struct klist *klist)
knode->n_klist = klist;
/* no knode deserves to start its life dead */


#define KNODE_DEAD 1LU

static bool knode_dead(struct klist_node *knode)
return (unsigned long)knode->n_klist & KNODE_DEAD;

The full disassembly shows that clang has not generated any code to
apply the "& KNODE_DEAD" to the n_klist pointer, which is surprising.

Nathan filed an LLVM bug [2], in which Eli Friedman explained that clang
believes it is only passing a single bit to the asm (ie. a bool) and so
the mask of bit 0 with 1 can be omitted, and suggested that if we want
the full 64-bit value passed to the inline asm we should cast to a
64-bit type (or 32-bit on 32-bits).

In fact we already do that for BUG_ENTRY(), which was added to fix a
possibly similar bug in 2005 in commit 32818c2eb6b8 ("[PATCH] ppc64: Fix
issue with gcc 4.0 compiled kernels").

So cast the value we pass to the inline asm to long.

For GCC this appears to have no effect on code generation, other than
causing sign extension in some cases.

[1]: http://lore.kernel.org/r/YSa1O4fcX1nNKqN/@Ryzen-9-3900X.localdomain
[2]: https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=51634

Fixes: 1e688dd2a3d6 ("powerpc/bug: Provide better flexibility to WARN_ON/__WARN_FLAGS() with asm goto")
Reported-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Reviewed-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210901112522.1085134-1-mpe@ellerman.id.au

# 1e688dd2 13-Apr-2021 Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>

powerpc/bug: Provide better flexibility to WARN_ON/__WARN_FLAGS() with asm goto

Using asm goto in __WARN_FLAGS() and WARN_ON() allows more
flexibility to GCC.

For that add an entry to the exception table so that
program_check_exception() knowns where to resume execution
after a WARNING.

Here are two exemples. The first one is done on PPC32 (which
benefits from the previous patch), the second is on PPC64.

unsigned long test(struct pt_regs *regs)
int ret;

WARN_ON(regs->msr & MSR_PR);

return regs->gpr[3];

unsigned long test9w(unsigned long a, unsigned long b)
if (WARN_ON(!b))
return 0;
return a / b;

Before the patch:

000003a8 <test>:
3a8: 81 23 00 84 lwz r9,132(r3)
3ac: 71 29 40 00 andi. r9,r9,16384
3b0: 40 82 00 0c bne 3bc <test+0x14>
3b4: 80 63 00 0c lwz r3,12(r3)
3b8: 4e 80 00 20 blr

3bc: 0f e0 00 00 twui r0,0
3c0: 80 63 00 0c lwz r3,12(r3)
3c4: 4e 80 00 20 blr

0000000000000bf0 <.test9w>:
bf0: 7c 89 00 74 cntlzd r9,r4
bf4: 79 29 d1 82 rldicl r9,r9,58,6
bf8: 0b 09 00 00 tdnei r9,0
bfc: 2c 24 00 00 cmpdi r4,0
c00: 41 82 00 0c beq c0c <.test9w+0x1c>
c04: 7c 63 23 92 divdu r3,r3,r4
c08: 4e 80 00 20 blr

c0c: 38 60 00 00 li r3,0
c10: 4e 80 00 20 blr

After the patch:

000003a8 <test>:
3a8: 81 23 00 84 lwz r9,132(r3)
3ac: 71 29 40 00 andi. r9,r9,16384
3b0: 40 82 00 0c bne 3bc <test+0x14>
3b4: 80 63 00 0c lwz r3,12(r3)
3b8: 4e 80 00 20 blr

3bc: 0f e0 00 00 twui r0,0

0000000000000c50 <.test9w>:
c50: 7c 89 00 74 cntlzd r9,r4
c54: 79 29 d1 82 rldicl r9,r9,58,6
c58: 0b 09 00 00 tdnei r9,0
c5c: 7c 63 23 92 divdu r3,r3,r4
c60: 4e 80 00 20 blr

c70: 38 60 00 00 li r3,0
c74: 4e 80 00 20 blr

In the first exemple, we see GCC doesn't need to duplicate what
happens after the trap.

In the second exemple, we see that GCC doesn't need to emit a test
and a branch in the likely path in addition to the trap.

We've got some WARN_ON() in .softirqentry.text section so it needs
to be added in the OTHER_TEXT_SECTIONS in modpost.c

Signed-off-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/389962b1b702e3c78d169e59bcfac56282889173.1618331882.git.christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu

# db87a719 13-Apr-2021 Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>

powerpc/bug: Remove specific powerpc BUG_ON() and WARN_ON() on PPC32

powerpc BUG_ON() and WARN_ON() are based on using twnei instruction.

For catching simple conditions like a variable having value 0, this
is efficient because it does the test and the trap at the same time.
But most conditions used with BUG_ON or WARN_ON are more complex and
forces GCC to format the condition into a 0 or 1 value in a register.
This will usually require 2 to 3 instructions.

The most efficient solution would be to use __builtin_trap() because
GCC is able to optimise the use of the different trap instructions
based on the requested condition, but this is complex if not
impossible for the following reasons:
- __builtin_trap() is a non-recoverable instruction, so it can't be
used for WARN_ON
- Knowing which line of code generated the trap would require the
analysis of DWARF information. This is not a feature we have today.

As mentioned in commit 8d4fbcfbe0a4 ("Fix WARN_ON() on bitfield ops")
the way WARN_ON() is implemented is suboptimal. That commit also
mentions an issue with 'long long' condition. It fixed it for
WARN_ON() but the same problem still exists today with BUG_ON() on
PPC32. It will be fixed by using the generic implementation.

By using the generic implementation, gcc will naturally generate a
branch to the unconditional trap generated by BUG().

As modern powerpc implement zero-cycle branch,
that's even more efficient.

And for the functions using WARN_ON() and its return, the test
on return from WARN_ON() is now also used for the WARN_ON() itself.

On PPC64 we don't want it because we want to be able to use CFAR
register to track how we entered the code that trapped. The CFAR
register would be clobbered by the branch.

A simple test function:

unsigned long test9w(unsigned long a, unsigned long b)
if (WARN_ON(!b))
return 0;
return a / b;

Before the patch:

0000046c <test9w>:
46c: 7c 89 00 34 cntlzw r9,r4
470: 55 29 d9 7e rlwinm r9,r9,27,5,31
474: 0f 09 00 00 twnei r9,0
478: 2c 04 00 00 cmpwi r4,0
47c: 41 82 00 0c beq 488 <test9w+0x1c>
480: 7c 63 23 96 divwu r3,r3,r4
484: 4e 80 00 20 blr

488: 38 60 00 00 li r3,0
48c: 4e 80 00 20 blr

After the patch:

00000468 <test9w>:
468: 2c 04 00 00 cmpwi r4,0
46c: 41 82 00 0c beq 478 <test9w+0x10>
470: 7c 63 23 96 divwu r3,r3,r4
474: 4e 80 00 20 blr

478: 0f e0 00 00 twui r0,0
47c: 38 60 00 00 li r3,0
480: 4e 80 00 20 blr

So we see before the patch we need 3 instructions on the likely path
to handle the WARN_ON(). With the patch the trap goes on the unlikely

See below the difference at the entry of system_call_exception where
we have several BUG_ON(), allthough less impressing.

With the patch:

00000000 <system_call_exception>:
0: 81 6a 00 84 lwz r11,132(r10)
4: 90 6a 00 88 stw r3,136(r10)
8: 71 60 00 02 andi. r0,r11,2
c: 41 82 00 70 beq 7c <system_call_exception+0x7c>
10: 71 60 40 00 andi. r0,r11,16384
14: 41 82 00 6c beq 80 <system_call_exception+0x80>
18: 71 6b 80 00 andi. r11,r11,32768
1c: 41 82 00 68 beq 84 <system_call_exception+0x84>
20: 94 21 ff e0 stwu r1,-32(r1)
24: 93 e1 00 1c stw r31,28(r1)
28: 7d 8c 42 e6 mftb r12
7c: 0f e0 00 00 twui r0,0
80: 0f e0 00 00 twui r0,0
84: 0f e0 00 00 twui r0,0

Without the patch:

00000000 <system_call_exception>:
0: 94 21 ff e0 stwu r1,-32(r1)
4: 93 e1 00 1c stw r31,28(r1)
8: 90 6a 00 88 stw r3,136(r10)
c: 81 6a 00 84 lwz r11,132(r10)
10: 69 60 00 02 xori r0,r11,2
14: 54 00 ff fe rlwinm r0,r0,31,31,31
18: 0f 00 00 00 twnei r0,0
1c: 69 60 40 00 xori r0,r11,16384
20: 54 00 97 fe rlwinm r0,r0,18,31,31
24: 0f 00 00 00 twnei r0,0
28: 69 6b 80 00 xori r11,r11,32768
2c: 55 6b 8f fe rlwinm r11,r11,17,31,31
30: 0f 0b 00 00 twnei r11,0
34: 7d 8c 42 e6 mftb r12

Signed-off-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/b286e07fb771a664b631cd07a40b09c06f26e64b.1618331881.git.christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu

# c45ba4f4 16-Mar-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc: clean up do_page_fault

search_exception_tables + __bad_page_fault can be substituted with
bad_page_fault, do_page_fault no longer needs to return a value
to asm for any sub-architecture, and __bad_page_fault can be static.

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210316104206.407354-10-npiggin@gmail.com

# a008f8f9 30-Jan-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc/64s/hash: improve context tracking of hash faults

This moves the 64s/hash context tracking from hash_page_mm() to
__do_hash_fault(), so it's no longer called by OCXL / SPU
accelerators, which was certainly the wrong thing to be doing,
because those callers are not low level interrupt handlers, so
should have entered a kernel context tracking already.

Then remain in kernel context for the duration of the fault,
rather than enter/exit for the hash fault then enter/exit for
the page fault, which is pointless.

Even still, calling exception_enter/exit in __do_hash_fault seems
questionable because that's touching per-cpu variables, tracing,
etc., which might have been interrupted by this hash fault or
themselves cause hash faults. But maybe I miss something because
hash_page_mm very deliberately calls trace_hash_fault too, for
example. So for now go with it, it's no worse than before, in this

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210130130852.2952424-32-npiggin@gmail.com

# 209e9d50 30-Jan-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc: introduce die_mce

As explained by commit daf00ae71dad ("powerpc/traps: restore
recoverability of machine_check interrupts"), die() can't be called from
within nmi_enter to nicely kill a process context that was interrupted.
nmi_exit must be called first.

This adds a function die_mce which takes care of this for machine check

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210130130852.2952424-24-npiggin@gmail.com

# 71f47976 30-Jan-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc/64s: add do_bad_page_fault_segv handler

This function acts like an interrupt handler so it needs to follow
the standard interrupt handler function signature which will be
introduced in a future change.

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210130130852.2952424-13-npiggin@gmail.com

# 8458c628 30-Jan-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc: bad_page_fault get registers from regs

Similar to the previous patch this makes interrupt handler function
types more regular so they can be wrapped with the next patch.

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210130130852.2952424-12-npiggin@gmail.com

# a01a3f2d 30-Jan-2021 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc: remove arguments from fault handler functions

Make mm fault handlers all just take the pt_regs * argument and load
DAR/DSISR from that. Make those that return a value return long.

This is done to make the function signatures match other handlers, which
will help with a future patch to add wrappers. Explicit arguments could
be added for performance but that would require more wrapper macro

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210130130852.2952424-7-npiggin@gmail.com

# 5f1888a0 08-Dec-2020 Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>

powerpc/fault: Perform exception fixup in do_page_fault()

Exception fixup doesn't require the heady full regs saving,
do it from do_page_fault() directly.

For that, split bad_page_fault() in two parts.

As bad_page_fault() can also be called from other places than
handle_page_fault(), it will still perform exception fixup and
fallback on __bad_page_fault().

handle_page_fault() directly calls __bad_page_fault() as the
exception fixup will now be done by do_page_fault()

Signed-off-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>
Reviewed-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/bd07d6fef9237614cd6d318d8f19faeeadaa816b.1607491748.git.christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu

# 1baa1f70 30-Nov-2020 Jordan Niethe <jniethe5@gmail.com>

powerpc: Allow relative pointers in bug table entries

This enables GENERIC_BUG_RELATIVE_POINTERS on Power so that 32-bit
offsets are stored in the bug entries rather than 64-bit pointers.
While this doesn't save space for 32-bit machines, use it anyway so
there is only one code path.

Signed-off-by: Jordan Niethe <jniethe5@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@csgroup.eu>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20201201005203.15210-1-jniethe5@gmail.com

# 43f003bb 19-Aug-2019 Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@c-s.fr>

powerpc: Refactor BUG/WARN macros

BUG(), WARN() and friends are using a similar inline assembly to
implement various traps with various flags.

Lets refactor via a new BUG_ENTRY() macro.

Signed-off-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@c-s.fr>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/c19a82b37677ace0eebb0dc8c2120373c29c8dd1.1566219503.git.christophe.leroy@c-s.fr

# 63ce271b 26-Aug-2019 Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@c-s.fr>

powerpc/prom: convert PROM_BUG() to standard trap

Prior to commit 1bd98d7fbaf5 ("ppc64: Update BUG handling based on
ppc32"), BUG() family was using BUG_ILLEGAL_INSTRUCTION which
was an invalid instruction opcode to trap into program check

That commit converted them to using standard trap instructions,
but prom/prom_init and their PROM_BUG() macro were left over.
head_64.S and exception-64s.S were left aside as well.

Convert them to using the standard BUG infrastructure.

Signed-off-by: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@c-s.fr>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/cdaf4bbbb64c288a077845846f04b12683f8875a.1566817807.git.christophe.leroy@c-s.fr

# 5d8fb8a5 18-Sep-2018 Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>

signal/powerpc: Specialize _exception_pkey for handling pkey exceptions

Now that _exception no longer calls _exception_pkey it is no longer
necessary to handle any signal with any si_code. All pkey exceptions
are SIGSEGV with paired with SEGV_PKUERR. So just handle
that case and remove the now unnecessary parameters from _exception_pkey.

Reviewed-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

# 35adacd6 23-Dec-2017 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc/pseries, ps3: panic flush kernel messages before halting system

Platforms with a panic handler that halts the system can have problems
getting kernel messages out, because the panic notifiers are called
before kernel/panic.c does its flushing of printk buffers an console

This was attempted to be solved with commit a3b2cb30f252 ("powerpc: Do
not call ppc_md.panic in fadump panic notifier"), but that wasn't the
right approach and caused other problems, and was reverted by commit

Instead, the powernv shutdown paths have already had a similar
problem, fixed by taking the message flushing sequence from
kernel/panic.c. That's a little bit ugly, but while we have the code
duplicated, it will work for this case as well. So have ppc panic
handlers do the same flushing before they terminate.

Without this patch, a qemu pseries_le_defconfig guest stops silently
when issued the nmi command when xmon is off and no crash dumpers
enabled. Afterwards, an oops is printed by each CPU as expected.

Fixes: ab9dbf771ff9 ("Revert "powerpc: Do not call ppc_md.panic in fadump panic notifier"")
Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: David Gibson <david@gibson.dropbear.id.au>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>

# 99cd1302 18-Jan-2018 Ram Pai <linuxram@us.ibm.com>

powerpc: Deliver SEGV signal on pkey violation

The value of the pkey, whose protection got violated,
is made available in si_pkey field of the siginfo structure.

Signed-off-by: Ram Pai <linuxram@us.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Thiago Jung Bauermann <bauerman@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>

# b2441318 01-Nov-2017 Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license

Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.

This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
Philippe Ombredanne.

How this work was done:

Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.

The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5

All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.

- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.

For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 11139

and resulted in the first patch in this series.

If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930

and resulted in the second patch in this series.

- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:

SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1

and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).

- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
in time.

In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.

Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.

In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
correct identifier.

Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct

This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.

These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.

Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>

# 6fcd6baa 19-Jul-2017 Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>

powerpc/powernv: Use kernel crash path for machine checks

There are quite a few machine check exceptions that can be caused by
kernel bugs. To make debugging easier, use the kernel crash path in
cases of synchronous machine checks that occur in kernel mode, if that
would not result in the machine going straight to panic or crash dump.

There is a downside here that die()ing the process in kernel mode can
still leave the system unstable. panic_on_oops will always force the
system to fail-stop, so systems where that behaviour is important will
still do the right thing.

As a test, when triggering an i-side 0111b error (ifetch from foreign
address) in kernel mode process context on POWER9, the kernel currently
dies quickly like this:

Severe Machine check interrupt [Not recovered]
NIP [ffff000000000000]: 0xffff000000000000
Initiator: CPU
Error type: Real address [Instruction fetch (foreign)]
[ 127.426651616,0] OPAL: Reboot requested due to Platform error.
Effective[ 127.426693712,3] OPAL: Reboot requested due to Platform error. address: ffff000000000000
opal: Reboot type 1 not supported
Kernel panic - not syncing: PowerNV Unrecovered Machine Check
CPU: 56 PID: 4425 Comm: syscall Tainted: G M 4.12.0-rc1-13857-ga4700a261072-dirty #35
Call Trace:
[ 128.017988928,4] IPMI: BUG: Dropping ESEL on the floor due to
buggy/mising code in OPAL for this BMC
Rebooting in 10 seconds..
Trying to free IRQ 496 from IRQ context!

After this patch, the process is killed and the kernel continues with
this message, which gives enough information to identify the offending
branch (i.e., with CFAR):

Severe Machine check interrupt [Not recovered]
NIP [ffff000000000000]: 0xffff000000000000
Initiator: CPU
Error type: Real address [Instruction fetch (foreign)]
Effective address: ffff000000000000
Oops: Machine check, sig: 7 [#1]
Modules linked in: iptable_mangle ipt_MASQUERADE nf_nat_masquerade_ipv4 ...
CPU: 22 PID: 4436 Comm: syscall Tainted: G M 4.12.0-rc1-13857-ga4700a261072-dirty #36
task: c000000932300000 task.stack: c000000932380000
NIP: ffff000000000000 LR: 00000000217706a4 CTR: ffff000000000000
REGS: c00000000fc8fd80 TRAP: 0200 Tainted: G M (4.12.0-rc1-13857-ga4700a261072-dirty)
MSR: 90000000001c1003 <SF,HV,ME,RI,LE>
CR: 24000484 XER: 20000000
CFAR: c000000000004c80 DAR: 0000000021770a90 DSISR: 0a000000 SOFTE: 1
GPR00: 0000000000001ebe 00007fffce4818b0 0000000021797f00 0000000000000000
GPR04: 00007fff8007ac24 0000000044000484 0000000000004000 00007fff801405e8
GPR08: 900000000280f033 0000000024000484 0000000000000000 0000000000000030
GPR12: 9000000000001003 00007fff801bc370 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR16: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR20: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR24: 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
GPR28: 00007fff801b0000 0000000000000000 00000000217707a0 00007fffce481918
NIP [ffff000000000000] 0xffff000000000000
LR [00000000217706a4] 0x217706a4
Call Trace:
Instruction dump:

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Mahesh Salgaonkar <mahesh@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>

# 325cdacd 14-Jul-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>

debug: Fix WARN_ON_ONCE() for modules

Mike Galbraith reported a situation where a WARN_ON_ONCE() call in DRM
code turned into an oops. As it turns out, WARN_ON_ONCE() seems to be
completely broken when called from a module.

The bug was introduced with the following commit:

19d436268dde ("debug: Add _ONCE() logic to report_bug()")

That commit changed WARN_ON_ONCE() to move its 'once' logic into the bug
trap handler. It requires a writable bug table so that the BUGFLAG_DONE
bit can be written to the flags to indicate the first warning has

The bug table was made writable for vmlinux, which relies on
vmlinux.lds.S and vmlinux.lds.h for laying out the sections. However,
it wasn't made writable for modules, which rely on the ELF section
header flags.

Reported-by: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Tested-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Fixes: 19d436268dde ("debug: Add _ONCE() logic to report_bug()")
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/a53b04235a65478dd9afc51f5b329fdc65c84364.1500095401.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# a093c92d 13-Jun-2017 Alexey Kardashevskiy <aik@ozlabs.ru>

powerpc/debug: Add missing warn flag to WARN_ON's non-builtin path

When trapped on WARN_ON(), report_bug() is expected to return
BUG_TRAP_TYPE_WARN so the caller will increment NIP by 4 and continue.
The __builtin_constant_p() path of the PPC's WARN_ON()
calls (indirectly) __WARN_FLAGS() which has BUGFLAG_WARNING set,
however the other branch does not which makes report_bug() report a
bug rather than a warning.

Fixes: f26dee15103f ("debug: Avoid setting BUGFLAG_WARNING twice")
Signed-off-by: Alexey Kardashevskiy <aik@ozlabs.ru>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>

# 19d43626 25-Feb-2017 Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

debug: Add _ONCE() logic to report_bug()

Josh suggested moving the _ONCE logic inside the trap handler, using a
bit in the bug_entry::flags field, avoiding the need for the extra

Sadly this only works for WARN_ON_ONCE(), since the others have
printk() statements prior to triggering the trap.

Still, this saves a fair amount of text and some data:

text data filename
10682460 4530992 defconfig-build/vmlinux.orig
10665111 4530096 defconfig-build/vmlinux.patched

Suggested-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Brian Gerst <brgerst@gmail.com>
Cc: Denys Vlasenko <dvlasenk@redhat.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

# a38efcea 19-Aug-2014 Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org>

powerpc: Remove stale function prototypes

There were a number of prototypes for functions that no longer
exist. Remove them.

Signed-off-by: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>

# ae3a197e 28-Mar-2012 David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>

Disintegrate asm/system.h for PowerPC

Disintegrate asm/system.h for PowerPC.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
cc: linuxppc-dev@lists.ozlabs.org

# b2be0527 03-Apr-2010 Ben Hutchings <ben@decadent.org.uk>

panic: Allow warnings to set different taint flags

WARN() is used in some places to report firmware or hardware bugs that
are then worked-around. These bugs do not affect the stability of the
kernel and should not set the flag for TAINT_WARN. To allow for this,
add WARN_TAINT() and WARN_TAINT_ONCE() macros that take a taint number
as argument.

Architectures that implement warnings using trap instructions instead
of calls to warn_slowpath_*() now implement __WARN_TAINT(taint)
instead of __WARN().

Signed-off-by: Ben Hutchings <ben@decadent.org.uk>
Acked-by: Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de>
Tested-by: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org>
Signed-off-by: David Woodhouse <David.Woodhouse@intel.com>

# 01ae45bc 10-Dec-2009 David Daney <ddaney@caviumnetworks.com>

powerpc: Convert BUG() to use unreachable()

Use the new unreachable() macro instead of for(;;);

Signed-off-by: David Daney <ddaney@caviumnetworks.com>
CC: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
CC: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>
CC: linuxppc-dev@ozlabs.org
Signed-off-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>

# a58f053b 14-Dec-2008 Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>

powerpc: Fix asm EMIT_BUG_ENTRY with !CONFIG_BUG

Instead of not defining it at all, this defines the macro as
being empty, thus avoiding ifdef's in call sites when CONFIG_BUG
is not set.

Also removes an extra whitespace in the existing definition.

Signed-off-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
Signed-off-by: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>

# b8b572e1 31-Jul-2008 Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>

powerpc: Move include files to arch/powerpc/include/asm

from include/asm-powerpc. This is the result of a

mkdir arch/powerpc/include/asm
git mv include/asm-powerpc/* arch/powerpc/include/asm

Followed by a few documentation/comment fixups and a couple of places
where <asm-powepc/...> was being used explicitly. Of the latter only
one was outside the arch code and it is a driver only built for powerpc.

Signed-off-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
Signed-off-by: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>